Conclusion

Of the studies assembled on this website, most are clearly indicative of an increase in student academic performance when the flipped classroom model is utilised (Missildine et al. 2012; Pierce and Fox 2012; Wiginton 2013). 


Regarding student satisfaction, the studies as a whole presented contentious findings. Missildine et al. (2012) demonstrated a decreased level of satisfaction with the flipped classroom method when comparing it to traditional classroom methods. Strayer (2012) noted that students became more open to cooperative learning and innovative teaching methods when engaged with the flipped classroom paradigm but also reported that students were largely dissatisfied with the flipped method when comparing it to a traditional one. Wiginton (2013) determined that students were equally happy with flipped environments and traditional ones, whilst Pierce and Fox (2012) produced data indicating clear student preference for the flipped model.  It appears that findings regarding student satisfaction are inconclusive.


An observation to be made is that there is a dearth of published data pertaining to the flipped classroom and its implementation in primary and high schools. More data is available regarding the flipped classroom and its implementation pertaining to a university setting. More research needs to be conducted in primary school and high school settings. Further to this, published qualitative data regarding the flipped classroom and its implementation is also remarkably difficult to come by. This is also an area for needed future research.


An interesting finding is that it seems to not be the use of screen casts that makes students prefer, or not prefer the flipped classroom. Rather, what is evident from the literature, is that it is how the face-to-face time between teacher and student is spent that determines whether the students prefer the flipped model when comparing it to the traditional one (Pierce and Fox 2012 p, 3; Missildine et al. 2014.). Students in the Pierce and Fox study (2012) reported a clear preference for the flipped model. Students in this study operated under a process orientated guided enquiry learning activity during the face-to-face classroom time (Pierce and Fox 2012 p, 3). It is highly likely that it was the effective implementation of this engaging enquiry learning activity, running alongside the use of instructional screen casts, which led to increased student satisfaction for the flipped model in this case.


Tamim et al. (2011) makes a similar observation, suggesting it is how the technologies are used alongside pedagogic strategies that makes the difference, and not the technology itself.


One further observation is that despite the students finding it harder to operate in the flipped classroom (Missildine et al. 2014.), all studies that measured exam results reported increased scores. This leads one to postulate that a reason the students are scoring higher on testing is because they are actually working harder, which may not be a concern.


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