Work in Progress

Work in Progress



Time: 19th December, 2014 (Friday), 12:00
Place: ELTE-PPK, Instutute of Psychology, Izabella utca 46, Révész Géza room (room 301)

Schedule

Fruzsina Elekes, Máté Varga, Ildikó Király: Sharing tasks fosters online level-2 perspective taking in adults (PhD)
Réka Pető, Fruzsina Elekes, Kata Oláh, Krisztina Peres, Ildikó Király: Scale error as an indicator of functional learning (MA)
Eszter Somos: Autobiographical memory retrieval with dual-task load (PhD)
Boglárka Kristóf, Teodóra Vékony: Emotionality of forbidden words in a first and a second language: The effect of bilingual priming of Hungarian and English taboo words in lexical decision (MA)
Petia S. Kojouharova, Attila Krajcsi: A gap in the number sequence 'breaks' the distance effect (PhD)
Ákos Laczkó, Gábor Lengyel, Attila Krajcsi: SNARC-effect with non-relevant numeric attributes (MA)
Orsolya Kiss, Krisztián Kasos, Attila Krajcsi: How do we represent negative numbers? (PhD)
Edina Fintor, Attila Krajcsi: Measuring the number knowledge by the Give-n task (MA)
Noémi Éltető, Attila Krajcsi: Domain-general feature matching mechanism in newborn infants (BA, pilot study)
Dávid Farkas, Susan Denham, Alexandra Bendixen, Dénes Tóth, Gábor Orosz, István Winkler: Stable idiosyncratic patterns in perceiving multistable sound sequences can be linked with individual differences in executive functions and personality (PhD)
Márta Virág: Competition between executive functions and probabilistic sequence learning (PhD)
Ágnes Bata: Pre-crastination and Executive Functioning (MA, pilot study)
Ágoston Török, Elisa Ferre, Elena Kokkinara, David Swapp, Patrick Haggard, Valéria Csépe: It's a long way to the top. Multisensory interaction behind vertical distance estimation (PhD)
Fanni Kling, Ágoston Török, Jean-Marie Pergandi, Pierre Mallet, Ferenc Honbolygó, Valéria Csépe, Daniel Mestre: Interaction between response set congruency and warning signals in a driving simulator task (BA)

Breaks will be held as necessary.

Abstracts


Sharing tasks fosters online level-2 perspective taking in adults

Fruzsina Elekes (1), Máté Varga (2), Ildikó Király (1)
(1) Department of Cognitive Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest
(2) Department of Cognitive Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest

Adults involuntarily track what others can or cannot see (level-1 perspective taking). Contrarily, according to recent findings, how exactly certain stimuli appear to others (level-2 perspective taking) is not represented in the same speeded way. We hypothesized that having explicit information that the same stimulus feature is relevant for the confederate would evoke online level-2 perspective taking. Pairs of participants sat opposite each other and saw symmetric (0,8) and asymmetric (6,9) stimuli presented on a screen laid between them. Participants either had the same or different tasks regarding the common stimuli. They participated in both individual and joint trials. Results indicate that under certain conditions adults involuntarily represent how stimuli look from a different perspective. Asymmetric stimuli were judged disproportionately slower in the joint, compared to the individual condition. This, however, was restricted to situations where both participants paid attention to the same stimulus feature.

Scale error as an indicator of functional learning

Réka Pető, Fruzsina Elekes, Kata Oláh, Krisztina Peres, Ildikó Király
Department of Cognitive Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University

Scale error was first described by DeLoache et al. in 2004. They found that children act according to the general function of an object irrespective of its size. There are different explanations for the underlying mechanism, and according to research done by Casler et al. teleo-functional stance is a possible one. Children expect things to serve certain purposes that are stable in time. We would like to confirm this assumption through the help of children’s bias to selectively learn from adults. Toddlers learn about a tool’s conventional function only from cultural in-group members. Therefore they would make higher number of scale error than children who observe tools’ usage from an out-group member and would act according to the affordance instead of function. The results we collected so far support our assumption that the mechanism behind scale error is the toddler’s tendency to view artifacts as existing for a certain purpose.


Autobiographical memory retrieval with dual-task load

Eszter Somos
University of Hull

Autobiographical memories are commonly assumed to be retrieved either automatically (direct) or through effortful processes (generative). Two steps of the memory retrieval were examined under single-task and two different dual-task conditions. In a Galton-Crovitz cueing task participants had to report either episodic or higher level memories. Self-reported retrieval mode and retrieval time were measured. Results showed that the retrieval of higher level memories was not sensitive to dual-task load while the retrieval of specific memories was slowed down by a concomitant visual search task. Interestingly no differences between direct and generative retrieval modes were found. The results are discussed in relation to the Self-Memory system model (Conway & Pleydell, 2000).

Emotionality of forbidden words in a first and a second language: The effect of bilingual priming of Hungarian and English taboo words in lexical decision

Boglárka Kristóf, Teodóra Vékony
Eötvös Loránd University
University of Szeged

Our study focuses on the processing of Hungarian and English taboo words amongst persons with Hungarian as their first language who have learned English in an institutional environment. Participants had to make decisions on Hungarian or English neutral words in a lexical decision task while being presented Hungarian or English taboo words, neutral words or nonwords as priming stimuli. Our goal was to investigate whether priming taboo words has an effect on lexical decision. 53 subjects responded to target stimuli in both languages in all three priming conditions. Results have shown that participants had increased reaction times to target stimuli in both Hungarian and English when taboo words were primed to them. We also found a moderate correlation between Hungarian and English taboo-effects solely in the case of high proficiency English users. However, there has not been any detectable difference between the extent of Hungarian and English taboo-effects.


A gap in the number sequence 'breaks' the distance effect

Petia S. Kojouharova (1,2), Attila Krajcsi (2)
(1) Doctoral School of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University
(2) Institute of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University

Distance effect in numerical cognition means that the closer two quantities are numerically, the more difficult it is to differentiate between them. However, a distance effect has been found in other ordered sequences. Thus, it might simply be a result of the order of the numbers.
We hypothesized that introducing a gap in a number sequence will cause a 'break' in the distance effect if the numbers relate to quantities. Conversely, no 'break' will be observed if what matters is their order.
In this study the participants learned artificial symbols for the 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, and 9 numbers and then compared symbol pairs according to numerical size. The results, although not conclusive, indicate that introducing a gap in the number sequence causes a 'break' in the distance effect. It seems that artificial numbers map at the very least to the Indo-Arabic numbers.

SNARC-effect with non-relevant numeric attributes 

Ákos Laczkó (1), Gábor Lengyel (2), Attila Krajcsi (1)
(1) Department of Cognitive Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University
(2) Department of Cognitive Science, Central European University

SNARC-effect is a spatial-numeric interference where the numerical values interfere with the response locations. According to the Analog Magnitude System (AMS) model the effect is caused by a spatial number representation. However, the SNARC effect could also derive from the Discrete Semantic System (DSS). This later model predicts that SNARC effect works only for symbolic notation. To contrast the two theories, one should find a paradigm in which numbers are processed automatically. Our previous measurement showed that the formerly known automatic SNARC paradigm is not sufficiently reliable. Here, we tested three additional paradigms to increase the potential effect size. Our result based on 15 participants show that none of the paradigm can reproduce the SNARC effect. This may reflect that SNARC effect is unreliable in paradigms in which the numbers are irrelevant for the task.

How do we represent negative numbers?

Orsolya Kiss (1), Krisztián Kasos (2), Attila Krajcsi (2)
(1) Department of Cognitive Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics
(2) Department of Cognitive Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University

We assume that the understanding of the numbers derives from the system in which they are anchored. First, we suppose that originally children get the meanings of number words based on their knowledge about the objects. Accordingly, children are able to perform numerical operations that also can be performed on the objects. Second, we assume that numbers could be anchored to other semantic systems, expanding the set of meaningful operations.
We expect that in the case of the original object based analogy the negative numbers are hard to understand. However, anchoring the numbers to a spatial number line can help understanding the operations on negative numbers. In order to test the two possible anchoring, we gave the children simple arithmetical operations, using different counting tools. According to the results children make less error with number line than with marbles. We conclude that anchoring the abstract layer of numbers to several domains can extend the capabilities of numerical understanding.

Measuring the number knowledge by the Give-n task

Edina Fintor, Attila Krajcsi
Department of Cognitive Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University

The most widely accepted method to measure preschoolers' number knowledge is the Give-n task as demonstrated by Wynn (1990). Wynn proposed that initially children can give the first 4 numbers, but they cannot generalize to the next known number words. Later, when they can give larger number than 4, they could give any other numbers they know as a number word. In her work Wynn didn't measure whether there could be 5-, 6-knowers, and later measurements in the literature followed Wynn's method. However, in our former studies we observed children who could give a few numbers larger than 4 without generalizing thins knowledge. In the present work we measured 3-4 years old preschoolers and found qualitative change after understanding number four, while Wynn's method would categorize them with the younger group. We conclude that the breakthrough after understanding number four exists, but it couldn't be inferred based on Wynn's data.

Domain-general feature matching mechanism in newborn infants

Noémi Éltető (1), Attila Krajcsi (2)
(1) Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca
(2) Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest

Carey and Spelke (1994) argues that perceiving and reasoning about number is guided by an innate domain-specific representation, the approximate number system (ANS). This ANS is supposed to be multi-modal. Thus, newborn infants are able to collect numerical information from different modalities and spontaneously associate them (e.g., visual-spatial arrays with auditory sequences) (Izard et al., 2009).
Should this cross-modal generalization of numerical quantities be interpreted as a domain-specific number processing? We argue that an alternative model can also account for these findings. It is possible that initially infants try to pair any scalable perceptual properties coming from any modalities, and real correlations will be learned only later. Thus, it is possible that the observed multi-modal integration of numerical information in infants is not the result of the ANS, but a domain-general feature matching mechanism.
In our research we will assess whether newborn infants connect any features that are not related in everyday life suggesting a domain general mechanism to connect perceptual features.

Stable idiosyncratic patterns in perceiving multistable sound sequences can be linked with individual differences in executive functions and personality

Dávid Farkas (1,2), Susan Denham (3), Alexandra Bendixen (4), Dénes Tóth (1), Gábor Orosz (1,5), István Winkler (1,6)
(1) Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology, Research Centre for Natural  Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
(2) Department of Cognitive Science, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary
(3) Cognition Institute and School of Psychology, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK
(4) Department of Psychology, European Medical School, Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Germany
(5) Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Eötvös Lórand University
(6) Institute of Psychology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary

When sensory inputs are ambiguous, individuals differ in how they switch between the possible perceptual states (perceptual bi-/multi-stability; e.g. Aafjes, 1966; Kashino & Kondo, 2012). A recent study (Denham et al., 2014) employing an auditory multi-stable streaming paradigm found that individuals retain the same idiosyncratic switching pattern even one year after the first test. Here we searched for correlates of these characteristic individual switching patterns in executive functions and various personality traits. Results showed that two executive functions, namely shifting and inhibition, can be linked to individual differences in directly observable perceptual variables, for example the number of perceptual switches. We also found that neither inhibition as a personality trait nor creativity was correlated with the switching patterns. Only the ego-resiliency personality meta-trait (Block, 2002) was related to the individual differences in the overall switching pattern.

Competition between executive functions and probabilistic sequence learning

Márta Virág
Institute of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University

According to the framework of competitive neurocognitive networks, disrupting executive functions and the related frontal areas increases performance on an implicit learning task. The aim of our study was to explore this relationship by investigating the effect of long term alcohol intake on implicit sequence learning. Probabilistic implicit sequence learning and executive functions were measured by classical neuropsychological tests. Here we show weaker executive functions but intact implicit learning in the alcohol dependent group compared to the controls. Moreover we found an inverse relationship between sequence specific learning and executive functions - lower executive functions correlated with higher learning performance in both alcohol dependent and control groups. Our results confirm the competitive relationship between the fronto-striatal networks underlying implicit sequence learning and executive functions and suggests that the functional integrity of this relationship is unaltered in the alcohol dependent group despite of weaker frontal functions.

Pre-crastination and Executive Functioning
Ágnes Bata
Budapest University of Technology and Economics

Contrary to procrastination, pre-crastination refers to the tendency to complete tasks without extra effort, i.e. as effectively as possible (Rosenbaum et al., 2014). However, this phenomenon is widely known, studies on its relationship with cognitive processes are largely missing. Here we aimed at investigating whether pre-crastination is associated with individual differences in executive functioning. Pre-crastination was measured by a “bucket carry task” adapted from Rosenbaum et al. (2014). Based on a psychometric model (Miyake et al., 2000), we tested the three main components of executive functions: mental set shifting, inhibition, and updating of working memory representations. Complex executive functioning was measured by the Towers of Hanoi Task. In our pilot study, participants were ten Hungarian undergraduate students. Our preliminary results showed that subjects who tended to pre-crastinate in the bucket carry task, required less moves to solve the Hanoi Task and needed less time to complete the set shifting task.

It's a long way to the top. Multisensory interaction behind vertical distance estimation

Ágoston Török, Elisa Ferre, Elena Kokkinara, David Swapp, Patrick Haggard, Valéria Csépe
Brain Imaging Centre, RCNS HAS

There is a debate on whether and how vestibular input affects visual distance perception. In these two experiments participants judged distances in virtual reality where visual input was the same for all three inclinations. In the first experiment participants changed their head’s position after 18 trials in the same inclination, in the second they tilted their head from trial to trial causing less habituation to the vestibular input. In both experiments we used either galvanic vestibular or sham stimulation while they saw the objects. The results from both experiments supported the predictions of the gravity theory. Furthermore, in Experiment 1 only the galvanic vestibular stimulation led to gravity bias whereas in Experiment 2 we found gravity bias in both conditions, indicating the effect of continuous vestibular input. These results show that gravity bias is an effect of multisensory interaction between vision and the vestibular sense.

Interaction between response set congruency and warning signals in a driving simulator task

Fanni Kling, Ágoston Török, Jean-Marie Pergandi, Pierre Mallet, Ferenc Honbolygó, Valéria Csépe, Daniel Mestre
Faculty of Pedagogy and Psychology, Eötvös Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary

Our study investigated how the response context of an ongoing task affects the reactions to sudden emergency situations in a simulated driving task. Moreover we were interested in whether the efficacy of a warning auditory looming signal depends on the congruency of the response sets in the two tasks.  We designed a dual task paradigm where participants either performed a slalomming (congruent) or a color discrimination (incongruent) task. The primary task was sometimes interrupted by a secondary task, a visual hazard signal on the periphery. We found that congruent response set dimensions led to faster reaction times. Somewhat contrary, the facilitatory effect of warning sounds appeared to be larger for incongruent ones. We discuss our results from the perspective of future warning system design.


Call for Work in Progress

The Department of Cognitive Psychology at the Institute of Psychology of the Eötvös Loránd University is organizing its annual student symposiumThe symposium has been renamed to "Work in Progress" and its main goal is to provide a forum for students in the field of cognitive science to present their research to a wider audience of peers as well as receive feedback on their work.

Participation is open for any student who has not yet received their PhD degree. The topic of the presented research must be cognitive, however, pilot studies and research plans are also welcome besides completed studies. The presentations should be in English. A participant can choose to present their work in Hungarian at end of the event.

Date and time: 19th December, 2014 (Friday), starting at 12 o'clock

Place: ELTE-PPK, Institute of Psychology, Izabella utca 46, Révész Géza room (room 301)

The presentations should be 10 minutes long in the case of completed studies and 5 minutes long in the case of a pilot study or a research plan. There is no time limit for the discussion

If you would like to participate, please send us a title and a maximum 150-word abstract through the online registration form which can be found here: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1rG6U_Xz8lwPm_lIwmeslWu9OCUwGOOCuG-cg7ZK__sc/viewform?usp=send_form

Deadline: 12th December, 2014 (Friday), 23:59

The final schedule of the event will be available after the deadline.