The Supertank is a conceptual semi-distributed hydrological model. The basin is semi-distributed; every river cell is considered as the outlet of a sub-basin composed by all the grid cells upstream of such river cell. Every sub-basin grid cell is simulated based on the tank concept improved by including physical base features; every grid cell consists of three vertical tanks and the uncertainties are transferred into one calibration coefficient. Then, the discharge is routed throughout the basin to the outlet with a kinematic wave routing scheme. The super tank model considers different hydrological response for different ground types: bare ground, impoundments and glacier. In the bare ground cells the actual evapotranspiration is extracted from the top tank as a function of the potential evapotranspiration and the water available at such tank. The conversion relation between potential evapotranspiration (PET) and actual evapotranspiration (AET) requires a base evaporation threshold and a full capacity threshold. In the wetland cells the AET extracts water from the bottom tank. AET from wetland cells is equal to the PET since any water deficit is replaced by water from the saturated zone. The glacier cells do not consider evaporation since sublimation influences the mass balance, but not the hydrologic response of the cell. The discharge from glacier cells is separated into a fast englacial flow from surface, delayed englacial flow and a subglacial flow. Thus, the linear cascade of 3 vertical tanks is also applied, but with a correction factor accounting for different hydraulic conductivity.

  • Moya Quiroga V., Mano A., Asaoka Y., Udo K., Kure S., and Mendoza J.: Estimation of glacier melt water contribution for human consumption in the Royal Andes considering temperature measurement errors, Open Journal of Modern Hydrology, 4, 27-43, 2014.
  • Moya Quiroga V., Mano A., Asaoka Y., Udo K., Kure S., and Mendoza J.: Hydrological modelling of a glacierized Andean basin using the semi distributed model Supertank. Case: the Andean basin Condoriri. 35th IAHR World Congress 2013, Chengdu - China.
  • Moya Quiroga V., Mano A., Asaoka Y., Udo K., Kure S., and Mendoza J.: Snow glacier melt estimation in tropical Andean glaciers using Artificial Neural Networks, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17 (4), 1265-1280, 2013. doi:10.5194/hess-17-1265-2013