Rogue Waves

Rogue Waves in Optics

Rogue waves are fascinating objects: once part of the vast folklore of the ocean, it appears that they are increasingly responsible for more and more maritime disasters.  But the ocean is a complex environment, and understanding their physical causes with the hope of somehow developing predictive tools seems a very difficult task.  On the other hand, there are many qualitative and quantitative links between wave propagation in hydrodynamics and in optics, and it is thus natural to consider to what degree (if any) insights from studying instability phenomena in optics can be applied to other systems. In this context, significant experiments were reported by Solli et al. in late 2007, where a wavelength-to-time detection technique allowed the direct characterization of shot-to-shot instabilities in the extreme nonlinear optical spectral broadening process of supercontinuum generation. Specifically, although the process of supercontinuum generation is well-known to exhibit fluctuations in both the time and frequency domains, Solli et al. have shown that these fluctuations contain a small number of statistically-rare “rogue” events associated with a greatly enhanced spectral bandwidth and the generation of localized temporal solitons with greatly increased intensity.

The analogy between the appearance of localized structures in optics and the rogue waves on the ocean’s surface is both intriguing and attractive, as it opens up possibilities to explore the extreme value dynamics in a convenient benchtop optical environment. In addition to the proposed links with solitons suggested by Solli et al., other recent studies motivated from an optical context have explored possible links with nonlinear breather propagation and there is now an international effort worldwide to study these extreme events in optics, both for their own intrinsic interest within their own domain of research, but also because of their links with the large amplitude ocean wave events that have inspired their study.  

This page will attempt to provide an updated summary of my research in this area. 

Rogue Waves in Supercontinuum Generation

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, B. J. Eggleton “Harnessing and control of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation” Optics Express 16, 3644-3651 (2008)
G. Genty, J. M. Dudley, B. J. Eggleton, “Modulation control and spectral shaping of optical fiber supercontinuum generation in the picosecond regime,” Applied Physics B 94, 187-194 (2009)
C. Lafargue, J. Bolger, G. Genty, F. Dias, J. M. Dudley, B. J. Eggleton, “Direct detection of optical rogue waves energy statistics in supercontinuum generation,” Electronics Letters 45, 217-219 (2009)
B. Kibler, C. Finot, J. M. Dudley, “Soliton and rogue wave statistics in supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibre with two zero dispersion wavelengths,” European Physical Journal: Special Topics 173 289-295 (2009)
J. Kasparian, P. Béjot, J. P. Wolf, J. M. Dudley, “Optical rogue wave statistics in laser filamentation,” Optics Express 17 12070-12075 (2009)
M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, and J. M. Dudley, “Rogue-wave-like characteristics in femtosecond supercontinuum generation,” Optics Letters 34, 2468-2470 (2009)
G. Genty, C. M. de Sterke, O. Bang, F. Dias, N. Akhmediev, J. M. Dudley “Collisions and turbulence in optical rogue wave formation,” Physics Letters A, 374 989-996 (2010)
M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, J. M. Dudley “Giant Dispersive Wave Generation by Soliton Collision,” Optics Letters 35, 658-660 (2010)
M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, J. M. Dudley, “Experimental signatures of dispersive waves emitted during soliton collisions,” Optics Express 18, 13379-13384 (2010)

Important overview papers on rogue waves  

J. M. Dudley, C. Finot, G. Millot, J. Garnier, G. Genty, D. Agafontsev, F. Dias. “Extreme events in optics: Challenges of the MANUREVA project,” European Physical Journal: Special Topics 185, 125-33 (2010)
M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, J. M. Dudley “On the statistical interpretation of optical rogue waves,” European Physical Journal: Special Topics 2010 185 135-44 (2010)
F. Dias, T. J. Bridges & J.M. Dudley, “Rogue waves,” Institute for Mathematical Sciences, National University of Singapore Lecture Notes Series (2011)

Rogue Waves as NLSE breathers and solitons on finite background

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, F. Dias, B. Kibler, and N. Akhmediev, “Modulation instability, Akhmediev Breathers and continuous wave supercontinuum generation,” Optics Express 17, 21497-21508 (2009)
B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, F. Dias, G. Genty, N. Akhmediev, J. M. Dudley, “The Peregrine soliton in nonlinear fibre optics,” Nature Physics 6, 790–795 (2010)
N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, J.M. Soto-Crespo, J. M. Dudley, “Universal triangular spectra in parametrically-driven systems,” Physics Letters A 375, 775-779 (2011)
N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, J.M. Soto-Crespo, J. M. Dudley, “Rogue wave early warning through spectral measurements?” Physics Letters A, 375, 541-544 (2011)
M. Erkintalo, G. Genty, B. Wetzel, J. M. Dudley, “Akhmediev breather evolution in optical fiber under realistic experimental conditions,” Physics Letters A 375 2029-2034 (2011)
K. Hammani, B. Wetzel, B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, N. Akhmediev, J. M. Dudley, “The spectral dynamics of modulation instability described using Akhmediev breather theory,” Optics Letters 36 (2011)