BEACON

Modern Chinese History and Cultural-Social-

Economical Change from 1911 to 21th Century--

Democracy Defender and Protector--

President Chiang Kai-Shek

(31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975)              By Dr. Trudy, 2/20/2019


Modern Chinese history and cultural/social/economical transformation after the end of

Ching Dynasty is complex, chaotic, and difficult to record and to understand.  However,

it appears that this confusing era is/was intertwined with an individual’s landmarks of life. 

This individual is named Chiang Kai-Shek.   In order to understand modern Chinese history

and cultural/social/economical changes in the 20th Century, this article provides a simple

but truthful frame work and timelines for global readers. 


President Chiang Kai-shek also known as Generalissimo Chiang, President Chiang,

Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi.  Chiang Kai-shek is a leader of the 20th century

and has far-reaching influence on China's modern history, world peace after the Second

World War, and the development of East Asian history.  His heroic deeds and great

achievements are quite unprecedented and hereby simplified into the following

seven periods.

 

1. China's Modern History Period: China's Late Qing Dynasty, War Lords, and

the Beginning of Republic of China, a.k.a. ROC (1911 - 1936)

It was the darkest and the most chaotic era while thousand-year ancient

Chinese monarchy was revolutionized and transformed into a western

democratic constitutional system in China during the turn of 20th century. 


General /President Chiang (Age 39-41) led the Huang-Pu Military Forces

and defeated war lords in Northern Civil War (1926-1928) and united China. 


Chiang (Age 24-49) was the prominent political and military leader, strategist,

and stabilizing force.

2. The 2nd Sino-Japanese War (1937 - 1945)

Japan invaded fledgling and struggling China after 25-year political, economical

and military adjustment period.  General/President Chiang Kai-Shek (Age 50-58 )

led the Chinese military forces to fight Japanese imperial military forces courageously

for the bloodiest and deadliest 8-year-long war in the Chinese history. 


The Nanjing Massacre (buried alive and killed 300,000 Chinese civilians), which

began on December 13, 1937, was one of the climaxes of Japanese atrocities

and war crime committed in China and Asia.  Chiang and his military forces

won the final victory in 1945. 


Chiang was the Commander-in-Chief in China and Asia and he accepted

the unconditional surrender from Japan on August 15, 1945.  Taiwan and

Peng-Hu islands returned back to China’s territory, officially ended Japanese

50-year-long abusive colonization over Taiwan and Peng-Hu islands

(1895-1945).  After Chiang Kai-Shek defeated Japan, he was greeted as

a great hero and affectionately admired by the people of Taiwan and Peng-Hu. 

3. World War II (1939 - 1945)

Among Allied (China, USA, Britain, Russia), China is the only victorious

country in Asia. Chiang Kai-Shek (Age 52-58) is the supreme commander

of China, Asian, European Theaters who won the victory of WWII, Asian theater,

Normandy Invasion and the China-Burma-India war zone. 


ROC military led by Chiang defended and protected Burma, Thailand,

Vietnam, and India areas from Japanese military attacked before 1945. 


Chiang Kai-shek is/was a world-class hero and leader. He should have

received the highest respect by the historians, experts, and leaders around

the world. China (ROC) became a global power and a founding member of

Security Council of the United Nations with veto power.

4. Unwavering Defender and Protector of Taiwan, Asia, and Southeast Asia

After 8-year war with Japan and WWII, Chiang's military has lost more than

2 million officers and soldiers in his military force.  With Russian's military

support to Chinese Communistic Party, Mao started civil war from 1945-1949

with war-fatigue Chiang's military forces.


After the defeat with Chinese Communistic Party from 1945-1949, Mao occupied

Mainland China while President Chiang chose not to loss more military forces. 

President Chiang Kai-Shek (Age 60-98) and the Republic of China retreated

to Taiwan in 1949. 


October 24, 1949, 100,000 Chinese Communistic Liberation Army attacked

Kinmen (Golden Gate Island) and determined to occupy Kinmen.  After 3-day

bloody combat, Communistic Liberation Army was defeated by 20,000 Chiang's

military led by General Li, Liang Rong and General Hu, Lian.  President Chiang

was 62 years old in 1949.


On August 23, 1958, Chinese Communistic Party bombarded Kinmen with

57,000 shells within 2 hours.  Kinmen is a 15.5-square-kilometer island but

it is/was the throat (or entry pathway) to Taiwan and Southeast Asia. 

President Chiang was 71 years old.


From August 23, 1958 to 1979, Kinmen was under constant bombardment

every other day for 21 years.  President Chiang was 71-98 years old.

The bombardment stopped after Chinese Communistic Party established

diplomatic relationship with United States in 1979 President Chiang died

in 1975 and Taiwan was still under Communistic Party's attack four more

years.


5. The Impact of Chinese Communistic Party Occupied Mainland China

On Oct. 1, 1949, the Chinese Communism Party, led by Mao Zedong, declared

the establishment of People’s Republic of China. 


After 1949, there are small ROC military refugee villages in northern Thailand

called "Orphans of Asia”.


With the support of Russian and Chinese Communistic Parties, North Korean

Communistic Military started Korean War in 1950.


With the support of Russian and Chinese Communistic Parties, North Vietnam

Communistic Military started Vietnam War in 1955.  In 1975, the Fall of Saigon

started the Vietnam refugees (boat people) drifting on the seas. 


6. "Taiwan's Political and Economic Miracle" "Asia's Four Little Dragons"

(1949- 1975)

During his ROC Presidency, he implemented Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s "Three

People's Principles" and created “Taiwan's Political and Economic Miracle." 


Chiang selected talented statesmen to launch policies and improved education,

economy, politics, culture and transportation, etc.  Chiang started 12-year basic

education for all children, land reform for farmers, created special economic and

export zones, etc.  Within 20 years, Republic of China in Taiwan manifested

tremendous achievements.

 

7. Chiang Kai-shek passed away on 4/5/1975 in Taiwan.

Chiang served as President of the Republic of China, President of the

Chinese Nationalist Party, and President of the Huang-Pu Military

Academy.


Throughout his life, Chiang followed Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s doctrines, ROC’s

Founding Father, sacrificed and devoted all his life to China, Taiwan,

Asian, and the World.

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Landmarks of Chiang Kai-Shek’s Life

October 31, 1887 - Born in Zhejiang Province, Fenghua County, China

Youth (before 20 years old) --The first phase of the National Army Accelerated

                                               School in Baoding


1907 (20 years old)--Join the China Alliance


1908 (21 years old)--Awarded to enter Japan Zhenwu Military Academy


1914 (27 years old)--Join China Revolutionary Party founded by Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, in

                                  1914 in Tokyo, Japan. It was reorganized as the Chinese

                                  Nationalist Party on October 10, 1919


1917 (30 years old)--The establishment of Bei-Yang Government. Yuan Shi-Kai was

                                    self-declared as an Emperor in 1912-1917.

1924 (37 years old)—Establishing and creating the first Chinese military school,

                                  Huang-Pu Military Academy, served as the first principal.

 
July 1926 (39 years old) –Served as the Commander-in-Chief and led the National

                                          Revolutionary Army to the Northern Expedition

 
June 1928 (41 years old) - Led the Huang-Pu Military Academy to successfully

                                          defeated the Bei-Yang Government (overthrown the

                                          Emperor Yuan).  Unification of China.

                                          President of the Republic of China


October 1930 (43 years old) - Baptized as a Christian

1937-1945 (50-58 years old)--Victory of 8-year-long Sino-Japan War. 

                  Top Commander in China and Asia theaters

                  Military ally of USA and Europe. 

                  A great hero of World War II 

                  China became the only victorious country in Asia.

                  China became one of the 4 victorious countries in WWII.

                  Dispatching Chinese 52nd Army to Normandy on June 6, 1944.

                  China became a global power (China, USA, Britain, Russia).

                  Republic of China led by President Chiang became the founding

                  country of United Nation in 1945.

1938-1975 - President of the Chinese Nationalist Party

1945—China and Asia Commander-in-Chief and received Japanese unconditional

                  surrender in August 15, 1945.  Taiwan, Peng-Hu under

                  50-year-long colonization of Japan were returned back to Republic

                  of China.

1945-1949 (58-62 years old)--Civil War occurred, the Chinese People's Liberation Army
                        supported by Russia and led by Mao occupied mainland China

1949 (62 years old)—Defeated Chinese Communistic 10,000 Military invasion unto

                  Kinmen.  Chiang defended and protected ROC successfully.

 

1958-1979 (71 years-death)—Defeated Chinese Communistic non-stop bombardment

                  unto Kinmen starting August 23, 1958 and ended in 1979. 

                  Chiang defended and protected ROC until his death in 1975.

 

1979 (4 years after Chiang’s death)—Chinese Communistic Party established diplomatic

                  relationship with USA and stopped the bombardment unto

                  Kinmen, the frontline of ROC, a modern and democratic China.


1949-1975 (62-98 years old)-- Chiang and the government and people of the Republic of

                  China retreated to Taiwan, Peng-Hu, Kinmen, Mazu islands in

                  1949.
                    Chiang built and created "Taiwan's Political and Economic

    Miracles" and "Asian Four Little Dragons"

  
April 5, 1975 - President Chiang Kai-Shek of the Republic of China died in Taiwan.      

      

Notes:

1910-1945—Korea was occupied by Japan

1945—Russia occupied north part of Korea. 

           USA occupied south part of Korea.

1950--Korean War broke

1953--North and South Korea left in a stalemate (DMZ) as today

1955--Vietnam War 

1975--The Fall of Saigon

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Paying Tribute to the Long-Forgotten WWII

Band of Brothers at Normandy Invasion--

The 52nd Army of Republic of China     By Dr. Trudy Hu, 3/29/2019

Prelude--Freedom Comes with a Huge Hidden Price

Numerous bloodiest war movies and the famous movie, “Saving

Private Ryan”, depicted the darkest hours during the Normandy

Invasion of WWII on June 6, 1944.  Countless documentaries

praised glorious victory and achievement of Roosevelt (USA),

Churchill (Britain) and Stalin (Russia) of the Allies, as well as

the military leadership.  However, there was no mentioning of the

contribution of Republic of China, President Chiang Kai-Shek,

nor the fierce Chinese military force and their ultimate sacrifice,

the 52nd Army, under President Chiang’s command and sent to

be the front line warriors in Normandy Invasion, European Theater. 

After World War II, the establishment of the United Nations, Republic

of China (China) has become one of the vital five founding countries

in Security Council with veto power.  The world believes that China’s

role in Security Council is nothing but charitable gesture and diplomatic

tactics of Roosevelt or European leaders.  After the declassified

document released by the Defense Department of United States

75 years later, it shed light into the sad silent buried truth about the

bravest Band of Chinese Brothers whose blood and lives paved

the way for American and European military forces to WWII victory. 

The veto power that Republic of China has obtained in the United

Nation was hard-earned through the military glorious performance

with a huge loss of lives.  Eventually the truth should be publicized

to the world after 7 decades.  The 52nd Army should be acknowledged

with well-deserved honor and respect.

European Theater Political Backdrop

In May 1943, while WWII has been going on for two years and Sino-

Japan War for six years, after the Battle of Stalingrad, the Soviet

Union played a crucial role in Eastern Europe Theater.  In Western

Europe, Britain’s air force tended to have a better control over

the Strait.  In this favorable situation, Churchill and Roosevelt met

in Washington D.C., and discussed the issue of opening up the

second battlefield in Western Europe.  At the dawn of victory,

Roosevelt initiated the preliminary idea of ​​the United Nations, and

proposed that the United States, Britain, Russia and China should

be permanent members of Security Council with veto power.

Roosevelt’s proposal was strongly opposed by Churchill.  Churchill

showed contempt to China and Chinese military capability due to

the pride in British Empire and prejudice against China resulting

from Britain’s Opium War with China, Qing Dynasty, a symbol of

corrupted imperial China in 1890s.  Churchill’s Europe-centered

arrogance blinded his vision and understanding of the unprecedented

difficulty in China and Asia Theaters and the atrocity of Japanese

military destruction.

Roosevelt proposed to Churchill to open up the second battlefield

and allow the participation of President Chiang’s modernized Chinese

army as a testing ground of China’s fighting power to undertake the

standards and responsibilities of a permanent member of UN’s

Security Council.  As a compromise, the two reached a consensus.

Mrs. Chiang, Mei-Ling Song, was visiting the United States for the

first time, was informed of the agreement between Roosevelt and

Churchill.  She was angry by Churchill’s ignorance but she envisioned

the debuting of the democratic Republic of China into the global stage.


Forgotten World Leader and Discredited WWII Heroes—President

Chiang Kai-Shek and the 52nd Army of Republic of China

Under Japanese vicious bombardment in China and President Chiang’s

army underwent tremendous pressure, Chiang still decided to dispatch

the 52nd Army stationed in Yunnan Province (southwest China) to

prepare for the upcoming European campaign, and instructed Song

Mei-Ling to win enough equipment for the 52nd Army.  With Song Mei-

Ling’s diplomatic negotiation skills, Roosevelt provided all possible

assistance, the 52nd Army was transported to Oahu Island/Hawaii

in the summer of 1943.

Led by the Commander Shir Wong, the 52nd Army was trained

strictly by the US Marine Corp 1st Division for 6 months, and

equipped with tanks, cannons, and other equipment. The 52nd

Army endured the arduous physical training day and night which

required them to score 10,000 meters within 18 minutes, or they

would be mocked, humiliated and sent back to China.  In the

subsequent sports competition, the 52nd Army overwhelmingly

defeated their American Marine Corp coaches.

Overcoming all kinds of difficulties, the 52nd Army demonstrated

marvelous stamina and outshone their counterparts in tactics,

weapon training, and more.  During the military exercise in early

1944, the 52nd Army used one hour to conquer the beachhead

stronghold by the Marine Corp 1st Division.  From then on, the

Marine Corp did not look down upon the 52nd Army.  Young

Chinese soldiers also won favorable respect and attention from

young girls on Oahu Island.

In May 1944, a social party was held and the Commander Shir

Wong deliberately to give his soldiers one more day off because

those young soldiers might not be able to return back to their

beautiful Oahu girlfriends.

On June 6, 1944, the fog shrouded the beaches of Normandy;

after the shelling and bombing, the fierce landing battle began. 

Actually, the Chinese 52nd Army, total 29,137 officers and soldiers,

was the first group of soldiers as human shields in front of

American, English, and other European soldiers in Normandy

Invasion.  The Chinese 52nd Army was fighting with other ally

military forces side by side.  The first soldier landed Normandy

was Liu, Xiao-Bo, nickname as Big-Wooden-Club Liu.  He was

the first casualty, too, and left the world with a smile and asked

his 52nd Army brother to visit his mother in China for him before

his last breath. 

Commander Wat-Long Lim led the Chinese soldiers and

undertook the left-wing breakthrough.  Commander Yuep

Shir led his soldiers tackled the most dangerous and difficult

middle section.  Commander Lim Young achieved the

right-wing breakthrough.

The middle part suffered a heavy blow under the gunfire

of Germany force and the fires from bunkers like Devil’s

tongue swallowed the 52nd Army soldiers’ lives.  The

Deputy Commander, Chung-Go Sun, took the initiative to

organize a team of ten people to carry out the attack. 

Under the cover of firepower, Commander Sun took the

explosives bag and marched forward to the bunker. 

Jumping up, holding up the explosives package,

Commander Sun shouted "for the Republic of China,

advance."  After an explosion, the unbreakable roadblock

in the middle was finally opened up, and the 52nd Army

successfully occupied the beachhead.  The left-wing

breakthrough also established a temporary position at

the expense of more than 5,000 Chinese soldiers’ lives,

including the life of Commander Wat-Long Lim.  Deputy

Commander Buk-Yee Shar became Lim’s replacement.

Millions of ally soldiers were landed safely through Normandy

beachhead that successfully broke through, established

and guarded by the Chinese 52nd Army.  The 52nd Army’s

great work and sacrifice laid a successful victory for European

allies and the final Germany’s defeat and surrender.  After a

short break, due to another war outbreak with Japanese in

the Central China Theater (Henan, Hunan, Guangxi provinces),

the 52nd Army was urgently transferred back to China, leaving

behind the regret of not being able to conquer Berlin.  

Churchill was convinced by the 52nd Army’s contribution in

Normandy Invasion and China earned the veto power in the

Security Council of the United Nations not through political

stunts but Chinese soldiers’ precious lives.

After Roosevelt’s death, Vice President Harry Truman became

US president. 

Truman was pressuring President Chiang to compromise with

Chinese Communism Party and Military Force.  Truman

believed in Communists’ negative and rumorous propaganda

smearing against President Chiang and shameful defeats

of Chiang’s military.  Truman became biased, displeased with

President Chiang, his military and the outcome of China’s

Civil War.  Later on, Truman ordered to erase all public information

related to the glorious achievements and sacrifices of the

Chinese 52nd Army in Normandy in 1944 and transferred

the war merits to the US Marine Corp 1st Division as a

punishment to President Chiang and ROC.  Later on,

Truman erased the WWII historical records and plagiarized

the merits and credits of those forgotten Chinese Band of Brothers. 


Remembering Forgotten Band of Brothers—Chinese 52nd Army

The Chinese 52nd Army consisted of total 29,137 officers and

soldiers.  On June 6, 1944, this Chinese Band of Brothers

eliminated 47,451 enemies at Normandy Beachhead which was

astonishing war record.  However, Normandy Invasion victory

came with a tremendous price, casualty of the 52nd Army;

that was, 10,250 people killed and 9,527 people injured. 


Seventy-five years have passed; WWII veterans have vanished. 

The world has forgotten the Chinese 52nd Army. Security Coun-

cil of the United Nations has forgotten and abandoned the

Chinese 52nd Army as well as Republic of China.  The sea waves

 of Normandy Beachhead have washed away the blood traces of

the Chinese 52nd Army on June 6, 1944.  The western politicians

had erased their bravery and ultimate contribution in European

Theater’s victory and the glory of Republic of China in the

establishment United Nations.  Normandy Monument has never

recorded their names and courageous sacrifice.  But the Forgotten

Band of Chinese Brothers would be inscribed into every Chinese

descendant’s heart and recorded into the WWII war history

textbooks globally.  The forgotten Chinese Band of Brothers in

European battlefields has become the eternal wind and water

which unconditionally nurture all lives on the Earth peacefully

and silently.      


Reference:

Forgotten Ally?  China’s Unsung Role in World War II

https://edition.cnn.com/2015/08/31/opinions/china-wwii-forgotten-ally-rana-mitter/index.html                                                      

Is this diary the only Chinese eyewitness account of the D-day landings at Normandy? https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/education-community/article/1887383/diary-found-may-be-only-first-hand-account

 

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