Ekottara Agama 21.8

[i]‘Thus have I heard.

At one time the Buddha was staying in Śrāvastī, at Jetṛ’s Grove, in Anāthapiṇḍada’s Park. Then the Exalted One said to the bhikṣus:

There are three bad practices. Which are the three?

Bad practices of body, speech and mind. These, O bhikṣus, are the three bad practices.

One should aspire to skill in means to cultivate three good practices. Which are the three?

Somebody whose practice of body, speech and mind is bad, should cultivate good practice of body, speech, and mind.

Then the Exalted One uttered the following verses:

One should guard against bad practice of body and
Cultivate good practice of body; it [should always] be
Kept in mind to give up bad practice of body,
And good practice of body should be learnt.
One should guard against bad practice of speech and
Cultivate good practice of speech; it [should always] be
Kept in mind to give up bad practice of speech,
And good practice of speech should be learnt.
One should guard against bad practice of mind and
Cultivate good practice of mind; it [should always] be
Kept in mind to give up bad practice of mind,
And good practice of mind should be learnt.[ii]
[Good] practice of body is excellent, and
[Good] practice of speech likewise, to be sure,
[Good] practice of mind is excellent, and the same
Holds true of [good practice] in every respect, -
Restraint in speech, purity of mind and no bad practice
Of body – by realising[iii] purity in these three practices
One will reach the [Great] Sage’s[iv] state of the Unconditioned (asaṁskṛtasthāna).

Thus, bhikṣus, one should give up the three bad practices and cultivate the three good practices, and thus, O bhikṣus, you should train.

After listening to the Buddha’s words, the bhikṣus were pleased….to practice.’



[i] CBETA, T02, no. 125, p. 604, b16-c6. This translation originally published as Ekottarāgama XXXII, Buddhist Studies Review 20.2, 2003, p 209-210. Translated from the Chinese version by Thích Huyên-Vi and Bhikkhu Pāsādika in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb.

[ii] As a parallel to this EĀ sutra T2,604, n. 11. Akanuma, Hayashi and Lancaster give It 64-5 [?]. Thematically there is some agreement between EĀ and It 54-5. ie. It. Chapter 3, suttas 15 and 16: vuttaṁ hetaṁ bhagavatā, vuttaṁ arahato ti me sutaṁ – tīṇimāni, bhikkhave, duccaritāni \ katamāni tīṇi ? kāyaduccaritaṁ, vacīduccaritaṁ, manoduccaritaṁ… tīṇimāni, bhikkhave, sucaritāni… F.L. Woodward, The Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon. Part 11, Udana: Verses of Uplift and Itivuttaka: As it was Said, PTS, 1935, p.157: “This was said by the Exalted One… ‘Monks, there are these three evil practices. What three? Evil practice of body, speech and mind… Monks, there are these three good practices…’.”

Of the following four lines of the EĀ verses (Chinese text) the first two have parallels in the Udānavarga (quoted in the Abhidharmakośabhāṣya, ed. P. Pradhan, Patna 1975, p. 208, 21-2). Dhp etc. The first to mention the EĀ verses in question as being parallel to the Udānavarga and Dhp was Kotatsu Fujita in Kusharon shoin no Agongyo ichiran, Sapporo 1984, p. 15. See Bh. Pāsādika, Kanonische Zitate im Abhidharmakośabhāṣya des Vasubandhu, Gottingen 1989. p.77 [284] (with full references):

Kāyena saṁvaraḥ sādhu sādhu vācātha saṁvaraḥ
Manasā saṁvaraḥ sādhu sādhu sarvatra saṁvaraḥ

[iii] See Hackman, p.60, s.v. ## …pratipatti.

[iv] Ibid., p.239 f., s.v. # , on Taoist terms and their Buddhist adaptation; Soothill, p.166a.