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- Spousal Battering




"The absence of empathy can lead to destructive behaviors and adversely affect relationships. A lack of interpersonal empathy is associated with
  •  - narcissism, 
  • - bullying,
  • -  violent crime, 
  • - abusive parenting, 
  • - spousal battering, and
  •  - sexual offending 
(Covell, Huss,& Langhinrichsen-Rohling, 2007; 
Elsegood & Duff, 2010; 
Gini, Albieri, Benelli, & Altoe, 2008;
 Joliffe & Farrington, 
2004;  Ritter et al., 2011)



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