The following teaching objectives are about how to conduct mathematics lesson for children by incorporating the essence of 4 aspects of mathematics:
1) Instill the problem solving ability
Children are naturally curious about everyday problems. Invite the children to figure out solutions to everyday situations. We can do this by talking about the problem, asking the children for ways to solve it, and then asking how they came up with those solutions. Encourage the children to suggest problems and ask questions, too. Children will learn how to figure things out and will learn that many problems can be solved several different ways. i.e. one set of spoon and fork, if there is an extra or lack of 1 spoon or fork, what could they do? And let the children to suggest similar scenario that they could have encountered before.
2) Cultivate communication skill and flexibility in search of solution or giving answer
As an early childhood educator of early mathematics, we can talk with the children and listen to what they have to say. Reading children books that rhyme, repeat, or have numbers in them is a great way to communicate using mathematics. All communication doesn't have to be in words. The teacher can represent math in ways other than talking, such as children can make diagrams or draw pictures to solve problems or represent numbers. They can use concrete objects like pieces of paper or even fingers to represent numbers.
3) Instill the ability of reasoning
To promote reasoning, ask the children questions and give them time to think about the answer. By simply asking questions and listening to answers, we are helping children learn to reason.
Ask the children to figure out why something is the way it is and then check out their ideas. Let them think for themselves, rather than let them try to figure out what answer we want to hear.
Ask children to think about and solve problems that arise in their everyday activities. For example, ask children to help to put the groceries away. They will practice sorting—the cereal boxes and the cans food—and experiment with relative size and shape and how the big boxes take up more room than the smaller ones.
Look for mathematics in everyday life and not to worry about what the particular aspect of mathematics might be. Something as simple as pouring water into different sized cups and thinking about which cup will hold more is a low-key activity that actually involves estimation, measurement, and spatial sense.