Definers‎ > ‎

(Marshall 1995)

Marshall, W. L., Hudson, S. M., Jones, R., & Fernandez, Y. M. (1995). Empathy in sex offenders. Clinical Psychology Review, 15, 99-113.

Marshall - sequence of stages: 
  • (a) emotional recognition, which is the ability to discriminate the emotional state of another person;
  • (b) perspective-taking, which is the ability to see situations from another's perspective;
  • (c) emotion replication, which is replication of the observed emotion; and
  • (d) response decision, which is decision making that is based on the feelings experienced.
    (Marshall, Hudson, Jones, and Fernandez, 1995)  
    (BUTTERS 2010)*

"According to Marshall and associates (1995), empathy training programs should target cognitive recognition skills like

  1. reading nonverbal signals,
  2. subtleties of body language,
  3. facial expressions,
  4.  to decipher the emotional state of another
Marshall’s research supports empathy and social skills training programs for criminal and sexual offenders similar to the training of autistic children that emphasize recognizing emotions and learning prosocial responses to social cues."   (BUTTERS 2010)*