Native Trees for Urban Spaces

Native Trees for Urban Spaces;
 
 

Native Trees for Urban spaces.:
I would like to introduce myself as a new member to this group.
I stay in Bangalore.
My group of friends are researching native forest trees around Bangalore and studying their interdependance on Birds, Butterflies, Bees, Insects and small Mammals.
We are in an effort to propogate these species by planting them in all kinds of urban spaces e.g
Trees for planting under overhead electric wires.
Trees for woodlots, parks.
Trees that attract Birds, Butterflies etc.
 
We find that these trees are most suitable for the amount of rainfall we receive, soil conditions, sunlight received, air moisture levels etc.
This kind of a model project can be researched and executed in any city or town all over the world.
Am attaching a rough draft of our project with ATREE, Bangalore.
We combed all forest areas around Bangalore, studied interdepandance and arrived at the tabulations.

Introduction& Objectives

Forests are living communities in which no single species whether floral or faunal, can be viewed in isolation. Each entity is linked to the other, either directly or indirectly, in a complex web.

The relationship between birds, butterflies, honey bees and other insects with trees and shrubs is one of very close interdependence. Natural forests, with their multi-tiered vegetation, have always been the ideal home for a large variety of birds, insects and other fauna. The many different forest types in India’s varied geo-climatic zones have provided ecological niches for forest-dwelling avifauna for feeding, roosting, nesting and cover. Birds, butterflies, honey bees and other insects in turn perform the multiple services of pollination, seed dispersal, biological control and soil enrichment, all of which, are essential for the health of an ecosystem. Perhaps, two of the important roles of forest birds are pollination and seed (fruit) dispersal of forest tree species. Insects too play their role in the propagation of trees and plants by pollination. An effective forest regeneration would involve understanding the inter dependence between flora and fauna.

According to a recent study made by Harini Nagendra and Divya Gopal, in a place like Bangalore, an overwhelming majority (Almost 77%) of trees within the urban limits is dominated by exotics like Copper Pod (Peltophorum pterocarpum), Indian Cork Tree (Millingtonia hortensis), African Tulip (Spathodea campanulata) etc. These species do not support fauna and avifauna as much as the native trees and leads to limited biodiversity in an urban scenario.

In this context, a study was made to understand the dependency of forests around Bangalore on avifauna and insects for pollination and seed dispersal. These forests are home to rich and diverse flora and fauna. As these forests are not very far from Bangalore and historically the vegetation of Bangalore was probably more or less similar to the ones in the study area.

Information gathered from this study can be used to select candidate trees or shrubs that are amenable for planting in urban situations to enhance local biodiversity. These candidate species can further be subjected for an analysis of their suitability for planting on roadsides, under power lines, public parks, gardens, around houses, botanical gardens, arboretums, farmlands, forest peripheries,afforestation programs etc. This suitability analysis will also take into consideration the urban conditions, space available, aesthetics, canopy spread, growth pattern, etc. This exercise will hopefully go a long way in replacing exotic trees or bushes that are currently being planted widely in an urban situation. It is expected that growing native trees with known faunal inter-dependence would contribute towards enhancing biodiversity.

Study Site:

These forest areas have been selected for this study as geographically they are not very far from Bangalore and historically the vegetation of Bangalore was probably more or less similar to the ones in the study area.

1. Melagiri(Hosur forest division

2.Banneraghatta national park.

3.Kaveri wildlife sanctuary.

4.Savanadurga state forest.

5.Ramanagara hills.

6.Devarayanadurga state forest.

7.Bangalore university(last remaining native forest in our city)

 

Ø Habitat photographs

Photographs of trees in flowering and fruiting

List of Trees lost during heavy rains or during monsoons

List of Trees damaged/uprooted during heavy rains in Bangalore

Period: 2007 to present; Area: Rajajinagar, Bangalore

MATERIALS AND METHODS

v Trees and shrubs survey conducted along transect routes.

v 2Km routes were selected with 15m belt on either-side

v All trees within the transect area identified

v Details on phenology

v Species were categorized based on their ecological value

ü Faunal dependence recorded

ü Aesthetic value

v Suitability of these trees for Urban situation evaluated

Results and Discussions:

Table 1. Trees for Highway planting –National & State

Species

Value

Visitors*

Shorea roxburghii

Nectar, Dust & Pollution Control

I,B

Butea monosperma

Nectar, Dust & Pollution Control

I,B,M

Syzigium cumini

Nectar, Fruits

I,B,M

Terminalia arjuna

Nectar

I

Pterocarpus marsupium

Nectar

I

Holoptelia integrifolia

Fruits, Dust & Pollution control

I,B

Albizia lebbeck

Dust & Pollution control

I

Tamarindus indica

Nectar, Fruits

I,B,M

Terminalia bellirica

Nectar

I,M

Givotia rottleriformis

Dust & Pollution Control

I,B

Gyrocarpus americanus

Dust & Pollution Control

I

Ailanthus excels

Dust & Pollution Control

I

Melia dubia

Nectar,Fruits, Dust & Pollution Control

IBM

 

* I – Insects, B – Birds, M - Mammals

 

Justification

Pollution control

Shade giving/air cooling

Tall trees

Good canopy spread

Absorbtion of solar radiation / vehicular glare

Table 2. Trees for planting on narrow roads– 20 - 30 ft

Species

Value

Visitors*

Buchanania lanzan

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Holarrhena antidysentrica

Nectar

I,B

Premna tomentosa

Nectar,Fruits

I,B

Bauhinia tomentosa

Nectar

I,B

Cochlospermum religiosum

Nectar

I,B

Gardenia latifolia

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Gardenia gummifera

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Lagerstroemia parviflora

Nectar

I,B

Memecylon umbellatum

Nectar,Fruits

I,B

Grewia spp.

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Morinda pubescens

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Tarenna asiatica

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Cipadessa baccifera

Fruits

B,M

Breynia vitis-ideae

Fruits

B,M

Cordia myxa

Fruits

B,M

Erythrina suberosa

Nectar

I,B

Mundulea sericea

Nectar

I,B

Wrightia tinctoria

Nectar

I,B

Ixora pavetta

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Dalbergia paniculata

Nectar

I,B

Capparis sepiaria

Nectar

I,B

Alangium salvifolium

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Carissa carandas

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

 
Justification:

Narrow bole

Non buttressing

Low height

Aesthetically pleasing

Non spreading canopies

 

Table 3. Trees for planting on medium width roads – 40 - 60 ft plus

Species

Value

Visitors*

Gmelina arborea

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Albizia odoratissima

Nectar

I,B

Soymida febrifuga

Butea monosperma

Nectar

I,B

Vitex altissima

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Vitex pubescens

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Bridelia retusa

Fruits

B,M

Diospyros melanoxylon

Fruits

B,M

Canthium diccocum

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Phoenix sylvestris

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Anogeissus latifolia

Fruits

I

Ficus microcarpa

Fruits

I,B,M

Pongamia pinnata

Nectar

I,B

Terminalia chebula

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Lagerstroemia microcarpa

Nectar

I,B

Madhuca indica

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Terminalia paniculata

Nectar,Fruits

I,B

Chloroxylon swietenia

Nectar

I,B

Dolichandrone atrovirens

Nectar

I,B

Dolichandrone falcata

Nectar

I,B

 
Justification:

Moderately tall

Medium sized bole

Medium sized canopy

Table 4. Trees for planting in Gardens and public parks

Species

Value

Visitors*

Gmelina arborea

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Butea monosperma

Nectar

I,B,M

Buchanania lanzan

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Vitex altissima

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Vitex pubescens

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Holarrhena antidysentrica

Nectar

I,B

Bridelia retusa

Fruits

B,M

Diospyros melanoxylon

Fruits

B,M

Ixora pavetta

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Strychnos potatorum

Fruits

I,B

Syzigium cumini

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Canthium diccocum

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Phoenix sylvestris

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Anogeissus latifolia

I

Premna tomentosa

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Bauhinia tomentosa

Nectar

I,B

Terminalia arjuna

Nectar

I,B

Ficus microcarpa

Fruits

I,B,M

Cochlospermum religiosum

Nectar

I,B

Gardenia latifolia

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Gardenia gummifera

Nectar,Fruits

I,B,M

Mitragyna parviflora(very imp. For Butterflies)

Justification:

Aesthetically pleasing

Shade giving

Ornamental leaves and canopies

Fragrant flowers

Flowering for about 8 months a year in a phased manner.

Support butterflies and bird

 

Table 6. Heritage, long living and trees for gunduthopus

What are heritage trees – Long living trees and biologically important.

Ficus benghalensis

Ficus mysorensis. Syn. Ficus drupaceae

Ficus religiosa

Ficus racemosa. Syn Ficus glomerata

Ficus amplissima. Bilibasri

Ficus tsjahela. Karibasri

Madhuca longifolia

Syzigium cumini. Naati or Naayinerle variety

Mangifera indica. Wild mango. Kulimaavu

Azadirachta indica

  Revive the concept of gunduthopus

Ready germplasm of rare species

Inculcate a love for nature amongst the people

Provide a gathering space for local communities to celebrate festivals,fairs and marketing agriproduce(Santhe)

Table 7. Trees for general public

Buchanania lanzan

Tasty,fleshy fruits,edible seeds

Bridelia retusa

Tasty,fleshy fruits

Diospyros melanoxylon

Tasty,fleshy fruits

Syzigium cumini

Tasty,fleshy fruits

Phoenix sylvestris

Edible fruits

Gardenia gummifera

Tasty,fleshy fruits

Pongamia pinnata

Shade giving,air cooling

Madhuca indica

Tasty,fleshy fruits, oilseeds

Grewia spp.

Tasty,fleshy fruits

Acacia leucophloea

Bark used to distill liquor

Albizia amara

Leaves used as shampoo

Hardwickia binate

Rope and timber and charcoal

Acacia conchinnia

Fruits for Shampoo

Limonia acidissima

Edible fruits

Holoptelia integrifolia

Edible seeds

Tamarindus indica

Fruits sold commercially

Phyllanthus emblica

Edible fruits

Ziziphus mauritiana

Edible fruits

Butea monosperma-.

leaves for plates

Cordia myxa

Edible fruits

Madhuca longifolia

Edible fruits, oilseeds

Catunaregam spinosa / Randia spinosa-

Fruits Used as soap

Ailanthus excels

Timber value

Melia dubia

Timber value

Sapindus emarginatus

Fruits used as shampoo

 

Table 8. Bee flora for Gardens and woodlots

Species

Flower Size

Nectar Availability

Gmelina arborea

M

M

Shorea roxburghii

S

M

Butea monosperma

M

M

Buchanania lanzan

S

M

Holarrhena antidysentrica

S

M

Ixora pavetta

S

M

Cochlospermum religiosum

LA

LO

Gardenia latifolia

LA

LO

Gardenia gummifera

M

LO

Pterocarpus marsupium

S

M

Lagerstroemia parviflora

S

LO

Lagerstroemia microcarpa

S

LO

Madhuca indica

S

LO

Grewia spp.

M

H

Chloroxylon swietenia

S

M

Dolichandrone atrovirens

S

H

Dolichandrone falcata

M

M

 

* LO – Low, M – Medium, S – Small, H - High

Table 9. Trees with hollows for cavity nesting birds

Species

Age of trees (years)

Cavity nesters recorded

Ficus benghalensis

>30

Spotted owlet, Mynas, Parakeet, Roller

Ficus mysorensis

>40

Spotted owlet, Mynas, Parakeet, Roller

Ficus religiosa

>30

Spotted owlet, Mynas, Parakeet,

Syzigium cumini

>40

Mynas, Parakeet,

Ficus racemosa

>25

Mynas, Parakeet,

Bombax ceiba

>20

Spotted owlet, Mynas, Parakeet,

Pterocarpus marsupium

>35

Spotted owlet, Mynas, Parakeet,

Madhuca longifolia

>40

Spotted owlet, Mynas, Parakeet,

Mangifera indica

>40

Spotted owlet, Mynas, Parakeet,

Albizia lebbeck

>25

Mynas, Parakeet

Albizia odoratissima

>25

Mynas, Parakeet

 

Table 10. Trees that sustain nectar feeders

Species

Flower type

Nectar quantity

Gmelina arborea

M

M

Albizia odoratissima

S

LO

Butea monosperma

M

M

Vitex altissima

S

LO

Vitex pubescens

S

LO

Holarrhena antidysentrica

S

M

Ixora pavetta

S

M

Syzigium cumini

S

M

Pongamia pinnata

S

M

Pterocarpus marsupium

S

M

Buchanania lanzan

S

LO

Careya arborea

M

M

Lagerstroemia parviflora

S

LO

Lagerstroemia microcarpa

S

LO

Madhuca indica

M

H

Memecylon umbellatum

S

LO

Grewia spp.

S

M

Chloroxylon swietenia

S

M

Dolichandrone atrovirens

M

H

Dolichandrone falcate

M

H

Acacia leucophloea

S

LO

Albizia amara

S

LO

Morinda pubescens

S

LO

Cassia fistula

S

LO

 

Table 11.

Trees for Lake shore planting

Species

Value

Purpose

Strychnos potatorum

Purifies water

Along margins

Syzigium cumini

Fruits for birds

Island planting

Terminalia arjuna

Foreshore planting

Pongamia pinnata

Flowers for insects

Island planting for heronries

Dendrocalamus strictus

Hide for birds

Island planting for heronries

Mitragyna parviflora

Butterfly attracting flowers

Island planting for heronries

Ficus racemosa

Fruits for birds

Along margins

Breynia vitis-ideae

Fruits for birds

Along margins

Acacia planifrons

Flat-topped canopy

Island planting for heronries

Barringtonia acutangula

Withstands submergence

Foreshore planting

 

Table 12. Trees that have never been planted in cities

Albizia odoratissima

Pterocarpus marsupium

Tarenna asiatica

Shorea roxburghii

Terminalia chebula

Mitragyna parviflora

Butea monosperma

Buchanania lanzan

Cassine glauca

Buchanania lanzan

Careya arborea

Diospyros melanoxylon

Vitex altissima

Lagerstroemia parviflora

Ziziphus mauritiana

Vitex pubescens

Lagerstroemia microcarpa

Cipadessa baccifera

Holarrhena antidysentrica

Madhuca indica

Terminalia bellirica

Bridelia retusa

Memecylon umbellatum

Givotia rottleriformis

Diospyros melanoxylon

Grewia spp.

Breynia vitis-ideae

Ixora pavetta

Terminalia paniculata

Cordia myxa

Strychnos potatorum

Chloroxylon swietenia

Erythrina suberosa

Canthium diccocum

Dolichandrone atrovirens

Mundulea sericea

Maytenus senegalensis

Acacia leucophloea

Wrightia tinctoria

Anogeissus latifolia

Albizia amara

Catunaregam spinosa / Randia spinosa.

Premna tomentosa

Sterculia urens

Ixora pavetta

Bauhinia tomentosa

Morinda pubescens

Dalbergia paniculata

Cochlospermum religiosum

Hardwickia binata

Gyrocarpus americanus

Gardenia latifolia

Acacia conchinnia

Acacia planifrons

Gardenia gummifera

Vitex altissima

Capparis sepiaria

Alangium salvifolium

 

Urban Plantations – Current Scenario in Bangalore

 

Of late it has been observed that the focus is on planting only a few species in and around Bangalore, that too, most of these species are exotics like Tabebuia rosea, Mahogany,Markhamia etc Most of them are ornamental or with timber value.

These species hardly have any value in terms of supporting bio diversity and are not ideally suited for our Latitude,Altitude, Soil,Temperature,Rainfall,Moisture levels,Sunlight etc

The long term effects of planting such trees also needs to be studied.

These trees are also being planted in all available spaces giving an opportunity for these species to dominate the landscape, at the cost of endemic trees and other flora.

Species selection for raising saplings in forest nurseries are not planned and all seeds are generally collected from a single tree rendering a poor genetic makeup.Rules for scientific seeds collection are not followed, which may render these trees vulnerable to epidemic diseases.

References

Forest Trees of South India – Neginhal S.G

Golden Trees,Greenspaces and Urban Forestry – Neginhal.S.G

Research papers – Dr S.Subramanya.

Acknowledgements

ATREE,Bangalore.

Karnataka Forest Department.

Tamilnadu Forest Department.

Dr. S. Subramanya, GKVK

Sheshadri Ramaswamy.


I can say d same thing abt Urban Pune dat most of trees around r exotics like Rain tree ( Samanea saman ),Eucalyptus species, CopperPod (Peltophorum pterocarpum), Indian Cork Tree (Millingtonia hortensis), African Tulip(Spathodea campanulata) etc. And also, these r d only ones getting more n more planted too . As these exotics r covering most green spaces der goes our birds n insects.

I wish to start same project at Pune.


About your Native Trees project at Pune.

 
I think some trees have started flowering in Pune.
Seeding may start from Jan to May.
Pl make checklists of trees around.I think they may be similar to ones at Mangalore,Udupi etc.
One of my friend wants to make saplings at Mangalore.
When you start collecting seeds, pl let us know.....we can share seeds, exchange info on germination processes, raising etc.
We work with the local forest dept. nursery and later collect saplings from them at the govt. price.
May be you could try the same as these nurserymen are experienced and are paid for the job.
Recently at Mangalore on Nov 28th, we saw Callicarpa tomentosa(flowering), Vitex altissima, Bridelia retusa(fruiting) etc in the Kadri hills,in the middle of the city.

thanks a lot, very interesting work my students and i are compiling a list of plants in mumbai which are effective dust capturers, these include both native and ornamental Also plants which absorb sound or noise is being experimented in control conditions hope to share this with you all soon 

 

Native Trees for Urban spaces - Bangalore.: I am attaching a more readable format of our project.


 
 
 
 
 
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