The first 1600 time steps of a standard run of EcoSim. The food for prey is uniformly distributed. The prey are in multiple colors depending on their species and the predator are in white.
Evolution of the genomes in a species
Each cell (which correspond also to a gene) in the video represents one link between two concepts of the average FCM of a species. For example, one such cell represents how the perception of predators close to a prey affects its fear. The change in color represents the evolution of this level of influence during time. The colors from green to yellow correspond to a decrease influence and the colors from blue to red correspond to an increase (see the scale below). It is interesting to observe that several cells seem to 'pulse' simultaneously showing some functional dependencies between the genes.
Here is a view of the whole evolution during about 3000 time steps of the genomes of a species in EcoSim. The x-axe is for the time and each line correspond to one gene. The same scale of colors has been used as for the video. Several brutal changes can be seen that correspond to speciation events.
It is also possible to compare the evolution of the genomes of two sister species. For example, the species 1561 is a direct ancestor of 1707. The image on the left shows the difference over time between every genes of these 2 species. The image in the middle shows the evolution of the genes of species 1561 and the image at the right shows the evolution of the genes of the species 1707. Each line represent one gene, which means the level of influence between two concepts of the FCM used to code for the behavioral model. It can be seen that the loss of the "Nuisance -> Search Food" edge was a major contributor to the speciation event that created 1707. Species 1561 did not last much longer, as it mainly contained individuals that lost that edge. Species 1707, however, mainly retained that edge and was very successful (it lasted over 3000 generations). Further, it is visible that near the extinction of 1561, the last individuals to live were, in fact, individuals who had retained the aforementioned edge.
Study of the effect of non uniform distribution of grass. In this video, the grass is distributed in concentric circles. The patterns of distribution of prey follow the distribution of grass. For all of these simulations, the artificial isolation mechanism due to the food distribution leads to an important increase in number of coexisting species.
The first 1500 time steps of a run with a 'star' distribution of grass. Here the restriction of movement for the prey due to the distribution of food is too strong and they can not escape the predators enough to survive.
The first 1500 time steps of a run with a distribution of grass in isolated islands. Even if the population stay mostly isolated we can observe from time to time, due to predation pressure, that some individuals cross the gaps between the islands.
We study here the effect of adding numerous small random obstacles in the world. The obstacles reduce the possibility of movement and perception for the individuals. It leads to a decrease in gene flow among the population and a important and direct increase in the number of species emerging. The video present the first 1500 time steps. The obstacles are in blue.