Home‎ > ‎


Peer-reviewed Publications

Kassens-Noor, E. and A. Hintze (2020). 'Cities of the Future? The Potential Impact of Artificial IntelligenceAI. 1(2) 192-197 Special Issue: Artificial Intelligence in the Smart Everything and Everywhere Era


  • Artificial intelligence (AI), like many revolutionary technologies in human history, will have a profound impact on societies. From this viewpoint, we analyze the combined effects of AI to raise important questions about the future form and function of cities. Combining knowledge from computer science, urban planning, and economics while reflecting on academic and business perspectives, we propose that the future of cities is far from being a determined one and cities may evolve into ghost towns if the deployment of AI is not carefully controlled. This viewpoint presents a fundamentally different argument, because it expresses a real concern over the future of cities in contrast to the many publications who exclusively assume city populations will increase predicated on the neoliberal urban growth paradigm that has for centuries attracted humans to cities in search of work.

Kassens-Noor, E. (2019). 'Failure to Adjust': Boston's Bid for the 2024 Olympics and the Difficulties of Learning Olympic Wisdom. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space. 51(8). 1684-1702 https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518X19857104

  • Local resistance often cancels Olympic bids. Boston’s infamous bid failure was one of the first that demonstrated how local resistance can diminish boosters’ aspirations. As an insider to the bidding process, I trace the adjustment strategies of Boston’s bidding committee, B2024, to bid opposition over the course of Boston’s 2024 Olympic bid (2014–2015). I analyze the institutional learning that occurred and find B2024 learned through Olympic networks that won Olympic bids. These Olympic networks failed to learn amidst changing local circumstances and applied old solutions to new problems. While facing four crises, B2024 staff learned the complexities of Olympic bidding in a high-pressure learning environment that did not allow for trial and error. Against anti-Olympic movements, B2024 responded with fire-extinguishing techniques rather than plotting an organized strategy. While bidding, city governments must learn from failed bids to attain Olympic wisdom, which requires mastery of Olympic, counter-Olympic, and local knowledge. Using B2024’s learning process, I draw lessons for policy on learning and organizing complex projects with tight timelines and high uncertainty.

Kassens-Noor, E.  M. Wilson and J. Vertalka* (2019) – Good Games, bad hosts? Using big data to measure public attention and imagery of the Olympic Games. Cities. Vol (90), pp. 229-236 https://doi.org/10.​1016/​j.​cities.​2019.​02.​009

  • Mega-event boosters frequently claim increased public attention and improved host city imagery as a rationale for public investments in major events.  We design a methodology and develop an algorithm to measure both, public attention and imagery. We apply the algorithm to capture over 430 million tweets and content-analyze over 21 million tweets related to the Olympic Games, the International Olympic Committee, and their host cities. Olympic-related attention captures ~12.5% of the global twitter discourse during the event. In the English language, Olympic cities receive a positive brand value from the Olympic Games, because positive tweets about the Games and their prior, future, and bid cities exceed negative tweets at a ratio of 4:1. The Olympics leave no long-term image-legacy on twitter to their hosts but attract significant positive attention to the future host city. In contrast, the IOC attracts more negative than positive attention on twitter.

Vertalka J*, Kassens-Noor, E.  and M. Wilson (2019).  Data on sentiments and emotions of Olympic-themed Tweets. Data in Brief. Open access. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.103869

  • Two code files and one dataset related to Olympic Twitter activity are the foundation for this article. Through Twitter's Spritzer streaming API (Application Programming Interface), we collected over 430 million tweets from May 12th, 2016 to September 12th, 2016 windowing the Rio de Janeiro Olympics and Paralympics. We cleaned and filtered these tweets to contain Olympic-related content. We then analyzed the raw data of 21,218,652 tweets including location data, language, and tweet content to distill the sentiment and emotions of Twitter users pertaining to the Olympic Games Kassens-Noor E. et al., 2019. We generalized the original data set to comply with the Twitter's Terms of Service and Developer agreement, 2018. We present the modified dataset and accompanying code files in this article to suggest using both for further analysis on sentiment and emotions related to the Rio de Janeiro Olympics and for comparative research on imagery and perceptions of other Olympic Games.

Kassens-Noor, E. and J. Ladd* (2019). No right to share the city: Being Homeless in Rio de Janeiro during the FIFA World CupHuman Geography: A New Radical Journal. 12(2) pp. 51-63   https://hugeog.com/

  • To stage a successful mega-event, hosts believe they must present their city as safe and clean. Thus, policy-makers create and enforce spatial rules to hide the homeless from public view. Spatial conflicts peak when the homeless use public places selected for mega-event staging. We analyze these space conflicts from the perspective of the homeless before and during the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Rio de Janeiro. We propose a framework of clean streets policies that are regularly used based on a spectrum of high- to low-conflict zones. Furthermore, we contribute to current knowledge suggesting there are invisible spatial barriers in no-conflict zones that violently enable new codes of behaviors for and among the homeless. 

Kassens-Noor, E. (2019). Transportation planning and policy in the pursuit of mega-events: Boston’s 2024 Olympic bid. Transport Policy. Vol 74; pp. 239-245. DOI:10.1016/j.tranpol.2018.12.005

  • Improved transportation systems is a key argument boosters offer local residents as to why they should support mounting a bid for the Olympic Games. Opponents argue that transportation improvement can and should take place without the mega-event and that a bid instead deviates resources away from necessary transport projects. Transport policy makers need a practicable understanding of how to make decisions under grand opportunities like the Olympic Games. I advance the theory under grand opportunities using Boston’s transport planning approach for its bid to host the 2024 Olympic Games as a case study. Through an ethnography in Boston’s bidding committee, content analysis of internal planning documents circulated among staff, and in-depth interviews with participants in the transport planning process, I analyze the reasons and process by which Boston 2024’s Olympic transport proposal changed over time. I find that decision-making over transport emulated many characteristics of crisis; it was complex, risky, and occurred under high uncertainty. Once the initial bid was published, Bostonians demanded decisions for subsequent bid versions become transparent. Consequently, transport planners were forced to reduce complexity, to incur higher planning costs, and to discard projects beneficial for Boston’s long-term development. I find that grand opportunities for transport were squashed over the course of Boston’s Olympic bid and conclude that grand opportunities move along a spectrum of high-low complexity during the decision-making process and propose to analyze this process with what I term the coincidental opportunism approach.

Kassens-Noor, E., Z. Kotval-K., A. Brush, K. Doshier*, and M. Biskey* (2019). Michigan’s Public Transportation: An application of statewide performance assessment and management. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives. 1, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2019.100013

  • Transit agencies commonly use performance measures to assess the quality of provided transit services. This paper presents a case study, proposes and applies a method to assess the condition of a state-wide system combining urban, semi-urban, and rural transit agencies. First, the paper proposes 11 “Action Intent of Measures” (AIMs), which capture qualitative and quantitative aspects of transit systems. Second, it develops an index that condenses the 11 AIMs into one measure to allow assessment of the collective performance of the state's transit industry. Third, it applies the AIMs and the index to measure Michigan's state-wide transit performance annually between 2014 and 2018. Agencies reported better performance on AIMs that they felt they had control over in contrast to those that they felt they had no control over. Due to annual performance measurement of the state-wide system, the state transport agency targeted technical assistance to improve performance over time.

Kassens-Noor, E. and J. Lauermann (2018). Mechanism of policy failure: Boston’s 2024 Olympic bidUrban Studies.  Vol 55 (15), pp. 3369-3384 DOI: doi.org/10.1177/0042098017740286

  • Planning for mega-events such as the Olympics is at a turning point. There has been a power shift in the relationship between cities and the International Olympic Committee towards the former. This shift is based on the emergence of anti-bid opposition movements; the increasing complexity of bidding; demands for locally relevant legacies; and a changing political economic relationship between citizens, city governments and sports federations. Our paper draws on a long-term study of Boston’s failed bid to host the 2024 Summer Olympics, based on an ethnography within the bidding corporation and interviews with pro- and anti-bid stakeholders. We lay out the reasons why the Boston bid failed, and conclude that bid failure involves factors that work against elitist powers and towards democratic beneficiaries.

Kassens-Noor, E., C. Gaffney, J. Messina and E. Phillips* (2018). Olympic transport legacies:  the case of Rio de Janeiro’s BRT System. Journal of Planning Education and Research. 38(1), pp. 13-24 


  • Since the IOC selected Rio de Janeiro to host the 2016 Olympic Games, large-scale transportation infrastructures have been transforming the city. We examine the transportation planning process and consequences of implementation in the run-up to the 2016 Olympic Games by triangulating qualitative and quantitative methods. We argue that due to the low cost, speed of implementation, best-practice knowledge, existing political coalitions, ease of land acquisition, and flexibility in planning, BRTs emerged as the dominant Olympic transport solution. We find that the transport planning process has undermined the public interest and placed the burdens of implementation disproportionally on the urban poor.

Kassens-Noor, E. and T. Fukushige* (2018). Olympic Technologies - Tokyo 2020 and beyond: the Urban Technology MetropolisJournal of Urban Technology. 25(3), pp. 83-104

DOI: 10.1080/10630732.2016.1157949

  • The Olympic Games bring tremendous impacts to host cities, yet little attention has been paid to the variety and novelty in urban technologies that are introduced through the mega-event vehicle. This paper argues that urban transformation associated with the Olympic Games increasingly spans the technological sphere. As a path-breaker the Olympic bid of Tokyo foreshadows a technological revolution that will make the capital of Japan the most advanced urban technology metropolis in the world. This is significant, as this pioneer for the city of the future may yield many valuable insights given the rapid implementation and acceleration of technological innovation proceeding into 2020. Consequently, lessons on how this technology may impact our society can be derived.

Kassens-Noor, E. and J. Lauermann (2017). How to bid better for the Olympics: a participatory mega-event planning strategy for local legacies. Journal of the American Planning Association. 83(4): 335-345 

DOI: 10.1080/01944363.2017.1361857

Problem, research strategy, and findings: Several cities have canceled their Olympic bids in recent years because of local protests and referenda. Bidding cities now face a new political reality as they debate whether a bid is in the best interests of local stakeholders. We present a case study of Boston's (MA) ultimately unsuccessful bid to be the U.S. city selected to host the 2024 Olympic Games. ­Boston 2024, a nonprofit organization, prepared 2 sequential bids. We ask whether, how, and why Boston 2024 changed its planning approach from the 1st to the 2nd bid to respond to significant protests over its failure to meaningfully involve stakeholders, identify specific legacies, and provide accurate cost details. Our findings are limited by our focus on a single case, the small number of interviewees, and the constraints of ethnographic work. ­Boston 2024 shifted from an elite-driven process to a more inclusive one, from making generic claims about the impact of hosting the Games to describing local legacies, and from opaque budgets to transparent ones. Boston 2024 did not involve city planners in meaningful ways or engage fully with opponents. These changes were thus not sufficient to overcome substantial local distrust and opposition.

Takeaway for practice: Cities considering mega-event bids should encourage a fully participatory planning process that provides genuine local legacies and is transparent about costs and who will bear overruns. City planners would contribute significantly to bid planning that meets these objectives. Cities should also pressure Olympic organizations to make supportive changes in their selection requirements.

Kassens-Noor, E. (2016). From ephemeral planning to permanent urbanism: the beginnings of an urban planning theory on utopian mega-events and their heterotopian legacy. Urban Planning. Vol 1. Iss 1, pp. 41-54

  • Mega-events like the Olympic Games are powerful forces that shape cities. In the wake of mega-events, a variety of positive and negative legacies have remained in host cities. In order to bring some theoretical clarity to debates about legacy creation, I introduce the concepts of the mega-event utopia, dystopia and heterotopia. A mega-event utopia is ideal and imaginary urbanism embracing abstract concepts about economies, socio-political systems, spaces, and societies in the host during events.  The mega-event utopia (in contrast to other utopian visions other stakeholders may hold) is dictated by the desires of the mega-event owners irrespective of the realities in the event host. In short, a mega-event utopia is the perfect event host from the owner’s perspective.

  • Using the Olympic utopia as an example of a mega-event utopia, I theorize utopian visions around four urban traits: economy, image, infrastructures and society. Through the concept of the mega-event legacy utopia, I also provide some insight toward the operationalization of the four urban traits for a city’s economic development, local place marketing, urban development, and public participation.

  • Mega-event utopias are suggested as a theoretical model for the systematic transformation of their host cities. As large-scale events progress as ever more powerful transformers into this century, mega-event dystopias have emerged as negatives of these idealistic utopias. As hybrid post-event landscapes, mega-event heterotopias manifest the temporary mega-event utopia as legacy imprints into the long-term realities in hosting cities.

Kassens-Noor, E. and P. Kayal (2016). India’s new globalization strategy and its consequences for urban development: the impact of the 2010 Commonwealth Games on New Delhi’s transport system. International Planning Studies. Vol 21 Iss 1, pp. 34-49 

doi: 10.1080/13563475.2015.1114448

  • Developing nations increasingly seek mega-events in the pursuit of globalization. India has recently renewed such aspirations by hosting the XIX Commonwealth Games in Delhi in 2010. The purpose of the paper is to assess Delhi’s urban transport development through a sporting mega-event as a globalization strategy for a developing country. Therefore, the authors comparatively analyze the transport plans pre-bid (2003) and transport legacies (2013). The authors argue that the alignment of the mega-event needs with Delhi’s urban master plan was partially fulfilled as many infrastructural projects were catalyzed. However, the Games also compelled the city to invest in developments that were required for the successful delivery of the Games. This paper contributes to the discussion on how mega-events influence urban planning and points out significant challenges and opportunities developing cities face when preparing for a sporting mega-event.

Kassens-Noor, E. (2016). Flip, move, tweet: a blended course design for different learning environments in urban planning, sustainability, and climate change university courses. International Journal for the Scholarship of Technology Enhanced Learning. Vol 1 Iss 1. pp. 83-99 http://ejournals.library.gatech.edu/ijsotel/index.php/ijsotel/article/view/7 

  • While much academic work has focused on how a singular teaching practice impacts student engagement and learning, synergies among innovative teaching practices have largely been ignored by the academic community. I seek to address this gap by proposing a new blended course design and report on the impact three innovative teaching practices (flipped class, movement, and twitter) combined had on ten undergraduate students taking an urban planning course focused on sustainability and climate resilience. I explore advantages and disadvantages of this course design through pre- and post-diagnostics, audio and video recordings, tweets, assignments, student feedback, and personal reflection. Because students adapt to their learning environments and showed learning gains especially in environments they had not been taught in before, I suggest that students need to learn in the places they ultimately work.

Kassens-Noor, E., B. Maharaj, S. Müller, L. Huntoon and M. Wilson (2015). Towards a Mega-Event Legacy Framework. Leisure Studies, . Vol 34 Iss 6, pp. 665-671 

doi: 10.1080/02614367.2015.1035316


  • The legacy created in pursuit of a mega-event, like the Olympic Games,  FIFA World Cup,  World’s Fair or the Hajj, can provide tremendous opportunities for the host to advance urban development. The challenge faced by cities is how to direct the public and private spending on desired legacies to support their pre-bid  urban agendas. To provide guidance for scholars and event planners interested in using events to further urban development agendas we present a framework for cataloguing the outcomes associated with mega-event planning.

Chandra, S. and E. Kassens-Noor, (2014). The Evolution and Diffusion of the Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19 in India.  BMC Infectious Disease: 14:510 doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-510


  • Background

    The 1918-19 'Spanish' Influenza was the most devastating pandemic in recent history, with estimates of global mortality ranging from 20 to 50 million. The focal point of the pandemic was India, with an estimated death toll of between 10 and 20 million. We will characterize the pattern of spread, mortality, and evolution of the 1918 influenza across India using spatial or temporal data.


    This study estimates weekly deaths in 213 districts from nine provinces in India. We compute statistical measures of the severity, speed, and duration of the virulent autumn wave of the disease as it evolved and diffused throughout India. These estimates create a clear picture of the spread of the pandemic across India.


    Analysis of the timing and mortality patterns of the disease reveals a striking pattern of speed deceleration, reduction in peak-week mortality, a prolonging of the epidemic wave, and a decrease in overall virulence of the pandemic over time.


    The findings are consistent with a variety of possible causes, including the changing nature of the dominant viral strain and the timing and severity of the monsoon. The results significantly advance our knowledge of this devastating pandemic at its global focal point.

Chandra, S., E. Kassens-Noor, G. Kuljanin*, J. Vertalka* (2013). A Geographic Analysis of Population Density Thresholds in the Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19.  International Journal of Health Geographics:12(9). doi:10.1186/1476-072X-12-9


  • This paper introduces a useful analytic tool to the health geographic literature. It illustrates an application of the tool to demonstrate that it can be useful for pandemic awareness and preparedness efforts. Specifically, it estimates a level of population density above which policies to socially distance, redistribute or quarantine populations are likely to be more effective than they are for areas with population densities that lie below the threshold.

Kassens-Noor, E. (2013). The Transport Legacy of the Olympic Games, 1992-2012. Journal of Urban Affairs  Vol 35 Iss 4, pp. 393-416
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9906.2012.00626.x
  • Legacy planning in preparation for the Olympic Games has significantly grown in importance for host cities and the IOC because of the wasteful investments for some previous Games. Since the late 1990’s, the IOC has actively sought to prevent such over-spending through a transfer of knowledge program, in which valuable lessons are passed from one host city to the next. This paper analyzes the transport legacies of the Olympic Games, using original archive material and interviews with key decision-makers in five cities. While previous research into the effects of the Olympic Games on host cities suggests that infrastructural legacies are place-specific, the main argument of this paper is that the transport legacies of the Olympic Games are much more uniform across the host cities. Even though the host cities’ transport systems were intrinsically different pre-Olympics, the author finds similar features of the Olympic Transport System, which were developed through the Transfer of Knowledge program, produced similar legacies. In explaining the creation of transport legacies through Olympically motivated drivers, the author suggests the Olympics might trigger similar transport developments in future host cities. Therefore, city planners can use Olympic transport features as powerful catalysts to accelerate their urban and transport plans.

U. Bob and E. Kassens-Noor (2012). An indicator framework to assess the legacy impacts of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance (AJPHERD) September 2012 (Supplement 1), pp. 12-21.
  • Assessing legacy impacts entails monitoring and evaluating the long-terms effects of mega-events which is a neglected area of research. Most researchers on mega-events focus on projections before and during the hosting of a mega-event. Yet, the hosting of mega- events is generally explained in relation to long-term and enduring impacts which justify the massive investments often associated with hosting mega-events. This is particularly relevant given the considerable investments required from public funds, especially in South Africa that is largely a developmental state with high transformational and developmental demands. The 2010 FIFA World Cup was viewed as a key opportunity to initiate and promote social, economic, environmental and sport legacies (amongst others) in South Africa. It is asserted that legacy evaluations provide a platform for an assessment of lessons derived from a systematic cost-benefit analysis of a mega-event. This article provides a critical examination of how legacy is conceptualised in relation to mega-events, and specifically in the context of South Africa’s hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. It then highlights the key legacy impacts (both planned and unplanned) that are likely to be derived from the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Finally, the article suggests a legacy indicator framework for the medium and longer-tern assessment of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Assessing legacy impacts is critically important since the effects of mega-events are increasingly being questioned, specifically in relation to sustainability imperatives. Furthermore, examining long-term outcomes are central to informing future bidding and planning of mega-events.   

Kassens-Noor, E. (2012). Twitter as a teaching practice to enhance active and informal learning in higher education: the case of sustainable tweets. Journal of Active Learning in Higher Education 13(1), pp. 67-79

DOI: 10.1177/1469787411429190
  • With the rise of Web 2.0, a multitude of new possibilities on how to use these online technologies for active learning has intrigued researchers. While most instructors have used Twitter for in-class discussions, this study explores the teaching practice of Twitter as an active, informal, outside-of-class learning tool. Through a comparative experiment in a small classroom setting, this study asks whether the use of Twitter aids students in learning of a particular subject matter. And if so, in which learning contexts Twitter offers advantages over more traditional teaching methods. This exploratory study showed potential opportunities and pitfalls Twitter could bring to the e-learning community in higher education.


Kassens-Noor, E. (2011). Planning Against Hazards for a Resilient and Sustainable Community Through Adaptive Transportation Systems. Journal of Homeland Security. Edition: Catastrophes and Complex Systems: Transportation

  • This paper defines the role that transportation can and should play for resilient communities in hazard-prone regions. It lays out the demands and potential supply options in adapting land, marine, and air transportation systems while creating resilient and sustainable communities. It pays particular attention to the integration of adaptive and mitigative transport measures, so as to prevent future impacts of climate change.



Neal, Z., and E. Kassens-Noor (2011). The business passenger niche: Comparing legacy carriers and Southwest during a national recession. Journal of Air Transport Management 17, pp. 231-232 

  • We examine how legacy and low-cost air carriers’ roles in serving business passengers in the US changed during the global economic recession from 2007. Quarterly data is examined to test the impact of a recession on the air travel behavior. We find that since 2007 business passengers represent a declining proportion of legacy carriers’ passenger volume, while they  epresent an increasing proportion of Southwest’s passengers. This trend suggests that Southwest’s market niche has shifted,  nd that the airline now plays a role similar to that of legacy  carriers.



Kassens-Noor, E. (2010). Sustaining the Momentum - the Olympics as potential Catalysts for enhancing Urban Transport. Transportation Research Record 2187, pp. 106-113
  • Positive urban impacts of the Olympic Games are often publicized but seldom evaluated empirically. Through the analysis of Olympic transport plans and expert interviews, this paper tests whether transport measures implemented during the Games were sustained in four host cities. The paper consists of three main parts. The first provides an overview of the challenges the Olympics impose on urban transport systems, primarily in terms of passenger transport. The second part reviews the long-term transport goals each city had targeted to achieve through the Olympics. Furthermore, it categorizes the transport measures implemented to handle the Olympic peak demand. The third part analyzes comparatively how the cities changed and in particular, which of the measures that supported the passenger operations have been sustained. Despite the fact that planners, governments, and residents desire to use the Olympic Games as a catalyst for lasting transport improvements, actual implementations were mainly of temporary nature. Only in a few instances, did Olympic efforts lead to lasting benefits for urban transport systems. The paper suggests a long-term, comprehensive planning strategy for using the Olympics as a catalyst for change in order to sustain the momentum the Games give to a host city.
Kassens-Noor, E. (2010). Peak Demands in Transport Systems - an Agenda for Research. Paper ID G6-01541. In Selected Proceedings of the 12th World Conference on Transport Research Society, ISBN 978-989-96986-1-1 (Editors: J. Viegas and R. Macário), Lisbon, Portugal, July 11-15.
  • This paper is a pioneering effort in developing key concepts for peak demand transport. Peak demands in transport systems occur during mega-events, e.g. the Olympic Games or mass evacuations, which strain the pre-existing transport capacity far beyond its maximum limit. The author defines mega-events in the transport context as follows: a transport mega-event is an extraordinary temporary combination of mass transport flows, requiring the involvement and coordination of all available metropolitan transport modes with different service levels and requiring temporary and long-term modifications to the transport system. Peak demands as analyzed in this paper go far beyond the regular congestion levels, and constitute exceptional levels of passenger demand. Transport agencies have to extensively plan for those peak demands, for which many agencies start their planning efforts from scratch or draw on common practices within the same mega-event group (e.g. evacuations). This paper intends to jumpstart thinking outside the box by cross-comparing transport practices for various mega-events that have relatively little in common. The contribution of this paper is to identify six common key concepts among those different mega-events. Based on these finding the author concludes that these concepts are indeed applicable to any transport mega-event and suggests further inquiry into the field of peak demand transport planning.
Odoni A., M. Stamatopoulos, E. Kassens, I. Metsovitis (2009). Preparing an Airport for the Olympic Games: Athens. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 15 (1), pp. 50-59.
DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)1076-0342(2009)15:1(50)
  • Athens International Airport served as the principal gateway to Greece for athletes and the Olympic Family and for the general public during the Olympic Games of 2004. The airport’s performance during the Games was universally praised. This paper describes many facets of the extensive preparations for the event and of actual operations during the event. These include: principal strategic decisions, coordination with the major stakeholders, air traffic and passenger forecasts, new facilities and upgrading or modifications to existing ones, air traffic slot management, planning for and modeling of the flows of members of the Olympic Family through the airport, and some initiatives with respect to organizational structure, security, and contingency planning. The paper also outlines some more general “lessons” for airports that will handle events of similar magnitude and visibility in the future.
Book Chapters

Kassens-Noor, E. (2016). Twitter as a Teaching Practice to Enhance Active and Informal Learning in Higher Education: The Case of Sustainable Tweets. In M. Rectenwald and L. Carl (eds) in Academic Writing, Real World Topics – Concise Edition, Peterborough Canada: Broadview Press (reprint)

Kassens-Noor, E. (2016). Olympic Transport. In J. Gold and M. Gold (eds) Olympic Cities: City Agendas, Planning, and the World’s Games, 1896 - 2016 (3rd). pp. 253-268 Oxford: Routledge. 

Kassens-Noor, E. (2016). Twitter as a Teaching Practice to Enhance Active and Informal Learning in Higher Education: The Case of Sustainable Tweets. In M.Malloch, L. Cairns, and B. N. O'Connor (eds) in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, London, UK: Sage Publications (reprint)

Kassens-Noor, E. (2015). The legacy of the 2004 Olympics for Athens’ transport system. In R. Holt and D. Ruta (eds) The Routledge Handbook of Sport and Legacy: Meeting the Challenge of Major Sports Events. Oxford: Routledge. 

Kassens-Noor, E. (2015) "Twitter as a Teaching Practice to Enhance Active and Informal Learning in Higher Education: The Case of Sustainable Tweets." In M. Rectenwald and L. Carl (eds) in Academic Writing: Real World Topics, Calgary, Canada: Broadview Press (reprint)

Kassens-Noor, E. (2014). Managing Transport during the Soccer World Cup. In S. Frawley and D. Adair (eds) Managing the World Cup. Sydney: Palgrave Macmillan. 

Kassens-Noor, E. (2013). Managing Transport during the Olympic Games. In S. Frawley and D. Adair (eds) Managing the Olympics. Sydney: Palgrave Macmillan. 

Smith, T., J. Molloy, E. Kassens-Noor, W. Li, and M. Colunga (2013). Developing An Interdisciplinary Heuristic for Multidisciplinary Faculty Writing Groups. In A. E. Geller and M. Eodice (eds) Working with Faculty Writers. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press






Kassens-Noor, E. (2020). Los Angeles and the Summer Olympics: Planning Legacies. Springer Nature. Open Access: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-38553-8_1

The purpose of this book is to identify legacies arising from the bidding and planning process for Los Angeles’ 2028 Summer Olympic Games. Providing a brief historical account of the bidding processes and legacies for the 1932 and 1984 Olympics, the book answers the question of why LA won the 2028 Olympic bid. LA’s Olympic bidding process is the story of a city hosting the Games in which the process of bidding in an adversarial anti-Olympic bid climate was custom made for LA. The focus of the book lies on testing the premise whether and why the bid boosters’ claim “we have done it before, we can do it again” may or may not hold for LA’s 2028 legacies. Four elements challenge similar legacies from previous Games: the proposed dual opening and closing ceremony, the under-construction gigantic NFL stadium, and the vast planned transport expansion of LA challenge similar legacies from previous LA Games. No matter the legacy outcomes, the future two Olympic hosts including LA 2028 will determine the fate of the International Olympic Committee, the Olympics brand, and the Olympic Games.

Yumin Yoo, Yooil Bae, and Eva Kassens-Noor (2017). Mega-Events and Mega Ambitions: South Korea’s Rise and the Stategic Use of Mega-EventsPalgrave McMillan


This book provides a holistic analysis of South Korea’s strategic use of mega-events in its modern development. It examines the Summer Olympics (1988), the World Expo (1993), the FIFA World Cup (2002), and the Winter Olympics (2018) over the past 30 years of the country’s rapid growth, and across varying stages of economic and political development. It explains how mega-events helped to secure South Korea’s position on the international stage, boost nationalism, propel economic growth in export-oriented national companies, and build cities that accommodate – as well as represent – South Korea’s progress. It thereby highlights the broader implications for today’s global phenomenon of increasing reliance on mega-events as a catalyst for development, while the criticism that mega-events do more harm than good proliferates. The book is ideal for academics, policymakers, and those with an interest in mega-events and their role in the development of non-western countries.

Kassens-Noor, E. (2012). Planning Olympic Legacies: Transport Dreams and Urban Realities. London, New York: Routledge




When a city wins the right to hold the Olympics, one of the often cited advantages to the region is the catalytic effect upon the urban and transport projects of the host cities. However, with unparalleled access to documents and records, Eva Kassens-Noor questions and challenges this fundamental assertion of host cities who claim to have used the Olympic Games as a way to move forward their urban agendas. In fact, transport dreams to stage the "perfect Games" of the International Olympic Committee and the governments of the host cities have lead to urban realities that significantly differ from the development path the city had set out to accomplish before winning the Olympic bid. Ultimately it is precisely the IOC's influence--and the city's foresight and sophistication (or lack thereof) in coping with it--that determines whether years after the Games there are legacies benefitting the former hosts. The text is supported by revealing interviews from lead host city planners and key documents, which highlight striking discrepancies between media broadcasts and the internal communications between the IOC and host city governments. It focuses on the inside story of the urban and transport change process undergone by four cities (Barcelona, Atlanta, Sydney, and Athens) that staged the Olympics and forecasts London and Rio de Janeiro's urban trajectories. The final chapter advises cities on how to leverage the Olympic opportunity to advance their long-run urban strategic plans and interests while fulfilling the International Olympic Committee's fundamental requirements. This is a uniquely positioned look at why Olympic cities have --- or do not have --- the transport and urban legacies they had wished for. The book will be of interest to planners, government agencies and those involved in organising future Games.


Editorial Services

Series Editor for Palgrave Macmillan pivot book series: “Mega-Event Planning.” Books that appeared in the series (http://www.palgrave.com/kr/series/14808):

  • „Mega-Events in Post-Soviet Eurasia" by Makarychev, A. (Ed), Yatsyk, A. (Ed) (2016)
  •  “Sports Mega-Events and Urban Legacies: the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Brazil” by Nobre, E.A.C. (Ed) (2018)
  • “Mega-Events and Mega-Ambitions: South Korea’s Rise and the Strategic Use of the Big Four Events” by Joo Y., Y. Bae Y., Kassens-Noor, E. (2017)
  • „Failed Olympic Bids and the Transformation of Urban Spac“ by Oliver, R. and Lauermann, J. (2017)
  • “Mega-events and legacies in post-metropolitan spaces” by S. Di Vita, and C. Morandi (2018)
  • Sport Mega-Events in Emerging Economies by Bravo, G. A., Shonk, D. J., Silva-Bórquez, J., González-Mesina, S. (2018)
  • Entering the Global Arena - Emerging States, Soft Power Strategies and Sports Mega-Events by Grix, J., P.M. Brennagan, and D. Lee (2019)
  • Barcelona 92: A Legacy Case Study by Solanellas F. and A. Camps (in production)
  • Barcelona 1936 Popular Olympics by J. Stout (in production)
  • Career Legacy of Mega Events for Local communities by N. Vadiati (contracted)

The Mega Event Planning Pivot series will provide a global and cross-disciplinary view into the planning for the world’s largest sporting, religious, cultural, and other transformative mega events. Examples include the Olympic Games, Soccer World Cups, Rugby championships, the Commonwealth Games, the Hajj, the World Youth Day, World Expositions, and parades. This series will critically discuss, analyze, and challenge the planning for these events in light of their legacies including the built environment, political structures, socio-economic systems, societal values, personal attitudes, and cultures.

Guest co-editor with T. Yigitcanlar and M. Wilson for Journal of Urban Technology (2019-2020)

“Cities and Autonomous Technologies” 

Guest editor for sustainability (2013)

"Sustainable Mega-Events"

Editor in chief (Summer 2009) 
“Sustainable Transportation: An International Perspective” Projections Vol. 9
Planning Journal of the Department of Urban Studies and Planning, MIT, USA



Upcoming Presentations

Artificial Intelligence as the future of urban living: perceptions of an aspiring living laboratory. Urban Affairs Association, Washington DC (2020), April 2-4, 2020 


Invited Conference Papers and Presentations

Kassens-Noor, E. Rethinking South- South Cooperation: India and Brazil in the 21st Century. Track: Mega-events. University of Pittsburgh, March 27-28, 2018

Kassens-Noor, E. The Olympics as Potential Catalysts for Enhancing Urban Transport. Transportation Research Board. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Webinar June 2016. Invited Panelist

Kassens-Noor, E. Urban Infrastructure development through Olympic Games: Dreams and Realities. HafenCity University Hamburg. Hamburg, Germany, November 2015. Invited Speaker

Kassens-Noor, E. Boston Futures Discussion: Mobilities of the Future: Boston’s multi-modal transport opportunities. MIT, SA+P. Cambridge MA, July 2015 Invited Moderator

Kassens-Noor, E. Green Sport Alliance Summit. Invited panel speaker. Chicago. June 2015.

Kassens-Noor, E. Planning for Boston 2024. Symposium organized by the Massachusetts Association of Consulting Planners (MACP) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Department of Urban Studies and Planning), March 2015. Sole invited presenter

Kassens-Noor, E. Planning for Climate Resilient Cities. SMAP conference, January 2013. Invited keynote speech.

Kassens-Noor, E. Planning Against Hazards for a Resilient and Sustainable Community Through Adaptive Transportation Systems white paper presented at the 2011 DHS Science Conference - Fifth Annual DHS Network Summit. Washington DC, USA, March 30-April1, 2011. Invited panelist.

Kassens, E. “Transport Planning for Mega-Events: Practices of the Past“ paper presented at the Cities for Mobility Conference. Stuttgart, Germany. June 10-13, 2007. Invited speaker.


Conference Presentations

Kassens-Noor, E. Planning for participatory mega-events Presentation at APA 2018 National Planning Conference New Orleans, USA April 21–24, 2018
  • Speaker in panel: JAPA Research that matters

Kassens-Noor, E., Transportation policy in the making under an Olympically driven development proposal. Presentation at the Urban Affairs Association. Toronto CA, April 4-7, 2018
  • Panel Organizer: Mega-event planning

 Wilson M. and Kassens-Noor, EScary Robots, Craziness and Cool: Public Perceptions of Autonomous Vehicles. Presentation at the International Geographical Union. Quebec City CA, April 4-7, 2018

Blythe J, M Wilson, and E Kassens-Noor. Germany’s Post-Reunification Mega-Events: Planners’ Intentions vs. Residents’ Perceptions. Presentation at Association of American Geographers. New Orleans, April 10-14, 2018

Kassens-Noor, E., J. Vertalka, and M. Wilson. Olympic tweeters: using big data to track global perceptions about the Games. Presentation at Association of American Geographers. Boston MA, April 5-9, 2017

Sessions Co-organizer: Mega-event planning: the contested spaces of the Olympics, World Cup and World’s Fairs

Kassens-Noor, E.  Flip, move, tweet: a blended course design for different learning environments in urban planning, sustainability, and climate change university courses, presentation at ACSP. Portland OR, Nov.  3- 6, 2016

Kassens-Noor, E. and P. Kayal. India's new globalization strategy and its consequences for urban development: the impact of the 2010 Commonwealth Games on Delhi's transport system. paper presented at the Association of American Geographers. Chicago, April 21-25, 2015

Sessions Co-organizer: Big projects, mega complexity, gigantic impacts: mega-events 

 Kassens-Noor, E. Panelist in Panel discussion: Mega-projects, mega-events: future research agendas at the Association of American Geographers. Chicago, April 21-25, 2015

 Eva Kassens-Noor, E., Gaffney, C., Messina, J., Phillips, E. The prospect of Olympic Transport Legacies: the case of Rio de Janeiro’s BRT system. Paper presented at the Urban Affairs Association. Miami, April 8-11, 2015

Session Moderator: TH11.00.15 The City and Adaption to external factors

Kassens-Noor, E. and J. Ladd. The ethics of mega events presentation at the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning. Philadelphia, Oct  30- Nov 2, 2014

Kassens-Noor, E.  The flipping, moving and tweeting classroom presentation at The Teaching Professor Conference. Boston, May  31- June 2, 2014

Kassens-Noor, E (co-organizer of session). Special Session 6: Mega Event Planning: The Impact of the Olympics and World’s Fairs on their Host Cities. Regional Studies Association European Conference 2014, Izmir, Turkey: Diverse Regions: Building Resilient Communities and Territories

Kassens-Noor, E. “The flipping, moving and tweeting classroom” poster presented at the Lilly Fellowship Symposium 2014

Kassens-Noor, E.. and P. Kayal.  Mega Event & Transportation: Analyzing New Delhi and XIX Commonwealth Games, 2010 paper presented at Global Studies Conference. Delhi, India, Sept 3- 6, 2013

Kassens-Noor, E (co-organizer of conference). Mega Events and their Planning Legacies. Also paper presented at the Mega Event Planning Conference. Seoul, South Korea, July 29- Aug 3, 2013

Kassens-Noor, E.  And C. Gaffney. Mega events producing Mega projects: the 2016 Olympics and Rio’s new BRTs. paper presented at the ENANPUR. Recife, Brazil, May 20- 24, 2013

 Kassens-Noor, E.  Mega Event Utopias paper presented at the Urban Affairs Association. San Francisco, USA, April 3- 6, 2013

Panel Organizer: MEGAEVENTPLANNING: Mega Events and Urban Development

 Kassens-Noor, E., B. Maharaj, S. Müller, L. Huntoon and M. Wilson. The mega event legacy – a framework for urban development types. paper presented at the Association of American Geographers. Los Angeles, USA, April 10-15, 2013

Panel Organizer: Mega Events Planning

 Kassens-Noor, E. MSU series - Salt Water Encounters. How Pacific Islands can adapt and mitigate climate change. February 2, 2013

 Kassens-Noor, E. and P. Brushaber  Michigan's Highspeed rail  presented at the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning Annual Conference. Cincinnati, USA, November 1-4, 2012.

Kassens-Noor, E.  The Transport Legacy of the Olympic Games. 32nd International Geographical Congress. Cologne, Germany, August 26-30, 2012.
Session Co-chair: "Mega events, globalization and urban development I"
(UDC 10-01)

Lang, S., P. Crawford, K. Millenbah, E. Kassens-Noor, M. Orth, E. Drake. "Academic Cultures: Differences In Evaluating Teaching Excellence", for the American Society for Horticultural Science 2012 Annual Conference. Miami, USA. July 29-August 4, 2012

 Crawford P., S. Lang, K. Millenbah M. Orth, E. Kassens-Noor, E. Drake. “Evaluating Teaching Excellence across Academic Cultures,” poster presented at the MSU SoTL Symposium 2011

 Vertalka, J and Kassens-Noor, E. “The Resilience of Airports: Adaptation Planning against hazards and for potential disaster recovery” paper presented at the Urban Affairs Association. New Orleans, March 16-19, 2011

 Kassens, E. “The Urban Legacy of the Olympic Games paper presented at the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning Annual Conference. Minnesota, USA, Oct. 7 – 10, 2010

Pre-organized session creator: „Mega Events: Olympics, World Cups and World Fairs“

Kassens, E. “Peak Demands in Transport Systems – an Agenda for Research“ paper presented at the World Conference on Transport Research. Lisbon, Portugal, Jul. 11 – 15, 2010

Session chair: G 6.3  

 Kassens, E. “Changing Cities through Mega Events“ paper presented at the Urban Affairs Association. Honolulu, Hawaii, March. 10 – 13, 2010

Moderator for session: Reassessing Big Projects and Events

 Kassens, E. “Sustaining the Momentum: the Olympics as potential Catalysts for enhancing Urban Transport“ paper presented at the Transport Research Board Conference. Washington D.C., USA, Jan. 10 – 14, 2010

 Kassens, E. “Sustaining the Momentum: the Olympics as potential Catalysts for enhancing Urban Transport“ paper presented at the Sport Mega-events and their Legacies Conference. Capetown, South Africa, Dec. 2 – 4, 2009

 Kassens, E, “Lesson’s learned from transportation planning for the Olympics – are the innovative short-term measures applicable to metropolitan transport systems?paper presented at the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning Annual Conference. Crystal City, Sept. 30 – Oct. 4, 2009

 Kassens, E, “Sustaining the momentumpaper presented at the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning Annual Conference. Chicago. July 8 - 11, 2008

 Kassens, E, “Transportation Planning for Sustainable Urban Transport Development

through Mega-Eventspaper presented at the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning Annual Conference. Milwaukee. October 17-21, 2007

Kassens, E, “Athens Olympic Transport Modelling” paper presented at The First Transportation Engineering Research Symposium (MAITE), March 2005