The Non-Invasive Neuromodulatory Neuroscience (N3) Laboratory was founded in 2007 by Bruce Luber, PhD and is currently directed by Dr. Greg Appelbaum.  The mission of the N3 lab focuses on using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and other emerging electromagnetic means of modulating brain function to investigate the cortical mechanisms underlying working memory, conditioned learning, pain, deception, visual perception and self-recognition.  The N3 lab endeavors to promote an interdisciplinary environment which brings together a wealth of dynamic collaborators and cutting edge technology.