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A collection of relevant texts for the clarification purposes of the project are offered here as a bibliographic guide. They are classified in three main groups: 1) critical reviews; 2) classical works; 3) current points of view. Types 2 and 3 are also thematically assorted.

This bibliographic review is not intended to be either exhaustive or definitive. Any comment, critic, suggestion concerning categorisation of the proposed texts or even some removal will be very welcomed. We encourage members to make their suggestions. To such purpose, they can use the comment area at the bottom of this page, or if prefered contacting project coordinators.

Critical reviews

Capurro, R. (1978). Information. Ein Beitrag zur etymologischen und ideengeschichtlichen Begründung des Informationsbegriffs [Information: A contribution to the foundation of the concept of information based on its etymology and in the history of ideas]. Munich: Saur.

Capurro, R. & Hjørland, B. (2003). The Concept of Information. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, Ed. B. Cronin, 37(8), 343-411. [Draft version available online] < > [Accessed: 12/11/2009].

Floridi, L. (2010). Information: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Floridi, L. (2011). The philosphy of Information. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Janich, Peter (2006). Was ist Information? Kritik einer Legende [What is information? Critic of a legend]. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.

Lyre, Holger (2002). Informationstheorie. Eine philosophisch-naturwissenschaftliche Einführung. [Information theory. A philosophical and scientific introduction] München:  Wilhelm Fink.

Segal, J. (2003). Le Zéro et le Un. Histoire de la notion scientifique d'information [Zero and One. History of the scientific notion of information]. Paris: Syllepse.

Classical texts

Mathematical Theory of Information

Shannon, C. E. (1948). A Mathematical Theory of Communication. The Bell System Technical Journal27, 379–423, 623–656.

Shannon, C. & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana: The University of Illinois Press.

Kotelnikov, V.A. (1959). The Theory of Optimum Noise Immunity. Russia 1956, USA: McGraw Hill.


Wiener, N. (1948). Cybernetics : Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ashby, W. Ross (1956). An introduction to cybernetics. London: Chapman & Hall.

Beer, S. (1959). Cybernetics and Management. London: English Universities Press.

Bateson, G. (1979). Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity (Advances in Systems Theory, Complexity, and the Human Sciences). New Jersey: Hampton Press.

Maturana, H.R. & Varela, F.J. (1980). Autopoiesis and congnition: the realization of the living. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reídle.

Foerster, H. von (1981). Observing systems. Seaside, CA: Intersystems Publications.

Algorithmic Information Theory

Solomonoff, R. J. (1960). A Preliminary Report on a General Theory of Inductive Inference. Report V-131, Zator Co., Cambridge, Ma. Feb 4, 1960.

Solomonoff, R. J. (1964). A formal theory of inductive inference. Inf. Control(7), 1-22 (I part), 224-254 (II part).

Kolmogorov, A. N. (1965). Three approaches to the quantitative definition of ‘information'. Problems of Information Transmission1(1), 3-11.

Chaitin, G. J. (1966). On the length of programs for computing finite binary sequences. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery13, 547-569.

Vitányi, P. (2006). Meaningful Information. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 52(10), 4617-4626.

Information Semantics

Morris, C.W.  (1938). Foundations of the theory of signs. Chicago: International Encyclopaedia of Unified Science.

Bar-Hillel, Y. & Carnap, R. (1953). Semantic information. British Journal of Science4, 147-157.

Dretske, F.I. (1981), Knowledge and the flow of information. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Barwise, J., Perry, J. (1983). Situations and Attitudes. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Zadeh, L.A. (1986). Test-Score Semantics and a Basis for a Computational Approach to the Representation of Meaning. Literacy and Linguistic Computing, 1(1), 24-35.

Barwise, J., Seligman, J. (1997). Information Flows: The Logic of Distributed Systems. Cambridge, RU: Cambridge University Press.

Information Physics and Measurement theory

Smoluchowsky, M. von (1912). Experimentell nachweisbare, der üblichen Thermodinamik widersprechende Molekularphänomene. Annalen der Physik, 33, 1559-1570.

Szilárd, L. (1929). Über die Entropie Verminderung in einem therodynamische System bei Eingriffen intelligemter Wesen. Zeitschrift für Physik, 53, 840-856.

Lewis, G.N. (1930). The symmetry of time in Physics. Science, 71, 569-576.

Neumann, J. Von (1932). Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik. Berlin: Springer.

Fischer, R.A. (1935). The design of experiments. Edindurg: Oliver & Boyd.

Brillouin, Leon (1953). The negentropy principle of information. Journal of Applied Physics24, 1152-1163.

Brillouin, Leon (1956). Science and Information Theory. New York: Academic Press.

Weizsäcker, C.F. von. (1974). Die Einheit der Natur. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.

Weizsäcker, C.F. von. (1985). Aufbau der Physik. Munich: Hanser.


Schrödinger, E. (1944). What is life? The physical aspect of the living cell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Weizsäcker, C.F. von. (1974). Die Einheit der Natur. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.

Information Sociology

Habermas, Jürgen (1970). "Technology and Science as Ideology". in Toward a Rational Society. J. Shapiro (trans.). Boston: Beacon Press.

Eco, U. (1973). Social Life as Sign System. In D. Robey (ed.). Structuralism, an Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

MacBride, S. (Dir.) (1980). Communication and Society Today and TomorrowMany Voices, One World: Towards a New, More Just, and More Efficient World Information and Communication Order Paris: UNESCO. International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems.

Habermas, Jürgen (1981). Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.

Machlup, F.; Mansfield, U. (Eds.) (1983). The Study of Information. Interdisciplinary Messages. New York: Wiley.

Luhmann, N. (1987). Soziale SystemeFrankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.

Luhmann, N. (1989). Essays on self-reference. New York, Columbia University Press.

Information Aesthetics

Bense, M. (1969). Einführung in die informationstheoretische ÄesthetikHamburg: Rowohlt.

Moles, A. (1972). Théorie de l’information et perception esthétique. Paris: Denoël.

Library and Information Science

Griffith, B. C. (Ed.) (1980). Key papers in information science. New York: Knowledge Industry Publications.

Current Points of View

Logic, Semantic and Information Philosophy

Benthem, J. van (2003). Logic and the Dynamics of Information. Minds and Machines, 13(4), 503–519.

Benthem, J. van (2008). Tell It Like It Is: Information Flow in Logic. Journal of Peking University (Humanities and Social Science Edition) 1, 80 – 90.

Capurro, Rafael (2008). Digital Hermeneutics: An Outline. in: Elizabeth Buchanan and Carolyn Hansen (eds.). Proceedings. Thinking Critically: Alternative Methods and Perspectives in Library and Information Studies. CIPR, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, p. 190–220.

Chmielecki, A. (1998). What is information? The Paideia Archive, Philosophy and Cognitive Science, 20th. World Congress of Philosophy, Boston, USA [online] <> [Accessed: 12/11/2009].

Floridi, L. (2004). Outline of a theory of strongly semantic information. Minds and Machines14(2), 197-221.

Floridi, L.  (2005a). Information. in Mitcham, C. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Science, Technology and Ethics, Macmillan Reference.

Floridi, L.  (2005b). Is Semantic Information Meaningful Data? in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research70(2), 351-370.

Floridi, L.  (2005c). Semantic Conceptions of Information. In E. N. Zahlta (ed.) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philisophy. Stanford: The Metaphysics Research Lab [online] <> [accessed: 12/11/09]

Floridi, L.  (2005d). Consciousness, Agents and the Knowledge Game. Minds and Machines15(3-4), 415-444.

Floridi, L.  (2010). The philosophy of information. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

Israel, D. & Perry, J. (1990a), What is information?. In P. Hanson (Ed.), Information, language and cognition. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press, pp. 1-19.

Israel, D. & Perry, J.   (1990b). Information and architecture. In J. BARWISE, et al. (Eds.), Situation theory and its applications, Stanford, CA: Stanford University-CSLI, pp. 147-160.

Janich, P. (1998). Informationsbegriff und methodisch-kulturalistische Philosophie. Ethik und Sozialwissenschaften, 2, 169-182.

Pérez-Montoro, Mario (2007). The Phenomenon of Information. A Conceptual Approach to Information Flow. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press.

Algorithmic Information Theory

Chaitin, G. J.  (1982a). Algorithmic Information Theory. In Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences, Vol. 1, New York: Wiley, 38-41.

Chaitin, G. J.  (1982b). Gödel’s theorem and information. International Journal of Theoretical Physics22, 941-954.

Calude, C. S. (1995). Information and randomness: an algorithmic perspective, Springer.

Mathematical Approaches to Information

Burgin, Mark (2003). Information Theory: a Multifaceted Model of Information. Enthropy, 5, 146-160.

Burgin, Mark (2005). Is Information Some Kind of Data? In Proceedings FIS2005, MDPI, Retrived in 12/09/2010 from:

Burgin, Mark (2010). Theory of Information: Fundamentality, Diversity and Unification. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.

Flückiger, F. (2005). Mathematical Foundation of Information Theory. A Set Theoretical Approach. In Michel Petitjean (ed.) Proceedings of FIS2005, The Third Conference on the Foundations of Information Science.

Leyton, Michael (1992). Symmetry, Causality, Mind. MIT Press.

Leyton, Michael (2001). A Generative Theory of Shape. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.


Alvarado Ballester, R. (2000). Comunicación, Información, Evolución Biológica, Madrid: Instituto de España.

Gitt, W. (1996), Information, Science and Biology. Technical Journal10(2), 181-187.

Rüting, T. (2004). Jakob von Uexküll — theoretical biology, biocybernetics and biosemiotics. European Communications in Mathematical and Theoretical Biology6, 11-16.

Cybernetics and System theory

Günther, G. (1963). Das Bewußtsein der Maschinen. Eine Metaphysik der Kybernetik. Krefeld/Baden-Baden, Germany: Agis Verlag.

Haken,  H. (2000). Information and Self-Organization. A Macroscopic Approach to Complex Systems (2nd edition). Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Physics of the Information

Bekenstein, J. D. (2003). Information in the Holographic Universe. in Scientific American289(2), 58-65.

Green, H. (2000). Information Theory and Quantum Physics: Physical Foundations for Understanding the Conscious Process. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Lyre, H. (1998). Quantentheorie der Information. Zur Naturphilosophie der Theorie der Ur-Alternativen und einer abstrakten Theorie der Information. Viena: Springer.

Mähler, G. (1996). Quantum Information. In Kornwachs, K. & Jacoby, K. (Eds.). Information. New questions to a multidisciplinary concept. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, pp. 103-118.

Information Sociology

Brown, J. S. and Duguin, P. (2000). The Social Life of Information. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.

Castells, M. (1996-1998). The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. (3 volumes). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Fuchs, C. (2008). Internet and Society. Social Theory in the Information Age. New York: Routledge.

Fuchs, C. (2011). Foundations of Critical Media and Information Studies. New York: Routledge.

Karpatschof, B. (2007). Human activity. Contributions to the anthropological sciences from a perspective of activity theory. Lund, Sweden: [online] <> [accessed: 12/11/09].

Mattelart, A. (2006). Histoire de la société de l'informationParis: La Decouverte.


Chomsky, N. (1986). Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origins and Use. Praeger Paperback.

Weizsäcker, Karl (1959). "Sprache als Information" [Lenguaje como información] en: Die Sprache [El lenguaje], 5º número del anuario Gestalt und Gedanke, Munich, pp. 45-76.

Wilson. D. & Sperber, D. (1993). Linguistic form and relevance. Lingua, 90, 1–25.

Science of Information and unifying approaches

Brier, Søren (2008). Cybersemiotics: why information is not enough. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Burgin, Mark (2010). Theory of Information: Fundamentality, Diversity and Unification. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.

Conrad, M., Schwartz, A.W. (Eds.) (1998). Special issue: Foundations of Information Science. The quest for a Unified Theory of Information. Bio Systems, 46(1,2)

Dodig Crnkovic, Gordana (2009). Information and Computation Nets. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr.Mueller.

Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana (2010). The Cybersemiotics and Info-Computationalist Research Programmes as Platforms for Knowledge Production in Organisms and Machines. Entropy 12, 878-901.

Doucette, D., Bichler, R., Hofkirchner, W., and Raffl, C. (2007). Toward a New Science of Information. Data Science Journal, 6(supplement), 198-205.

Fleissner, P., Hofkirchner, W. (1996). Emergent Information. Towards a unified information theory. BioSystems, 2-3 (38), pp. 243-248.

Fenzl, N. & Hofkirchner, W. (1997). Information Processing in Evolutionary Systems. An Outline Conceptual Framework for a Unified Information Theory. In Schweitzer, F. (Ed.), Self-Organization of Complex Structures: From Individual to Collective Dynamics. London: Gordon and Breach, pp. 59-70.

Hofkirchner, Wolfgang (1997) Evolution of Learning. The Merging of Semiotic and Evolutionary-System Theories. In: A. M. Meystel (Ed.). Proceedings of the 1997 International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Semiotics: A Learning Perspective. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, pp. 248-251

Hofkirchner, Wolfgang (1999a). Towards a Unified Theory of Information. The Merging of Second-Order Cybernetics and Semiotics into a Single and Comprehensive Information Science. In: 15e Congrès International de CybernétiqueNamur 1998, Namur, pp. 175-180

Hofkirchner, Wolfgang (Ed.). (1999b). The quest for a unified theory of information. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Foundations of Information Science. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach.

Hofkirchner, Wolfgang (2008). How to Achieve a Unified Theory of Information. In Díaz Nafría, J. M., Salto Alemany, F. (eds.). ¿Qué es información? León, Spain: Universidad de León.

Hofkirchner, W., Stockinger, G. (2003). Towards a Unified Theory of Information. 404nOtF0und1(3), N. 24. [Online] < [Consulted: 20/07/2009]

Marijuan, P. (Ed.) (1998). The FIS (Foundations of Information Science) Initiative: A Presentation. Cybernetics & Human Knowing, 5(4), 3-5.

Stonier, T. (1991). Towards a new theory of information. Journal of Information Science17 (5), 257-263

Stonier, T. (1999). The Emerging Global Brain. In Hofkirchner, W. (Ed.). The quest for a unified theory of information. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Foundations of Information Science. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach. pp. 561-578

UTI (2009) Unified Theory of Information Research Group Website (provides access to links, texts, references and projects related to the Unified Theory of Information) [online] <> [accessed: 12/11/2009]