Bluesheets‎ > ‎

The Roman Question

In 1860, central Italy was unified forming the United Provinces of Central Italy. At this time the Kingdom of Sardinia encompassed most of Northern and Central Italy. Savoy and Nice were annexed by Napoleon III. After the Latern Treaty, Italy existed as four states: The Papal States, The Kingdom of Two Sicilies, The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, and the Austrians in Venetia. The Papal States are also knows as The Holy See. Later in 1861, an Italian nationalist proclaimed that he would lead an army, march on Rome, and declare Rome as the capital of The Kingdom of Italy. The Pope sent money and calls for aid to France because the church feared losing its territory in central Italy. By the end of 1861, Italy had all become unified thanks to a lot of fighting and some snazzy diplomatic work by a Bavarian Duchess. The only city that still remained apart from the Kingdom of Italy was Rome. Rome was still owned by the Church and the Holy See.

The Roman Question was born. If Italy were to take aggressive action against the Vatican, Catholics around the world would be enraged. If they sat and failed to act, the Italian people were angered. There was a stale mate for some time. One of the Italian kings was able to negotiate the removal of French troops from the Holy See.

Wars in the international front distracted from issues with regards to Italian unification for some long time. With the onset of the Franco-Prussian war, Italy marched on Rome and captured the city. While the pope was offered Leoine city as a consolation to Rome, the pope rejected the offer and declared himself a “prisoner in the Vatican.”

A series of actions took place citing irredentism. Italian unification continued and Italian living abroad came home to live within the borders of The Kingdom of Italy, however, the Pope and the Catholic church have still not made peace with the king and the Roman Question is still at a standoff between the King and the Pope.