Ekottara Agama 20.3



Eleventh fascicle

(A Spiritual Friend)

[1]‘Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying in Śrāvastī, at Jetṛ’s Grove, in Anthāpiṇḍada’s Park. Then the Exalted One was expounding the Teachings surrounded by an audience (parṣad) [consisting of quasi-]innumerable (asaṁkhyeya) [persons].

Simultaneously Dharmaruci[2] was alone in his quiet room, reflecting wisely (manasi-kṛ). Fully concentrated he entered the absorption[s and then] contemplated the body [which he had to put up with in his) previous [life]: In the middle of the Great Ocean it appeared in the shape of a fish that measured seven hundred yojanas[3]. Just as a strong man instantly bends and [again] stretches his arm, he immediately left his quiet room, proceeded to the middle of the Great Ocean and passed by a floating rotten [fish] carcass.

On this occasion Dharmaruci uttered the following verses:

[There are] birth and death for countless aeons and

(The duration of one's] wandering on in saṁsāra is

Incalculable. Everybody is in search of happiness, and

What is obtained is endless misery. Having seen again

[One’s former] body, how much less (kiṁ punar) is there

The need to create a [new] frame (gṛha)!

[Once] all attachment (saṁdhi) has ceased, no further

Physical frame will be found (upa‑labh). [Once] the heart

Is not involved at all in any action [pertaining to

Saṁsāra], no more clinging (abhiṣvaṅga) will be left

Behind ‑ to say nothing of this kind of frame[4]; [for]

In Nirvāṇa there is surpassing (adhika) happiness.

Scarcely had Venerable Dharmaruci uttered these verses when he disappeared [at the site of encountering the carcass], shifted to Śrāvastī, to the Jetavanavihāra[5], and went to where the Exalted One was. On seeing Dharmaruci coming near, the Exalted One said: Excellent (sādhu) – Dharmaruci! Here after a long time[6].

Indeed, Exalted One, replied Dharmaruci, here after a long time.

Now the venerable elders[7] and all the [other] bhikṣus thought to themselves: This Dharmaruci [must] have permanently been staying near the Exalted One because just now the Exalted One has said, “Excellent ‑ Dharmaruci! Here for a long time”.

Since the Exalted One knew what the bhikṣus were thinking to themselves and wishing to dispel [any possible] uncertainty (vicikitsā) [on their part], he said to them: It is not because of Dharmaruci that I have made the remark ‘here after a long time [and not ‘for a long time’]”. [I have made it] for the following reasons:

In the past, countless aeons ago, the Tathāgata Dīpaṁkara[8] had appeared in the world, the Fully and Completely Enlightened One, the Blessed One, perfect in insight-knowledge and good conduct, world-knowing, the supreme Dharma-charioteer[9], teacher of gods and men, the Buddha, the Bhagavat[10]. [He] was just on his way (ā-pad) to the great kingdom [known as] Padma, accompanied by a huge number of bhikṣus, viz. altogether 148,000 persons.

In those days the four assemblies (parṣad)[11] were so numerous that they could neither be counted nor estimated. The country's king, his ministers, civil servants, people from all social strata [jāti] came forward [with their contributions towards a] sacrifice (yajña)[12] in favour of those who are indispensable[13].

At that time there was a brahmin by the name of Yajñada who lived in the foothills (antika) of the Himālayas. As far as secret signs, astronomy, and geography were concerned, there was nothing he was not an expert in. He was also a past master at explaining scriptures and at scripts. Another speciality of his was the intonation of a sentence [consisting of] five hundred words and also [the science of describing] the marks of a great being (mahāpuruṣalakṣaṇa)[14]. He taught five hundred disciples untiringly, day and night, the scriptures [dealing with] Agni, Sūrya, Soma and the [deities pertaining to other] heavenly bodies.

The brahmin Yajñada had a disciple whose name was Meghadundubhi[15] whose features betrayed a very respectable descent and the colour of whose hair was light reddish-black. The brahmin Meghadundubhi was sagacious and far-seeing and [, once he had embarked upon something,] there was nothing he would not bring to a successful end. Whenever he saw Yajñada, he at once showed him his devotion (bhakti) and of all the sacrificial formulae (mantra) which a brahmin applied in those days he had perfect command.

Then the brahmin Meghadundubhi thought to himself: Now all that is required studying I have fully mastered.

And again it occurred to him: He who[se knowledge] surpasses all that is included in the lists of texts dealing with the sciences (śiksā) [relevant to] a brahmin’s occupation, is [my] teacher [whose] kindness should be requited. As for myself, all that I had to study I have at present gained mastery of. Now I should requite my teacher’s kindness. However, being poor and without any means enabling [me] to make offerings to my teacher, [I] should go off in all directions in search of the necessary means.

After this [musing] the brahmin Meghadundubhi went to the whereabouts of has teacher and said to him: As for the teachings (śāsana) pertaining to the sciences and expertise of a brahmin, [I] have mastered them now. As a matter of fact, he who[se knowledge] surpasses all that is included in the lists of texts dealing with the [brahminical] sciences and expertise, is [my] teacher [whose] kindness should be requited. However, being indigent and lacking gold, silver and [other] precious things enabling [me] to make offerings, now [I] would like to go off in all directions to ask for assets (bhoga) enabling [me] to make offerings to my teacher.

On [hearing these words] the brahmin Yajñada thought: This brahmin Meghadundubhi who is dear to me is always on my mind. Thinking that [one day] I shall die, I cannot [bear the very idea of our] being separated for ever, let alone [the idea of his] intention to abandon me today and go away. Now how should I proceed in order to keep [him] and make (him] stay?

Then the brahmin Yajñada said to Meghadundubhi: O noble brahmin, for one reason you do not yet know what a brahmin should have studied.

In front of his teacher Meghadundubhi asserted: The only thing I am intent on is the acquisition of knowledge (āgama). What is it that I have not yet studied?

Instantly Yajñada called to mind a recitation [consisting of] five hundred words (pañcaśatavākpāṭha) and told Meghadundubhi: Now there exists a text entitled Pañcaśatavākpāṭha. You may receive it.

[I] hope, Meghadundubhi replied, the teacher will be [so kind] as to instruct me; [I] would like to obtain the recitation.

O bhikṣus, [the Exalted One interrupted his narrative,] you should know that after [Meghadundubhi’s request] Yajñada taught this disciple[16] [of his] the Pañcaśatavākpāṭha. Within just a few days [the latter] became proficient at [reciting the text until then unknown to him].

Thereafter the brahmin Yajñada said to his five hundred disciples: This brahmin Meghadundubhi is not really competent [as far as] teaching methods and comprehensive knowledge [are concerned]. This being the case, there is [someone, however, who] has made a name for himself; his name is >He who Surpasses in Prudence<, Nayātikrama[17]. This brahmin Nayātikrama posses a most remarkable talent for astronomy and geography, and there is nothing he is not an expert in. He is a past master at explaining scriptures and at scripts.

When several days had elapsed, the brahmin Nayātikrama went to see[18] his teacher and said: Now [I] am proficient in the methods of teaching the brahminical sciences. He who[se knowledge] surpasses all that is included in the lists of texts treating the [brahminical] sciences, is [my] teacher [whose] kindness, therefore, should be requited. [But I have] to add that [I] am poor, lacking gold, silver and [other] precious things enabling [me] to make offerings to my teacher. Now I would like to go off in all directions in search of assets so as to attain my goal. If only [I could] get permission [to do so].

As you think fit (yasya kālaṁ manyasi)[19], replied the brahmin Yajñada. The brahmin Nayātikrama bowed down [his head] at his teacher’s feet, stepped backwards and (T2, 598a) left.

In those days not far from the [main] town of the great kingdom [known as] Padma a huge number of brahmins had gathered together in one place, viz. 84,000 brahmins, in order to participate in a great sacrifice (yajña) and to discuss doctrinal matters. The chief [of all those brahmins assembled] was supposed to be well-versed in the outsiders’ (tīrthika) chanting and explaining scriptures, knowledgeable about astronomy and geography and a past master at [explaining] extraordinary [phenomena such as] changes in the constellations.

Everybody was eagerly occupied with amassing five hundred ounces of gold, one golden staff (daṇḍa), one golden jug for ablutions[20] and one thousand head of cattle [to be] presented to the foremost teacher [to be] ranked as the most [learned among all the brahmins].

[Near the border,] not far from the great kingdom [known as] Padma the brahmin Nayātikrama heard that all the brahmins, viz. 84,000 [persons], had gathered together at one place, that their proficiency was being tested [to find out who would] rank foremost so as to be given the five hundred ounces of gold… and the large [herd of] one thousand head of cattle.

Then it occurred to the brahmin Nayātikrama: Now why do I beg from house to house? [I] had better go to that enormous gathering to participate in the proficiency contest.

So the brahmin Nayātikrama went to the venue of that giant assembly. When the large multitude of brahmins saw the brahmin Nayātikrama coming from afar, they all shouted at the top of their voices: Excellent! The [real] chief (svāmin) of the sacrifice [gathering]. Now [this function] proves immensely useful – so much so that Brahma is descending in person.

All the 84,000 brahmins rose and went to receive [him]. With one accord [they] cheered: Welcome (svāgatam), Great Brahmā!

Being [accorded such tribute,] the brahmin Nayātikrama thought: These brahmins take me to be Brahmā; but I am not Brahmā.

So the brahmin Nayātikrama addressed the brahmins with the [following] words: Please stop, noble ones! Do not call me Brahmā! Have you not heard of Yajñada, teacher of so many brahmins [living] in the north, in the Himālayas, [whose] mastery of astrology and geography [is such that] there is nothing [he] does not [know]?

The brahmins replied: We have only heard of him, but[21] we have never seen [him].

I am, the brahmin Nayātikrama introduced himself, his disciple Nayātikrama by name.

Then the brahmin Nayātikrama turned towards the chief of that mammoth assembly and said: How about an expert’s showing me his expertise?

Now the chief of that gathering impeccably recited to the brahmin Nayātikrama the [texts of] the Three Collections[22].

After that the brahmin Nayātikrama again asked the chief: Are [you] able to recite the Sentence [Consisting of] Five Hundred Words[23]?

I do not know what [you] mean, replied the chief – what is the Sentence [Consisting of] Five Hundred Words like?

O noble ones, requested the brahmin Nayātikrama, please listen attentively[24]; [I] will recite the Sentence [Consisting of] Five Hundred Words [describing] the marks of a great being.

O bhikṣus [, said the Exalted One], you should know that on that occasion the brahmin Nayātikrama [showed his] proficiency in reciting the [texts of] the Three Collections and the Sentence [Consisting of] Five Hundred Words [describing] the marks of a great being. The 84,000 brahmins, overjoyed as never before, were all [agreed] that this was the first time for them to listen to the Sentence [Consisting of] Five Hundred Words [describing] the marks of a great being and that as from that moment “the Venerable” (bhadanta) [Nayātikrama] should be ranked foremost and be [their] chief.

[25]When the Brahmin Nayātikrama had risen from his seat and again had sat down on the seat reserved for the chief [of the assembly], he very much disliked his having been ranked foremost in that gathering. He thought to himself with regard to the vows [formerly] taken by him. These people have made me move to another set so as to fill the vacancy.[26] Now that I have made known scriptural authority,[27] it will be difficult [for me] to keep up my practice (śῑla). Supposing there is a really virtuous person who whole-heartedly keeps his vows; he performs actions in conformity with places he hopes to be born in. I [would] in fact destroy[28] for good the virtue (guṇa) [resulting from my brahminical studies and practice should I become attached to name and fame].

Then the person in charge of the munificence [function] (dānasvāmin) provided five hundred ounces of gold, one golden staff, one golden jug for ablutions, one thousand head of cattle and one beautiful girl.[29] [He] handed over [these various yajña ingredients] to the [new] chairman[30] by facilitating him with a sacred formula (mantra). Herewith, said the chairman to the person in charge of the munificence [function], I accept the five hundred ounces of gold, the golden staff and jug for ablutions in order to offer them to my master for his support. As to the girl and the one thousand head of cattle, [they may] be returned to your people because I do not need them, and I do not have the habit of amassing property.-

After receiving [the five hundred ounces of gold], the golden staff and jug, the brahmin Nayātikrama entered the great kingdom [known as] Padma. The name of its king was Dῑpa.[31] As the ruler of that country he had invited the Tathāgata Dῑpaṁkara and a [large] multitude (gaṇa)[32] of his bhikṣus to an offering or robes and [alms]-food.

In the [main] city of that kingdom the king issued the order that no fragrant flowers should be sold by any of its inhabitants. Anyone selling them would incur severe punishment. Even if he himself took the liberty of buying [flowers] it should not be compulsory to bypass [the order] and sell them.

Again he had the people clean up [all places], sweep and sprinkle them [with water]. Fouled earth and sand had to be removed. Silken banners and canopies were fluttering [in the wind], perfumed water was showered on the ground; [all these] preparations created [an atmosphere of tidiness and serenity] to which sensual pleasures[33] do not bear comparison.

Witnessing [these ongoing preparations], the brahmin [Nayātikrama] asked [some] passers-by: [All places] are being swept and sprinkled [with water], roads are being cleared of refuse, silken banners and canopies are fluttering [in the wind]; [this atmosphere of tidiness and serenity] is incomparable! What special event is it? It is [certainly] not the crown prince, the heir to the throne,[34] who is going to marry his graceful bride.

Does the brahmin not know it? the passers-by were wondering and [went on] to say: For today the king of the great Padma kingdom has invited the Tathāgata Dῑpaṁkara, the Fully and Completely Enlightened One, to an offering of robes and [alms]-food. For this very reason the roads are being cleared, silken banners and canopies are fluttering [in the wind].

[On hearing] this [news] the brahmin uttered these words, pregnant with meaning,[35] which he had memorised: It is extremely rare for a Tathāgata to appear in the world, and since he appears only occasionally (kadā cit karhi cit)[36] [after immense intervals of time], it is practically impossible to see him. It is exceedingly rare for a Tathāgata to appear in the world – as rare as the udumbara flower blossoming only occasionally [after immense intervals of time].[37] Moreover, in the brahminical scriptures there is the following saying: It is extremely rare for two persons to appear in the world. For which two persons? It is extremely rare for a Tathāgata and for a noble universal monarch to appear in the world.[38]

Then the following occurred to him: Now I could requite the Buddha’s favour (upakāra) at once by respectfully offering Him, the Tathāgata Dῑpaṁkara, the five hundred ounces of gold.

And again it came into his mind: According to what the scriptures say, a Tathāgata neither accepts gold and silver nor other precious things. I could instead use the five hundred ounces of gold to buy fragrant flowers in order to shower the Tathāgata with them. Thereafter the Brahmin entered the city with a view to buying fragrant flowers.

Does the brahmin not know it? also the passers-by in the city were wondering and [went on] to say: Our king has issued the order that anyone selling fragrant flowers should be punished severely.

The brahmin Nayātikrama, was at a loss and thought: [I] just do not know how to get flowers.

Having decided to return and having left the city, he stayed outside the gates [of the city]. There was a Brahmin girl named Susvādā,[39] carrying a water jug so as to fetch water. In one hand she was holding five flowers.

On seeing that girl the Brahmin said to her: Distinguished (mahat) younger sister,[40] I need the flowers and hope the younger sister will be kind enough to sell them to me.

[Since] when, replied the brahmin girl, am I your younger sister? You do not [even] know who are my parents. 

That girl is really good hearted, the brahmin Nayātikrama thought to himself, she just wants to make fun [of me]. Again he said [to her]: Good (bhadra) girl, will you kindly [sell me] these flowers at any price.

Do you not know, replied the brahmin girl, that His Majesty has prohibited the sale of flowers?

Good girl, said the brahmin, as for that matter, do not be concerned. What has the king to do with you? I urgently need these five flowers, and you will have got a good bargain.

What are you going to do with the flowers so urgently needed by you? asked the brahmin girl.

The brahmin: I [can] see there is fertile ground that needs to be cultivated [by means of] these flowers [for growing roots of merit].

The brahmin girl: These flowers have been cut off from their roots; so they can by no means strike [root] again. How can you say you want to grow them?

The brahmin: Today, for instance, I see a fertile field to be cultivated; though bleak and bare [things] grow in it again and again. All the more [fertile is the field in which roots of merit can be cultivated by dint of] these flowers.

The brahmin girl: What is this fertile field like in which, though bleak and bare, [after] cultivation [things] grow?

The brahmin: Good girl, the Buddha, the Tathāgata Dῑpaṁkara, the Fully and Completely Enlightened One, has appeared in the world.

The girl: What is the Tathāgata Dῑpaṁkara like?

The Brahmin: The Tathāgata Dῑpaṁkara whose merit is perfect, is endowed with such [-and-such] (ῑdṛśa) virtues and such [-and-such] (T2,599a) conduct.

The girl: What kind of merit does a virtuous person strive for?

The brahmin: I am filled with the aspiration to become – like the Tathāgata Dῑpaṁkara – fully and completely enlightend in a future existence, being [endowed with] virtues and conduct like him.

The girl: If you promise to accept me as your wife existence after existence[41] I shall give you the flowers.

The brahmin:  As for my behaviour (samudācāra), now my mind is free from clinging.

The girl: Let me be your wife in future existences just as now I do not desire to be your wife physically.

The brahmin Nayātikrama: A bodhisattva’s manner of conduct excludes one’s sparing oneself. If you want to be my wife [you] should overcome selfish attachment (mamakāra).

The girl: I will by no means betray your aspiring after generosity (dānādhyāśaya). Let me with the right motivation make use of my body, donating it to others. [Thus] I will certainly not betray [our] aspiring after generosity. 

Then [the brahmin Nayātikrama] took the five hundred gold coins[42] and bought with them the five flowers. After both [he himself] and that girl had vowed [to embark on a bodhisattva’s practice] they parted company. 

Meanwhile, the Tathāgata Dῑpaṁkara, the Fully and Completely Enlightened One, had put on his [outer] robes and taken up his alms bowl. Heading the bhikṣus accompanying him in order of seniority,[43] he entered the great Padma kingdom.

Seeing him some distance away, an [inspiring] appearance[44] of genuine modesty,[45] the brahmin Nayātikrama was not disappointed. The Tathāgata Dῑpaṁkara’s bearing[46] was calm and dignified. He was possessed of the thirty-two [primary] and the eighty secondary marks of an extraordinary being (dvātriṁśan mahāpuruṣalakṣaṇāni, aśῑty anuvyañjanāni).[47] [On seeing him one was] reminded of pellucid water free of all turbidity, allowing the light to penetrate it without hindrance. Again, [he] resembled a jewel mountain (ratnaparvata) surpassing all [other] mountains.

Having this experience, the brahmin Nayātikrama became elated (sumanas). Holding the five flowers meant for the Tathāgata, he went to where Dῑpaṁkara was and stood at one side; then he said to the Buddha Dῑpaṁkara: It is to be hoped that something will be obtained. Supposing now the Exalted One decides not to impart anything, then it would be preferable to put an end to one’s life on the spot. It would not be worthwhile living on.

Brahmin, said the Exalted One, it is not possible thanks to these five flowers to impart the Complete and Highest Enlightenment.

I [only] hope, replied the brahmin, the Exalted One will be so kind as to teach me how to embark on a bodhisattva’s practice.

A bodhisattva’s practice, explained the Buddha Dῑpaṁkara, excludes one’s sparing oneself.

On this occasion the Brahmin uttered the following verses:

No[body] dares take hold of his parents and give them

Away to other people. The Buddhas, too surpassing

[Other] wise (vyakta) persons, dare not give away

[Their parents]. Sun (!) and moon circling the earth –

These two cannot be given away either. Everything else

Can be given away; it will not be difficult

To make up one’s mind [to do so].

Then also the Buddha Dῑpaṁkara addressed the brahmin with these verses

The way you talk about giving away is not the Tathāgata’s

[Way] to talk about. [A bodhisattva] should be [prepared to]

Put up with a hundred million aeons of great

Hardship [involving the giving away of one’s]

Head, trunk, ears, eyes, one’s wife, children, one’s

Realm, treasures, carriages, horses, servants and

Retinue. If [you] can bear all this, then you

May make [your] resolution.

Furthermore, the young brahmin (māṇava) uttered these verses:

The high mountain of great hardship burning like

Fire – for a hundred million aeons [I] will put up

With carrying it on [my] head. [My] aspiring for

[Supreme] enlightenment (bodhicitta)[48] shall not be

Impaired.  All [I] wish now is to make my resolution.

Now the Tathāgata Dῑpaṁkara kept silent, and the Brahmin, holding in his hand the five flowers, knelt down with his right knee on the ground and scattered [the flowers] over the Tathāgata. In doing this, he said: May this action be conducive to having merit also in a future existence.  Not unlike the Tathāgata Dῑpaṁkara, I shall realise Full and Complete Enlightenment. 

On the spot he let down [his long] hair, spread it on a muddy [section of the road and said]:  If the Tathāgata approves of my resolution [He] may kindly cross the muddy section by stepping on my hair.

O bhikṣus, [said the Exalted One], you should know that the Tathāgata Dῑpaṁkara looked into the brahmin’s mind and scrutinised what he was thinking. Then he said to the brahmin: In a future existence you will realise Full and Complete Enlightenment and become the Tathāgata Śākyamuni Buddha.

At that time a fellow student of the brahmin Nayātikrama, Dharmaruci by name, stood next to the Tathāgata. Witnessing the Buddha Dῑpaṁkara’s approval of the Brahmin Nayātikrama’s resolution by stepping on [the latter’s] hair, he remonstrated: How can this shaveling of a śramaṇa be so impudent as to trample on this pure brahmin’s hair? This is not a [civilised] man’s behaviour!

As for the brahmin Yajñada of those days, asked the Buddha the bhikṣus, do you [think] he was an altogether unique person? Do not regard him as such because the person of that time [known as] Yajñada is none other than Śuddhodana. As for the former chief of the [assembly of] 84,000.[49] brahmins, he is none other than Devadatta, and I was at that time that very Brahmin Nayātikrama. As far as the Brahmin girl of those days is concerned who sold the flowers, she is now Gopῑ,[50] and the person in charge of the yajña [function][51] is none other than the Brahmin Daṇḍapāṇi.[52] 

Dharmaruci who hurled abusive language at the Tathāgata in those days is in fact the Dharmaruci of today. For innumerable aeons this Dharmaruci was again and again born as a domestic animal, and in his [second but] last life he took on the body of a fish that measured seven hundred yojanas, living in the Great Ocean. That existence having come to an end, he was born here [again as a human being]. 

By always being close to a spiritual friend (kalyāṇamitra), by relying on a spiritual friend one habituates oneself to karmically wholesome actions conducing to the [spiritual] faculties, to the gates (dvāra) of deliverance and to supernormal knowledge (abhijñā).[53]

It is for this very reason that I have said: Here after a long time. –  And Dharmaruci, too, expressed himself: Indeed, Exalted One, here after a long time. –  Thus, O bhikṣus, you should constantly cultivate [mindfulness] with regard to physical, vocal and mental actions.  Thus, O bhikṣus, you should train. 

After listening to the Buddha’s words, the bhikṣus were pleased and respectfully applied themselves to practice.[54]


[1] CBETA, T02, no. 125, p. 597, a22-p. 599, c4; Hayashi, p.174 ff. Cf. Divy(V). pp.152-7; Mvu(B), 194-6. This translation originally published as Ekottarāgama XXVI, Buddhist Studies Review 16.2, 1999, p 207-214, and Ekottarāgama XXVII, Buddhist Studies Review 17.1, 2000, p 39-47. Translated from the Chinese version by Thích Huyên-Vi and Bhikkhu Pāsādika in collaboration with Sara Boin-Webb.

[2] For information on Dhammaruci based on the Apadāna, cf. DPPN 1, p.1148 f. In the remotest past Dhammaruci, then Megha by name, had become a monk under the Buddha Dīpaṅkara, but left the Order again and even committed matricide. Consequently he went to Avīci and thereafter was born as a fish. Once, even as an animal, he heard merchants in distress at sea recite the Buddha Gotama’s name for protection. The fish remembered Dīpaṅkara’s having prophesied the future Buddha, then died and was reborn Sāvatthī. There once more he entered the Order of Gotama Buddha and, in due course, became an arahant.The account in Mvu resembles that of the Apadāna, but interprets the expression cirasya (cf. below, n.6) in a way differing from its meaning in Divy, viz. ‘for a long time [to come]’: The gigantic fish, on hearing the merchants in distress recite the Buddha’s name, becomes so joyful and elated (hṛṣṭo udagracitto) that this karmically wholesome emotion results in the animal’s rebirth as a human being; remembering/being mindful of the Buddha is beneficial to the world for a very long time to come (sucirasya lokahita, ibid. p.196).

The Divy account opens with the story of the trade expedition of 500 merchants. On their way back a tempest puts their lives in great danger, and a giant timitimiṁgila is about to devour them. After invoking Śiva’s, Varuṇa’s and other deities' help in vain, they recite ‘namo Buddhāya’. Hearing this, the giant fish is struck with dismay and decides to refrain from devouring the merchants. The latter reach the coast of their homeland and proceed to Śrāvastī to pay homage to the Buddha. Having distributed all their riches, they are ordained bhiksus and eventually realise arahantship.

In that part of the Dharmarucyavadāna which the eds. of T, Hayashi and Lancaster refer to as being a parallel to the present EĀ section, events in the time of Dīpaṁkara Buddha are narrated. Two brahmin youths, Sumati – i.e. Sumedha of the Pāli tradition – and Mati – i.e. Megha as mentioned in the Apadāna, meet Dīpaṁkara. Sumati has strong faith in Dīpaṁkara and humbly spreads out his long hair so as to prevent the Buddha's feet from touching the muddy ground. Simultaneously he resolves to become a Buddha in the distant future, and Dīpamkara actually prophesies Sumati’s realisation of Buddhahood. Seeing Dīpaṁkara stepping on Sumati’s twisted hair, Mati gets angry and exhorts the Buddha to take care. Thereafter he realises his fatal mistake and confesses it to Sumati. The latter suggests that both of them go forth into homelessness, and accordingly both are ordained as members of Dīpaṁkara’s Order. After the deaths of Sumati and Mati the former is reborn among a class of gods whilst the latter, in spite of his having been a bhikṣu, is reborn in hell. In conclusion, in the Jetavanavihāra, Gautama discloses that he was Sumati and Dharmaruci the angry brahmin youth Mati.

[3] Cf. Apadāna II (Nālandā ed.), p. 67: maccho āsiṁ timiṅgalo.

[4] Surely the floating rotten fish carcass seen by Dharmaruci is referred to.

[5] Cf. Hackmann, p.67a.

[6] Cf. Apadāna, ibid. : ciraṁ Dhammarucīti; Divy(V), 246, 3-4: cirasya Dharmarucecirasya bhagavan; Mvu(B), 195: cirasya Dharmaruci sucirasya…; see also above, n. 2. According to the context in Divy, cirasya means ‘after a long time, at last’; it can also mean, as in Mvu, ‘for a long time’.

[7] After Hayashi, p. 174, n. 4.

[8] Cf. Divy(V),152, 5-6: Dīpaṁkaro nāma samyaksaṁbuddho loka utpanno vidyācaraṇasamyaksaṁbuddhaḥ sugato lokavid anuttaraḥ puruṣadamyasārathiḥ śāstā devānāṁ ca manuṣyānāṁ ca buddho bhagavān. As for vidyācaraṇasamyak°, EĀ has what agrees with the standard epithet °caraṇasaṁpanna.

[9] For the standard epithet puruṣadamyasārathi EĀ has: ### as for ##, ‘Dharma', see Karashima, pp.88, 146.

[10] Here not translated as 'the Exalted One' (##, bhagavat), because in this enumeration of a Buddha’s epithets different Chinese characters for bhagavat are employed: ## (cf. Karashima, p.599).

[11] Cf. BSR 13, 1 (1996), p.57, n. 7.

[12] Cf. Foguang, p.3067, under ###

[13] From Divy(V), 152, 15 ff. it can be gathered that ‘indispensable persons’ are those who are experts in Vedic lore.

[14] Cf. BHSD, p.458 ff. (s.v. lakṣaṇa).

[15] I.e. ##; cf. Karashima, p.568.

[16] Translated after the reading proposed at T 597, n. 26.

[17] Tentatively for ##. In the following, from the fairly long EĀ narrative it becomes clear that >He who Surpasses in Method/Prudence<, Nayātikrama, corresponds to Sumati in Divy whose becoming Śākyamuni Buddha eventually is foretold by the Tathāgata Dīpaṁkara.

[18] Lit.: ‘again / to return’.

[19] I.e. ####; cf. BHSD, p.180a.

[20] Cf. Divy(V), p.152, 13; daṇḍakamaṇḍalu, ‘water-jar with a handle’.

[21] Translated after the reading of T 598, n. 2.

[22] Lit.: ‘Tripitaka'; presumably in this context equivalent to the Three Vedas.

[23] Perhaps identical with the Pañcaśatavākpāṭha mentioned above; the EĀ text is not explicit about it, though.

[24] Lit.: ‘silently’.

[25] See T2.598b5 ff., Hayashi, p.177 ff

[26] From the context it can be inferred that, after Nayātikrama’s reciting a text unknown to the large gathering of learned Brahmins and afer the brahmins’ proposal that he should assume the position of being their chief, the actual chief and chairman of that yajña function had perforce vacated his seat.

[27] Cf. Karashima, p. 227: [CBETA reading has] ‘a scriptural text’

[28] For壞敗 Hayashi reads ## which does not seem correct

[29] Cf. Divy (V) p.152, 14 kanyā ca sarvālaṁkāravibhῡṣitā; at BSR 16.2 (1999) p.213 where the ingredients of the yajña are enumerated, the beautiful girl is omitted.

[30] 上坐, uttamāsana, ‘he who occupies the highest seat’.

[31] Cf. Divy (V) p.152, 9 ibid, 1.8 for Dvīpo read Dīpo

[32] Cf Karashima P.597 under ###

[33] Lit.:gaṇikasukha, ‘pleasure [provided] by a courtesan’.

[34] Lit.: ‘the crown prince of the realm’s lord’.

[35] Lit.: ‘mysterious, secret’.

[36] See Karashima, p.404, under ###, see also SWTF, fasc.9, p.34 s.v. karha, karhi (with ref to CPS, MPS, SHT etc).

[37] The udumbara-puṣpa is already mentioned at EA 578a. 15-18; cf.BSR 9, 2(1992) p.180, n] 2 with references.  As for the rareness of a Tathāgata’s appearing without the udumbara-puṣpa simile, see A 1, 22: Ekapuggalassa bhikkhave pātubhāvo dullabho lokasmiṁ. Katamassa ekapuggalassa? Tathāgatassa .. cf. also A I, 266 A III, 168; thematically related to the latter two passages is Dhp 182.

[38] Cf. BSR 11. 1(1994) p.50, n 2, 3.

[39]Tentatively for善味. The Divy narrative, differing from the EA story in many details, does not give a proper name.

[40] Hayashi wrongly has ### for .

[41] Cf. Karashima, p.407, under ###;  cf. Also Divy(V), p.154,10: yadi … mamāpi jātyāṁ patnῑṁ icchasi …, according to the Divy story, the girl whose flowers the Brahmin wants to buy and the beautiful girl offered to and refused by him at the yajña function mentioned above are the same.

[42] Whilst above ‘five hundred ounces of gold’ are mentioned, in this place EA tallies with Divy(V) 152ff: pañca kārṣāpaṇaṣatāni.

[43] Cf. BSR 16, 1 (1999), p. 75 n. 11.

[44] Lit.: ‘facial expression’.

[45] After Hayashi read 端正 for 端政.

[46] Lit.: ‘organs of sense (indriya) and behaviour’

[47] See Mahavyut.235-267, 268-349

[48] Cf. Karashima, p.92 under ###

[49] After Hayashi read for ###

[50] See  DPPN 1, p.818 (under ‘Gopῑ, Gopikā’ and ‘3. Gopaka’): ‘The Sākiyan maiden of Kapilavatthu, who was born later on as Gopaka-devaputta.’ See also BHSD, p.216, s.v. ‘Gopā, Gopῑ, Gopikā: according to two Buddhist Skt. texts, the Śākya girl becomes the wife of the Bodhisattva

[51] The above mentioned ‘person in charge of the munificence [function] (dānasvāmin)’

[52] See DPPN 1, p.1053 (under ‘Daṇḍapāṇῑ’) ‘…. He was the Buddha’s maternal uncle … According to northern sources Prince Siddhattha’s wife was Daṇḍapāṇῑ’s daughter’ Cf. also BHSD, p.261 (s.v. Daṇḍapāṇῑ)

[53] See Nyanatiloka, pp. 61 (s.v.indriya), 173 (s.v.vimokkha, vimutti) 2f. (s.v. abhiññā).

[54] The story of the would-be Śākyamuni Buddha’s meeting Dῑpaṁkara and of his bodhicittotpāda is narrated in Mvu. Apart from the English translation of Mvu in 3 vols by J.J. Jones (London 1949-56), an abridged translation of the episode of ‘Shakyamuni’s Meeting with Dipankara’ is easily available in E.Conze, Buddhist Scriptures (Penguin Classics, 1959) pp 20-24 corresponding to Mvu(B) pp. 182, 8-189.9. As for BSR 16,2 (1999), p.207f., the following clarification is needed in order to avoid confusion. In the EᾹ story the would-be Śākyamuni Buddha is Nayātikrama and his fellow-student insulting Dῑpaṁkara is Dharmaruci, bearing the same name when meeting Śākyamuni again ‘ after a long time’. In the Apadāna the would-be Śākyamuni is Sumedha and the insulting fellow-student is Megha, whereas in Mvu the future Buddha is called Megha, and Meghadatta is his former class-mate who subsequently has to undergo extreme suffering because of his insult and later on becomes known as Dharmaruci. In Divy, finally, Śākyamuni formerly ws Sumati and Dharmaruci the haughty Brahmin youth Mati. Moreover, only from Divy (Divy (V) 253, 16-18: tena ca Dῑpena rājñā – Dῑpaṁkarasya samyaksaṁbuddhasya sābhisaṁskāreṇa nagaraparaveśaṁ kariṣyāmῑti … sarvapuṣpāṇāṁ saṁgrahaṁ kartum ārabdhaḥ) it can be gleaned as to why, as mentioned in the EᾹ text, the king issued the order that no fragrant flowers should be sold by any of his subjects: The king needed all available flowers for a state reception of the Tathāgata Dīpaṁkara.