The Harpsichord

A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. It produces sound by plucking a string when each key is pressed.

As well as the large instrument currently called a harpsichord, the harpsichord family also includes the smaller virginals, the muselar or muselaar virginals and the spinet (but not the clavichord which is a hammered instrument).

The harpsichord was widely used in baroque music. It became less popular following the invention of the piano, but its distinctive sound is still used in contemporary music.

Mechanism

Harpsichords vary in size and shape, but they all have the same basic functional arrangement. The player presses a key, which causes the far end of the key to rise. This lifts a jack, a long strip of wood, to which is attached a small plectrum (a bit of quill or plastic), which plucks the string. When the key is released by the player, the far end returns to its rest position and the jack falls back. The plectrum, mounted on a tongue that can swivel backwards away from the string, passes the string without plucking it again. As the key reaches its rest position, the string's vibrations are halted by the damper, a bit of felt attached to the top of the jack.

These basic principles are explained in more detail below.
Figure 1. Schematic view of a 2x8' single manual harpsichord
 
 
The keylever is a simple pivot, which rocks on a balance pin passing through a hole drilled through it.
  • The jack is a thin, rectangular piece of wood which sits upright on the end of the keylever, held in place by the registers (the upper movable, the lower fixed) which are two long strips of wood running in the gap from spine to cheek with rectangular mortises through which the jacks can move up and down.
 
 
Figure 2. Upper part of a jack
 
  • In the jack, a plectrum juts out almost horizontally (normally the plectrum is angled upwards a tiny amount) and passes just under the string. Historically, plectra were normally made of crow quill or leather; most modern harpsichords based on historic instruments have plastic (delrin or celcon) quills.
  • When the front of the key is pressed, the back of the key rises, the jack is lifted, and the plectrum plucks the string.

 

Figure 3. When the key is pressed, the jack is raised, and the plectrum touches the string and begins to bend. Then the plectrum plucks the string and causes it to sound. The jack hits the jack rail. When the player's hand is released from the key, the jack falls back down under its own weight, and the plectrum pivots backwards to allow it to pass the string.
  •  
    When the key is lowered, the jack falls back down under its own weight, and the plectrum pivots backwards to allow it to pass the string. This is made possible by having the plectrum held in a tongue which is attached with a pivot and a spring to the body of the jack.
  • At the top of the jack, the felt damper keeps the string from vibrating when the key is not depressed.
  • The vertical rise of the jacks is stopped by the jackrail, which is covered with soft felt to muffle the jack's impact. The key-dip, which is the maximum depth the key may be pressed down, is usually set at the length of the jack. If the key-dip is too deep, which hinders quick repetition of notes and the execution of fast passages, the length of the corresponding jacks should be extended (by means of a pilot screw or other means).

Strings and soundboard

Simply plucking strings produces a feeble sound: the sonority of the harpsichord arises from its design to amplify it. The strings pass over a bridge-like nut, a sharp edge supporting one end of their vibrating length, which is firmly attached to a soundboard, a thin panel of wood usually made of spruce or (in Italian harpsichords) cedar. The soundboard and case-construction efficiently transduces the vibrations of the strings into vibrations in the air. Also, in harpsichords with more than one choir of strings the vibrations of one string will invite its adjacent twin string to resonate in sympathy as long as the key is pressed. Some harpsichords have a 'damper off' position so that one choir of strings is undamped and may resonate freely in response to the tones played on the other choir(s).

Each string is held at the proper tension to sound the correct note. At one end, generally closest to the keyboard, each string is wound around a tuning pin, so that its tension may be adjusted by rotating the pin with a wrench (or tuning hammer). The tuning pins are held tightly in holes drilled in the pinblock or wrestplank, an oblong hard-wood plank. The other ends of the strings are fitted with twisted loopholes that pass over the hitchpins which are driven into the liner.

Multiple choirs of strings

Many harpsichords have exactly one string per note. There are several reasons why it is sometimes an advantage to have more. When there are two choirs of strings at the same length, it is possible to arrange for them to give different tonal qualities, and thus to increase the variety of sound produced by the instrument. This is done by having one set of strings plucked closer to the nut (the bridge-like device that terminates the sounding length of the strings) than the other. Plucking close to the nut emphasizes the higher harmonics, and produces a "nasal" sound quality. When two strings tuned to be the same pitch, or to an octave apart, are plucked simultaneously by a single keystroke, the note is louder and richer than one produced by a single string. The qualitative distinction is particularly noticeable when the strings are tuned an octave apart.

When describing a harpsichord it is customary to specify its choirs of strings, often called its disposition. Strings at eight foot pitch sound at the normal expected pitch, strings at four foot pitch sound an octave higher, and sometimes harpsichords have the rare 16-foot pitch (one octave lower than eight-foot) or two-foot pitch (two octaves higher).

When there are multiple choirs of strings, the player is often able to control which choirs sound. This is usually done by having a set of jacks for each choir, and a mechanism for "turning off" each set, often by moving the upper register (through which the jacks slide) sideways a short distance, so that their plectra miss the strings. In simpler instruments this is done by manually moving the registers, but as the harpsichord evolved levers, knee levers and pedal mechanisms were invented that made it easier to change registration.

More flexibility in selecting which strings play is available in harpsichords having more than one keyboard or manual, since each manual can control the plucking of a different set of strings. In addition, such harpsichords often have a mechanism to couple manuals together, so that two can be used while actually playing on only one. The most flexible system is the French shove coupler, in which the lower manual can slide forward and backward, so that in the backward position "dogs" attached to the upper surface of the lower manual engage the lower surface of the upper manual's keys. Depending on choice of keyboard and coupler position, the player can select any of the sets of jacks labeled in figure 4 as A, or B and C, or all three.

Figure 4. French shove coupler. To the left: uncoupled keyboards. The depressed upper key lifts the jack A upwards. The depressed lower key lifts jacks B and C. To the right: The upper keyboard is coupled to the lower one by pulling the latter. The depressed upper key lifts the jack A upwards. The depressed lower key lifts jacks A, B and C.

The English dogleg jack system is less flexible, in that the manuals are immobile. The dogleg shape of the set of jacks labeled A in figure 5 permits A to be played by either keyboard, but the lower manual necessarily plays all three sets, and the player cannot select just B and C as in the French shove coupler.

Figure 5. Dogleg jack, English coupler system. When depressed, the upper key lifts the "dogleg" jack (jack A) upwards. The lower key lifts all three jacks A, B, and C.

The use of multiple manuals in a harpsichord was not originally provided for the flexibility in choosing which strings would sound, but rather for transposition; for discussion see History below.

 

 The case

The case holds in position all of the important structural members: pinblock, soundboard, hitchpins, keyboard, and the jack action. It usually includes a solid bottom, and also internal bracing to maintain its form without warping under the tension of the strings. Cases vary greatly in weight and sturdiness: Italian harpsichords are often of light construction; heavier construction is found in the later Flemish instruments and those derived from them (see History, below).

The case also gives the harpsichord its external appearance and protects the instrument. A large harpsichord is, in a sense, a piece of furniture, as it stands alone on legs and may be styled in the manner of other furniture of its place and period. Early Italian instruments, on the other hand, were so light in construction that they were treated rather like a violin: kept for storage in a protective outer case, and played after taking it out of its case and placing it on a table. Such tables were often quite high - until the late 18th century people usually played standing up.Eventually, harpsichords came to be built with just a single case, though an intermediate stage also existed: the "false inner-outer", which for purely aesthetic reasons was built to look as if the outer case contained an inner one, in the old style. Even after harpsichords became self-encased objects, they often were supported by separate stands, and some modern harpsichords have separate legs for improved portability.

Many harpsichords have a lid that can be raised, a cover for the keyboard, and a stand for music.

Harpsichords have been decorated in a great many different ways: with plain buff paint (e.g. some Flemish instruments), with paper printed with patterns, with leather or velvet coverings, with chinoiserie, or occasionally with highly elaborate painted artwork.
 

Variants

The terms used to denote the various members of the harpsichord family are now standardized. This was not so in the harpsichord's heyday.

Harpsichord

In modern usage, "harpsichord" can mean any member of the family of instruments. More often, though, it specifically denotes a grand-piano-shaped instrument with a roughly triangular case accommodating long bass strings at the left and short treble strings at the right. The characteristic profile of such a harpsichord is more elongated than a modern piano, with a sharper curve to the bentside.

Virginals

Main article: Virginals

The virginals is a smaller and simpler rectangular form of the harpsichord having only one string per note; the strings run parallel to the keyboard which is on the long side of the case.

Spinet

Main article: Spinet

A spinet is a harpsichord with the strings set at an angle (usually about 30 degrees) to the keyboard. The strings are too close together for the jacks to fit between them. Instead, the strings are arranged in pairs, and the jacks are in the larger gaps between the pairs. The two jacks in each gap face in opposite directions, and each plucks a string adjacent to a gap.

Clavicytherium

A clavicytherium is a harpsichord with the soundboard and strings mounted vertically facing the player, the same space-saving principle as an upright piano.

Since the strings run vertically, the jacks move horizontally, making the action of clavecytheria more involved than in a harpsichord.

Some of the earliest harpsichords for which we have evidence are clavicytheria. One surviving example from the late 15th century is kept at the Royal College of Music in London. The clavicytherium may have been one branch of the early development of the harpsichord action (see below, History), that was almost entirely surpassed by the horizontal harpsichord which has the advantage of being able to rely on gravity to return the jacks to their rest position.

Clavicytheria were occasionally made throughout the historical period. In the 18th century particularly fine clavicytheria were made by Albertus Delin, a Flemish builder.

Other

Several harpsichords with unusual keyboard layouts, such as the archicembalo, were built in the 16th century to accommodate variant tuning systems demanded by compositional practice and theoretical experimentation.

Compass and pitch range

On the whole, earlier harpsichords have smaller ranges and later ones larger, though there are many exceptions. The largest harpsichords have a range of just over five octaves and the smallest have under four. Usually, the shortest keyboards were given extended range in the bass with a "short octave".

Tuning pitch is often taken to be a=415 Hz, roughly a semitone lower than the modern standard concert pitch of a=440 Hz. An accepted exception is for French baroque repertoire which is often performed with a=392 Hz, approximately a semitone lower again. Tuning an instrument nowadays usually starts with setting an A; historically it would commence from a C or an F.

History

Ruckers-Taskin harpsichord, (Paris, Musée de la Musique)
Ruckers-Taskin harpsichord, (Paris, Musée de la Musique)
Main article: History of the harpsichord

The harpsichord was most probably invented in the late Middle Ages. By the 1500's, harpsichord makers in Italy were making lightweight instruments with low string tension. A different approach was taken in Flanders starting in the late 1500s, notably by the Ruckers family. Their harpsichords used a heavier construction and produced a more powerful and distinctive tone. They included the first harpsichords with two keyboards, used for transposition.

The Flemish instruments served as the model for 18th century harpsichord construction in other nations. In France, the double keyboards were adapted to control different choirs of strings, making a musically more flexible instrument. Instruments from the peak of the French tradition, by makers such as the Blanchet family and Pascal Taskin, are among the most widely admired of all harpsichords, and are frequently used as models for the construction of modern instruments. In England, the Kirkman and Shudi firms produced sophisticated harpsichords of great power and sonority. German builders extended the sound repertoire of the instrument by adding sixteen foot and two foot choirs; these instruments have recently served as models for modern builders.

In the late 18th century the harpsichord was supplanted by the piano and almost disappeared from view for most of the 19th century: an exception was its continued use in opera for accompanying recitative, but the piano sometimes displaced it even there. 20th century efforts to revive the harpsichord began with instruments that used piano technology, with heavy strings and metal frames. Starting in the middle of the 20th century, ideas about harpsichord making underwent a major change, when builders such as Frank Hubbard, William Dowd, and Martin Skowroneck sought to re-establish the building traditions of the Baroque period. Harpsichords of this type of historically informed building practice dominate the current scene.

Music for the harpsichord

From the 16th century to the Baroque

The first music written specifically for solo harpsichord was published around the early 16th century. Composers who wrote solo harpsichord music were numerous during the whole Baroque era in European countries including Italy, Germany, England and France. Solo harpsichord compositions included dance suites, fantasias, and fugues. Besides solo works, the harpsichord was widely used for accompaniment in the basso continuo style (a function it maintained in operatic recitative even into the 19th century). Well into the 18th century, the harpsichord was considered to have some advantages over the piano.

Works of Bach :    

http://www.bach-antatas.com/IndexNonVocal2.htmhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_compositions_by_Johann_Sebastian_Bach

 

 Inventions and Sinfonias (772–801)

  • BWV 772 — Invention No. 1 in C major
  • BWV 772a — Invention No. 1 in C major (alternative version of BWV 772)
  • BWV 773 — Invention No. 2 in C minor
  • BWV 774 — Invention No. 3 in D major
  • BWV 775 — Invention No. 4 in D minor
  • BWV 776 — Invention No. 5 in E-flat major
  • BWV 777 — Invention No. 6 in E major
  • BWV 778 — Invention No. 7 in E minor
  • BWV 779 — Invention No. 8 in F major
  • BWV 780 — Invention No. 9 in F minor
  • BWV 781 — Invention No. 10 in G major
  • BWV 782 — Invention No. 11 in G minor
  • BWV 783 — Invention No. 12 in A major
  • BWV 784 — Invention No. 13 in A minor
  • BWV 785 — Invention No. 14 in B-flat major
  • BWV 786 — Invention No. 15 in B minor
  • BWV 787 — Sinfonia No. 1 in C major
  • BWV 788 — Sinfonia No. 2 in C minor
  • BWV 789 — Sinfonia No. 3 in D major
  • BWV 790 — Sinfonia No. 4 in D minor
  • BWV 791 — Sinfonia No. 5 in E-flat major
  • BWV 792 — Sinfonia No. 6 in E major
  • BWV 793 — Sinfonia No. 7 in E minor
  • BWV 794 — Sinfonia No. 8 in F major
  • BWV 795 — Sinfonia No. 9 in F minor
  • BWV 796 — Sinfonia No. 10 in G major
  • BWV 797 — Sinfonia No. 11 in G minor
  • BWV 798 — Sinfonia No. 12 in A major
  • BWV 799 — Sinfonia No. 13 in A minor
  • BWV 800 — Sinfonia No. 14 in B-flat major
  • BWV 801 — Sinfonia No. 15 in B minor

Four Duets from Clavier-Übung III (802–805)

  • BWV 802 — Duet in E minor
  • BWV 803 — Duet in F major
  • BWV 804 — Duet in G major
  • BWV 805 — Duet in A minor

 English Suites (806–811)

  • BWV 806 — English Suite No. 1 in A major
  • BWV 807 — English Suite No. 2 in A minor
  • BWV 808 — English Suite No. 3 in G minor
  • BWV 809 — English Suite No. 4 in F major
  • BWV 810 — English Suite No. 5 in E minor
  • BWV 811 — English Suite No. 6 in D minor

 French Suites (812–817)

  • BWV 812 — French Suite No. 1 in D minor
  • BWV 813 — French Suite No. 2 in C minor
  • BWV 814 — French Suite No. 3 in B minor
  • BWV 815 — French Suite No. 4 in E-flat major
  • BWV 815a — French Suite No. 4 in E-flat major (several additional movements)
  • BWV 816 — French Suite No. 5 in G major
  • BWV 817 — French Suite No. 6 in E major

Miscellaneous suites (818–824)

  • BWV 818 — Suite in A minor
  • BWV 818a — Suite in A minor (alternative version of BWV 818)
  • BWV 819 — Suite in E-flat major
  • BWV 819a — Suite in E-flat major (alternative versions of movement 1 from BWV 819)
  • BWV 820 — Overture (Suite) in F major
  • BWV 821 — Suite in B flat major
  • BWV 822 — Suite in G minor
  • BWV 823 — Suite in F minor
  • BWV 824 — Suite in A minor

 Partitas for keyboard (published as Clavier-Übung I) (825–830)

  • BWV 825 — Partita No. 1 in B-flat major
  • BWV 826 — Partita No. 2 in C minor
  • BWV 827 — Partita No. 3 in A minor
  • BWV 828 — Partita No. 4 in D major
  • BWV 829 — Partita No. 5 in G major
  • BWV 830 — Partita No. 6 in E minor

French Overture, from Clavier-Übung II (831)

Suites and suite movements (832–845)

  • BWV 832 — Partita in A major
  • BWV 833 — Prelude and Partita in F major
  • BWV 834 — Allemande in C minor
  • BWV 835 — Allemande in A minor
  • BWV 836 — Allemande in G minor
  • BWV 837 — Allemande in G minor
  • BWV 838 — Allemande and Courante in A major
  • BWV 839 — Sarabande in G minor
  • BWV 840 — Courante in G major
  • BWV 841 — Minuet in G major (from the 1722 Notebook for Anna Magdalena Bach)
  • BWV 842 — Minuet in G minor
  • BWV 843 — Minuet in G major
  • BWV 844 — Scherzo in D minor
  • BWV 844a — Scherzo in D minor (alternative version of BWV 844)
  • BWV 845 — Gigue in F minor

The Well-Tempered Clavier (846–893)

  • BWV 846 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 1 in C major
  • BWV 846a — Prelude and Fugue in C major (alternative version of BWV 846)
  • BWV 847 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 2 in C minor
  • BWV 848 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 3 in C-sharp major
  • BWV 849 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 4 in C-sharp minor
  • BWV 850 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 5 in D major
  • BWV 851 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 6 in D minor
  • BWV 852 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 7 in E-flat major
  • BWV 853 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 8 in E-Flat minor

(The Fugue of this work is actually in D-sharp minor, the enharmonic key of E-flat minor)

  • BWV 854 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 9 in E major
  • BWV 855 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 10 in E minor
  • BWV 855a — Prelude and Fugue in E minor (alternative version of BWV 855)
  • BWV 856 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 11 in F major
  • BWV 857 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 12 in F minor
  • BWV 858 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 13 in F-sharp major
  • BWV 859 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 14 in F-sharp minor
  • BWV 860 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 15 in G major
  • BWV 861 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 16 in G minor
  • BWV 862 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 17 in A-flat major
  • BWV 863 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 18 in G-sharp minor
  • BWV 864 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 19 in A major
  • BWV 865 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 20 in A minor
  • BWV 866 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 21 in B-flat major
  • BWV 867 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 22 in B-flat minor
  • BWV 868 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 23 in B major
  • BWV 869 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1: Prelude and Fugue No. 24 in B minor
  • BWV 870 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 1 in C major
  • BWV 870a — Prelude and Fugue in C major (alternative version of BWV 870)
  • BWV 870b — Prelude in C major (alternative version of BWV 870)
  • BWV 871 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 2 in C minor
  • BWV 872 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 3 in C-sharp major
  • BWV 872a — Prelude and Fugue in C-sharp major (alternative version of BWV 872)
  • BWV 873 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 4 in C-sharp minor
  • BWV 874 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 5 in D major
  • BWV 875 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 6 in D minor
  • BWV 875a — Prelude in D minor (alternative version of BWV 875)
  • BWV 876 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 7 in E-flat major
  • BWV 877 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 8 in D-sharp minor
  • BWV 878 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 9 in E major
  • BWV 879 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 10 in E minor
  • BWV 880 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 11 in F major
  • BWV 881 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 12 in F minor
  • BWV 882 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 13 in F-sharp major
  • BWV 883 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 14 in F-sharp minor
  • BWV 884 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 15 in G major
  • BWV 885 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 16 in G minor
  • BWV 886 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 17 in A-flat major
  • BWV 887 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 18 in G-sharp minor
  • BWV 888 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 19 in A major
  • BWV 889 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 20 in A minor
  • BWV 890 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 21 in B-flat major
  • BWV 891 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 22 in B-flat minor
  • BWV 892 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 23 in B major
  • BWV 893 — Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 2: Prelude and Fugue No. 24 in B minor

Preludes and fugues, toccatas and fantasias (894–923)

  • BWV 894 — Prelude and Fugue in A minor
  • BWV 895 — Prelude and Fugue in A minor
  • BWV 896 — Prelude and Fugue in A major
  • BWV 897 — Prelude and Fugue in A minor
  • BWV 898 — Prelude and Fugue in B-flat major on the name B-A-C-H (doubtful)
  • BWV 899 — Prelude and Fughetta in D minor
  • BWV 900 — Prelude and Fughetta in E minor
  • BWV 901 — Prelude and Fughetta in F major
  • BWV 902 — Prelude and Fughetta in G major
  • BWV 902a — Prelude in G major (alternative version of BWV 902)
  • BWV 903 — Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue in D minor
  • BWV 903a — Chromatic Fantasia in D minor (alternative version of BWV 903)
  • BWV 904 — Fantasia and Fugue in A minor
  • BWV 905 — Fantasia and Fugue in D minor
  • BWV 906 — Fantasia and Fugue in C minor
  • BWV 907 — Fantasia and Fughetta in B-flat major
  • BWV 908 — Fantasia and Fughetta in D major
  • BWV 909 — Concerto and fugue in C minor
  • BWV 910 — Toccata in F-sharp minor
  • BWV 911 — Toccata in C minor
  • BWV 912 — Toccata in D major
  • BWV 913 — Toccata in D minor
  • BWV 914 — Toccata in E minor
  • BWV 915 — Toccata in G minor
  • BWV 916 — Toccata in G major
  • BWV 917 — Fantasia in G minor
  • BWV 918 — Fantasia in C minor
  • BWV 919 — Fantasia in C minor
  • BWV 920 — Fantasia in G minor
  • BWV 921 — Prelude in C minor
  • BWV 922 — Prelude in A minor
  • BWV 923 — Prelude in B minor (spurious, possibly by Wilhelm Hieronymus Pachelbel)

Little Preludes from Clavier-Büchlein for Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (924–932)

  • BWV 924 — Prelude in C major
  • BWV 924a — Prelude in C major (alternative version of BWV 924)
  • BWV 925 — Prelude in D major
  • BWV 926 — Prelude in D minor
  • BWV 927 — Praeambulum in F major
  • BWV 928 — Prelude in F major
  • BWV 929 — Prelude in G minor
  • BWV 930 — Prelude in G minor
  • BWV 931 — Prelude in A minor
  • BWV 932 — Prelude in E minor

Six Little Preludes (933–938)

  • BWV 933 — Little Prelude in C major
  • BWV 934 — Little Prelude in C minor
  • BWV 935 — Little Prelude in D minor
  • BWV 936 — Little Prelude in D major
  • BWV 937 — Little Prelude in E major
  • BWV 938 — Little Prelude in E minor

Five Preludes from the collection of Johann Peter Kellner (939–943)

  • BWV 939 — Prelude in C major
  • BWV 940 — Prelude in D minor
  • BWV 941 — Prelude in E minor
  • BWV 942 — Prelude in A minor
  • BWV 943 — Prelude in C major

Fugues and fughettas (944–962)

  • BWV 944 — Fugue in A minor
  • BWV 945 — Fugue in E minor
  • BWV 946 — Fugue in C major
  • BWV 947 — Fugue in A minor
  • BWV 948 — Fugue in D minor
  • BWV 949 — Fugue in A major
  • BWV 950 — Fugue in A major on a theme by Tomaso Albinoni
  • BWV 951 — Fugue in B minor on a theme by Tomaso Albinoni
  • BWV 951a — Fugue in B minor (alternative version of BWV 951)
  • BWV 952 — Fugue in C major
  • BWV 953 — Fugue in C major
  • BWV 954 — Fugue in B-flat major on a theme by Johann Adam Reincken
  • BWV 955 — Fugue in B-flat major
  • BWV 956 — Fugue in E minor
  • BWV 957 — Fugue in G major
  • BWV 958 — Fugue in A minor
  • BWV 959 — Fugue in A minor
  • BWV 960 — Fugue in E minor
  • BWV 961 — Fughetta in C minor
  • BWV 962 — Fughetta in E minor

Sonatas and sonata movements (963–970)

  • BWV 963 — Sonata in D major
  • BWV 964 — Sonata in D minor (arrangement of Sonata No. 2 for solo violin, BWV 1003)
  • BWV 965 — Sonata in A minor (after Johann Adam Reincken's Hortus Musicus Nos. 1-5)
  • BWV 966 — Sonata in C major (after Johann Adam Reincken's Hortus Musicus Nos. 11-15)
  • BWV 967 — Sonata in A minor (one movement only, arrangement of a chamber sonata by unknown composer)
  • BWV 968 — Adagio in G major (after movement 1 of Sonata No. 3 for solo violin, BWV 1005)
  • BWV 969 — Andante in G minor
  • BWV 970 — Presto in D minor

 Italian Concerto, from Clavier-Übung II (971)

Keyboard arrangements of concerti by other composers (972–987)

  • BWV 972 — Concerto in D major (arrangement of Antonio Vivaldi's Concerto Op. 3/9 RV230)
  • BWV 973 — Concerto in G major (arrangement of Antonio Vivaldi's Concerto Op. 7/2 RV188)
  • BWV 974 — Concerto in D minor (arrangement of Alessandro Marcello's Oboe Concerto in D minor)
  • BWV 975 — Concerto in G minor (arrangement of Antonio Vivaldi's Concerto Op. 4/6 RV316a)
  • BWV 976 — Concerto in C major (arrangement of Antonio Vivaldi's Concerto Op. 3/12 RV265)
  • BWV 977 — Concerto in C major (source unknown, possibly a concerto by Benedetto Marcello)
  • BWV 978 — Concerto in F major (arrangement of Antonio Vivaldi's Concerto Op. 3/3 RV310)
  • BWV 979 — Concerto in B minor (source unknown, possibly a Giuseppe Torelli violin concerto)
  • BWV 980 — Concerto in G major (arrangement of Antonio Vivaldi's Concerto Op. 4/1 RV383a)
  • BWV 981 — Concerto in C minor (possibly an arrangement of Benedetto Marcello's concerto Op. 1/2)
  • BWV 982 — Concerto in B-flat major (arrangement of Duke Johann Ernst's concerto Op. 1/1)
  • BWV 983 — Concerto in G minor (source unknown)
  • BWV 984 — Concerto in C major (arrangement of a Duke Johann Ernst concerto) (see BWV 595 for organ version)
  • BWV 985 — Concerto in G minor (arrangement of a Georg Philipp Telemann concerto)
  • BWV 986 — Concerto in G major (arrangement of a concerto attributed to Georg Philipp Telemann)
  • BWV 987 — Concerto in D minor (arrangement of Duke Johann Ernst's concerto Op. 1/4)

Variations and miscellaneous pieces for keyboard (988–994)

Harpsichord concertos (1052–1065)

  • BWV 1052 — Concerto for harpsichord and strings in D minor (after a lost violin concerto)
  • BWV 1053 — Concerto for harpsichord and strings in E major (probably after a lost oboe concerto)
  • BWV 1054 — Concerto for harpsichord and strings in D major (after BWV 1042, Violin Concerto in E major)
  • BWV 1055 — Concerto for harpsichord and strings in A major (after a lost oboe d'amore concerto)
  • BWV 1056 — Concerto for harpsichord and strings in F minor (probably after a lost violin concerto - this is sometimes recorded as Concerto for violin in G Minor)
  • BWV 1057 — Concerto for harpsichord, 2 recorders and strings in F major (after BWV 1049, Brandenburg concerto No. 4 in G major)
  • BWV 1058 — Concerto for harpsichord and strings in G minor (after BWV 1041, Violin Concerto in A minor)
  • BWV 1059 is an incomplete fragment of about 10 bars. So-called 'reconstructions' have been made of harpsichord, organ and oboe concertos based on this by using cantata movements but these are almost entirely speculative.
  • BWV 1060 — Concerto for 2 harpsichords and strings in C minor (after a lost violin and oboe concerto)
  • BWV 1061 — Concerto for 2 harpsichords and strings in C major (original version for 2 harpsichords unaccompanied known as BWV 1061a)
  • BWV 1062 — Concerto for 2 harpsichords and strings in C minor (after BWV 1043, Double Violin Concerto in D minor)
  • BWV 1063 — Concerto for 3 harpsichords and strings in D minor
  • BWV 1064 — Concerto for 3 harpsichords and strings in C major (after a lost triple violin concerto)
  • BWV 1065 — Concerto for 4 harpsichords and strings in A minor (after Antonio Vivaldi's concerto for 4 violins in B minor (l'estro armonico Op. 3/10, RV580))

 

 

Works of  Domenico Scarlatti :

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Solo_Keyboard_Sonatas_by_Domenico_Scarlatti

These are the sonatas for solo keyboard (originally intended for harpsichord or fortepiano) by Domenico Scarlatti, listed in Kirkpatrick number order:

  • Kk. 1 — Sonata in D minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 2 — Sonata in G major, Presto
  • Kk. 3 — Sonata in A minor, Presto
  • Kk. 4 — Sonata in G minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 5 — Sonata in D minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 6 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 7 — Sonata in A minor, Presto
  • Kk. 8 — Sonata in G minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 9 — Sonata in D minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 10 — Sonata in D minor, Presto
  • Kk. 11 — Sonata in C minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 12 — Sonata in G minor, Presto
  • Kk. 13 — Sonata in G major, Presto
  • Kk. 14 — Sonata in G major, Presto
  • Kk. 15 — Sonata in E minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 16 — Sonata in B flat major, Presto
  • Kk. 17 — Sonata in F major, Presto
  • Kk. 18 — Sonata in D minor, Presto
  • Kk. 19 — Sonata in F minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 20 — Sonata in E major, Presto
  • Kk. 21 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 22 — Sonata in C minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 23 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 24 — Sonata in A major, Presto
  • Kk. 25 — Sonata in F sharp minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 26 — Sonata in A major, Presto
  • Kk. 27 — Sonata in B minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 28 — Sonata in E major, Presto
  • Kk. 29 — Sonata in D major, Presto
  • Kk. 30 — Sonata in G minor, Moderato ("Cat Fugue")
  • Kk. 31 — Sonata in G minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 32 — Sonata in D minor, Aria
  • Kk. 33 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 34 — Sonata in D minor, Larghetto
  • Kk. 35 — Sonata in G minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 36 — Sonata in A minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 37 — Sonata in G minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 38 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 39 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 40 — Sonata in C minor, Minuetto
  • Kk. 41 — Sonata in D minor, Andante moderato
  • Kk. 42 — Sonata in B flat major, Minuetto
  • Kk. 43 — Sonata in G minor, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 44 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 45 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 46 — Sonata in E major, Allegro
  • Kk. 47 — Sonata in B flat major, Presto
  • Kk. 48 — Sonata in C minor, Presto
  • Kk. 49 — Sonata in C major, Presto
  • Kk. 50 — Sonata in F minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 51 — Sonata in E flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 52 — Sonata in D minor, Andante moderato
  • Kk. 53 — Sonata in D major, Presto
  • Kk. 54 — Sonata in A minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 55 — Sonata in G major, Presto
  • Kk. 56 — Sonata in C minor, Allegro con spirito
  • Kk. 57 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 58 — Sonata in C minor, Fuga
  • Kk. 59 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 60 — Sonata in G minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 61 — Sonata in A minor,
  • Kk. 62 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 63 — Sonata in G major, Capriccio: Allegro
  • Kk. 64 — Sonata in D minor, Gavota: Allegro
  • Kk. 65 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 66 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 67 — Sonata in F sharp minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 68 — Sonata in E flat major ,
  • Kk. 69 — Sonata in F minor,
  • Kk. 70 — Sonata in B flat major ,
  • Kk. 71 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 72 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 73 — Sonata in C Minor,
  • Kk. 74 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 75 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 76 — Sonata in G minor, Presto
  • Kk. 79 — Sonata in G major, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 80 — Sonata in G major, Minuet
  • Kk. 81 — Sonata in E Minor, Grave
  • Kk. 82 — Sonata in F major,
  • Kk. 83 — Sonata in A major, Minuet
  • Kk. 84 — Sonata in C minor,
  • Kk. 85 — Sonata in F major,
  • Kk. 86 — Sonata in C major, Andante moderato
  • Kk. 87 — Sonata in B minor,
  • Kk. 88 — Sonata in G Minor, Grave
  • Kk. 89 — Sonata in D Minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 90 — Sonata in D Minor, Grave
  • Kk. 91 — Sonata in G Major, Grave
  • Kk. 92 — Sonata in D minor,
  • Kk. 93 — Sonata in G minor, Fuga
  • Kk. 94 — Sonata in F major, Minuet
  • Kk. 95 — Sonata in C major, Vivace
  • Kk. 96 — Sonata in D major, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 97 — Sonata in G minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 98 — Sonata in E minor, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 99 — Sonata in C minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 100 — Sonata in C major, Allegro subbito
  • Kk. 101 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 102 — Sonata in G minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 103 — Sonata in G major, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 104 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 105 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 106 — Sonata in F major, Andante
  • Kk. 107 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 108 — Sonata in G minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 109 — Sonata in A minor, Andante adagio
  • Kk. 110 — Sonata in A minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 111 — Sonata in G minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 112 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 113 — Sonata in A major, Vivo
  • Kk. 114 — Sonata in A major, Con spirito e presto
  • Kk. 115 — Sonata in C minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 116 — Sonata in C minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 117 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 118 — Sonata in D major, Non presto
  • Kk. 119 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 120 — Sonata in D minor, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 121 — Sonata in G minor, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 122 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 123 — Sonata in E flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 124 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 125 — Sonata in G major, Vivo
  • Kk. 126 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 127 — Sonata in A flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 128 — Sonata in B flat minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 129 — Sonata in C minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 130 — Sonata in A flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 131 — Sonata in B flat minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 132 — Sonata in C major, Andante
  • Kk. 133 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 134 — Sonata in E major, Allegro
  • Kk. 135 — Sonata in E major, Allegro
  • Kk. 136 — Sonata in E major, Allegro
  • Kk. 137 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 138 — Sonata in D minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 139 — Sonata in C minor, Presto
  • Kk. 140 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 141 — Sonata in D minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 142 — Sonata in F sharp minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 143 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 144 — Sonata in G major, Cantabile
  • Kk. 145 — Sonata in D major, Allegro non presto
  • Kk. 146 — Sonata in G major,
  • Kk. 147 — Sonata in E minor,
  • Kk. 148 — Sonata in A minor, Andante
  • Kk. 149 — Sonata in A minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 150 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 151 — Sonata in F major, Andante Allegro
  • Kk. 152 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 153 — Sonata in G major, Vivo
  • Kk. 154 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 155 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 156 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 157 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 158 — Sonata in C minor, Andante
  • Kk. 159 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 160 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 161 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 162 — Sonata in E major, Andante
  • Kk. 163 — Sonata in E major, Allegro
  • Kk. 164 — Sonata in D major, Andante moderato
  • Kk. 165 — Sonata in C major, Andante
  • Kk. 166 — Sonata in C major, Allegro ma non molto
  • Kk. 167 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 168 — Sonata in F major, Vivo
  • Kk. 169 — Sonata in G major, Allegro con spirito
  • Kk. 170 — Sonata in C major, Andante moderato e cantabile
  • Kk. 171 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 172 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 173 — Sonata in B minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 174 — Sonata in C minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 175 — Sonata in A minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 176 — Sonata in D minor, Cantabile andante
  • Kk. 177 — Sonata in D major, Andante moderato
  • Kk. 178 — Sonata in D major, Vivo
  • Kk. 179 — Sonata in G minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 180 — Sonata in G major, Allegro vivo
  • Kk. 181 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 182 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 183 — Sonata in F minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 184 — Sonata in F minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 185 — Sonata in F minor, Andante
  • Kk. 186 — Sonata in F minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 187 — Sonata in F minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 188 — Sonata in A minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 189 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 190 — Sonata in B flat major, Vivo
  • Kk. 191 — Sonata in D minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 192 — Sonata in E flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 193 — Sonata in E flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 194 — Sonata in F major, Andante
  • Kk. 195 — Sonata in F major, Vivo
  • Kk. 196 — Sonata in G minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 197 — Sonata in B minor, Andante
  • Kk. 198 — Sonata in E minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 199 — Sonata in C major, Andante Moderato
  • Kk. 200 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 201 — Sonata in G major, Vivo
  • Kk. 202 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 203 — Sonata in E minor, Vivo non molto
  • Kk. 204a — Sonata in F minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 204b — Sonata in F minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 205 — Sonata in F major, Vivo
  • Kk. 206 — Sonata in E major, Andante
  • Kk. 207 — Sonata in E major, Allegro
  • Kk. 208 — Sonata in A major, Andante e cantabile
  • Kk. 209 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 210 — Sonata in G major, Andante
  • Kk. 211 — Sonata in A major, Andantino
  • Kk. 212 — Sonata in A major, Allegro molto
  • Kk. 213 — Sonata in D minor, Andante
  • Kk. 214 — Sonata in D major, Vivo
  • Kk. 215 — Sonata in E major, Andante
  • Kk. 216 — Sonata in E major, Allegro
  • Kk. 217 — Sonata in A minor, Andante
  • Kk. 218 — Sonata in A minor, Vivo
  • Kk. 219 — Sonata in A major, Andante
  • Kk. 220 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 221 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 222 — Sonata in A major, Vivo
  • Kk. 223 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 224 — Sonata in D major, Vivo
  • Kk. 225 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 226 — Sonata in C minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 227 — Sonata in B minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 228 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 229 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro vivo
  • Kk. 230 — Sonata in C minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 231 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 232 — Sonata in E minor, Andante
  • Kk. 233 — Sonata in E minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 234 — Sonata in G minor, Andante
  • Kk. 235 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 236 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 237 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 238 — Sonata in F minor, Andante
  • Kk. 239 — Sonata in F minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 240 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 241 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 242 — Sonata in C major, Vivo
  • Kk. 243 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 244 — Sonata in B major, Allegro
  • Kk. 245 — Sonata in B major, Allegro
  • Kk. 246 — Sonata in C sharp minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 247 — Sonata in C sharp minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 248 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 249 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 250 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 251 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 252 — Sonata in E flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 253 — Sonata in E flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 254 — Sonata in C minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 255 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 256 — Sonata in F major, Andante
  • Kk. 257 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 258 — Sonata in D major, Andante
  • Kk. 259 — Sonata in G major, Andante
  • Kk. 260 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 261 — Sonata in B major, Allegro
  • Kk. 262 — Sonata in B major, Vivo
  • Kk. 263 — Sonata in E minor, Andante
  • Kk. 264 — Sonata in E major, Vivo
  • Kk. 265 — Sonata in A minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 266 — Sonata in B flat major, Andante
  • Kk. 267 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 268 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 269 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 270 — Sonata in C major,
  • Kk. 271 — Sonata in C major, Vivo
  • Kk. 272 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 273 — Sonata in B flat major, Vivo
  • Kk. 274 — Sonata in F major, Andante
  • Kk. 275 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 276 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 277 — Sonata in D major, Cantabile andantino
  • Kk. 278 — Sonata in D major, Con velocita
  • Kk. 279 — Sonata in A major, Andante
  • Kk. 280 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 281 — Sonata in D major, Andante
  • Kk. 282 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 283 — Sonata in G major, Andante allegro
  • Kk. 284 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 285 — Sonata in A major, Andante allegro
  • Kk. 286 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 287 — Sonata in D major, Andante allegro
  • Kk. 288 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 289 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 290 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 291 — Sonata in E minor, Andante
  • Kk. 292 — Sonata in E minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 293 — Sonata in B minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 294 — Sonata in D minor, Andante
  • Kk. 295 — Sonata in D minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 296 — Sonata in F major, Andante
  • Kk. 297 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 298 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 299 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 300 — Sonata in A major, Andante
  • Kk. 301 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 302 — Sonata in C minor, Andante
  • Kk. 303 — Sonata in C minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 304 — Sonata in G major, Andante cantabile
  • Kk. 305 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 306 — Sonata in E flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 307 — Sonata in E flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 308 — Sonata in C major, Cantabile
  • Kk. 309 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 310 — Sonata in B flat major, Andante
  • Kk. 311 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 312 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 313 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 314 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 315 — Sonata in G minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 316 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 317 — Sonata in F major, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 318 — Sonata in F sharp major, Andante
  • Kk. 319 — Sonata in F sharp major, Allegro
  • Kk. 320 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 321 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 322 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 323 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 324 — Sonata in G major, Andante
  • Kk. 325 — Sonata in G major, Con velocita
  • Kk. 326 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 327 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 328 — Sonata in G major, Andante comodo
  • Kk. 329 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 330 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 331 — Sonata in B flat major, Andante
  • Kk. 332 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 333 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 334 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 335 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 336 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 337 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 338 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 339 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 340 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 341 — Sonata in A minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 342 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 343 — Sonata in A major, Allegro andante
  • Kk. 344 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 345 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 346 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 347 — Sonata in G minor, Moderato e cantabile
  • Kk. 348 — Sonata in G major, Prestissimo
  • Kk. 349 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 350 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 351 — Sonata in B flat major, Andante
  • Kk. 352 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 353 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 354 — Sonata in F major, Andante
  • Kk. 355 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 356 — Sonata in C major, Con spirito andante
  • Kk. 357 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 358 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 359 — Sonata in D major, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 360 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 361 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 362 — Sonata in C minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 363 — Sonata in C minor, Presto
  • Kk. 364 — Sonata in F minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 365 — Sonata in F minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 366 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 367 — Sonata in F major, Presto
  • Kk. 368 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 369 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 370 — Sonata in E flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 371 — Sonata in E flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 372 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 373 — Sonata in G minor, Presto e fugato
  • Kk. 374 — Sonata in G major, Andante
  • Kk. 375 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 376 — Sonata in B minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 377 — Sonata in B minor, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 378 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 379 — Sonata in F major, Minuet
  • Kk. 380 — Sonata in E major, Andante commodo
  • Kk. 381 — Sonata in E major, Allegro
  • Kk. 382 — Sonata in A minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 383 — Sonata in A minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 384 — Sonata in C major, Cantabile andante
  • Kk. 385 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 386 — Sonata in F minor, Presto
  • Kk. 387 — Sonata in F minor, Veloce e fugato
  • Kk. 388 — Sonata in D major, Presto
  • Kk. 389 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 390 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 391 — Sonata in G major, Minuet
  • Kk. 392 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 393 — Sonata in B flat major, Minuet
  • Kk. 394 — Sonata in E minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 395 — Sonata in E major, Allegro
  • Kk. 396 — Sonata in D minor, Andante
  • Kk. 397 — Sonata in D major, Minuet
  • Kk. 398 — Sonata in C major, Andante
  • Kk. 399 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 400 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 401 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 402 — Sonata in C minor, Andante
  • Kk. 403 — Sonata in E major, Allegro
  • Kk. 404 — Sonata in A major, Andante
  • Kk. 405 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 406 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 407 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 408 — Sonata in B minor, Andante
  • Kk. 409 — Sonata in B minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 410 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 411 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 412 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 413 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 414 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 415 — Sonata in D major,"""Pastoral Allegro"""
  • Kk. 416 — Sonata in D major, Presto
  • Kk. 417 — Sonata in D minor, Allegro moderato
  • Kk. 418 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 419 — Sonata in F major, Piu tosto presto che allegro
  • Kk. 420 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 421 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 422 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 423 — Sonata in C major, Presto
  • Kk. 424 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 425 — Sonata in G major, Allegro molto
  • Kk. 426 — Sonata in G minor, Andante
  • Kk. 427 — Sonata in G major, Presto
  • Kk. 428 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 429 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 430 — Sonata in D major, Non presto ma a tempo di ballo
  • Kk. 431 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 432 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 433 — Sonata in G major, Vivo
  • Kk. 434 — Sonata in D minor, Andante
  • Kk. 435 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 436 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 437 — Sonata in F major, Andante commodo
  • Kk. 438 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 439 — Sonata in B flat major, Moderato
  • Kk. 440 — Sonata in B flat major, Minuet
  • Kk. 441 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 442 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 443 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 444 — Sonata in D minor, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 445 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 446 — Sonata in F major, Pastorale Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 447 — Sonata in F sharp minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 448 — Sonata in F sharp minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 449 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 450 — Sonata in G minor, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 451 — Sonata in A minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 452 — Sonata in A major, Andante allegro
  • Kk. 453 — Sonata in A minor, Andante
  • Kk. 454 — Sonata in G major, Andante spiritoso
  • Kk. 455 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 456 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 457 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 458 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 459 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 460 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 461 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 462 — Sonata in F minor, Andante
  • Kk. 463 — Sonata in F minor, Molto allegro
  • Kk. 464 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 465 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 466 — Sonata in F minor, Andante moderato
  • Kk. 467 — Sonata in F minor, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 468 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 469 — Sonata in F major, Allegro molto
  • Kk. 470 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 471 — Sonata in G major, Minuet
  • Kk. 472 — Sonata in B flat major, Andante
  • Kk. 473 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro molto
  • Kk. 474 — Sonata in E flat major, Andante e cantabile
  • Kk. 475 — Sonata in E flat major, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 476 — Sonata in G minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 477 — Sonata in G major, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 478 — Sonata in D major, Andante e cantabile
  • Kk. 479 — Sonata in D major, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 480 — Sonata in D major, Presto
  • Kk. 481 — Sonata in F minor, Andante e cantabile
  • Kk. 482 — Sonata in F major, Allegrissimo
  • Kk. 483 — Sonata in F major, Presto
  • Kk. 484 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 485 — Sonata in C major, Andante e cantabile
  • Kk. 486 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 487 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 488 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 489 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 490 — Sonata in D major, Cantabile
  • Kk. 491 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 492 — Sonata in D major, Presto
  • Kk. 493 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 494 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 495 — Sonata in E major, Allegro
  • Kk. 496 — Sonata in E major, Allegro
  • Kk. 497 — Sonata in B minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 498 — Sonata in B minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 499 — Sonata in A major, Andante
  • Kk. 500 — Sonata in A major, Allegro
  • Kk. 501 — Sonata in C major, Allegretto
  • Kk. 502 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 503 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegretto
  • Kk. 504 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 505 — Sonata in F major, Allegro non presto
  • Kk. 506 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 507 — Sonata in E flat major, Andantino cantabile
  • Kk. 508 — Sonata in E flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 509 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 510 — Sonata in D minor, Allegro molto
  • Kk. 511 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 512 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 513 — Sonata in C major, Pastorale Moderato
  • Kk. 514 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 515 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 516 — Sonata in D minor, Allegretto
  • Kk. 517 — Sonata in D minor, Prestissimo
  • Kk. 518 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 519 — Sonata in F minor, Allegro assai
  • Kk. 520 — Sonata in G major, Allegretto
  • Kk. 521 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 522 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 523 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 524 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 525 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 526 — Sonata in C minor, Allegro comodo
  • Kk. 527 — Sonata in C major, Allegro assai
  • Kk. 528 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 529 — Sonata in B flat major, Allegro
  • Kk. 530 — Sonata in E major, Allegro
  • Kk. 531 — Sonata in E major, Allegro
  • Kk. 532 — Sonata in A minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 533 — Sonata in A major, Allegro assai
  • Kk. 534 — Sonata in D major, Cantabile
  • Kk. 535 — Sonata in D major, Allegro
  • Kk. 536 — Sonata in A major, Cantabile
  • Kk. 537 — Sonata in A major, Prestissimo
  • Kk. 538 — Sonata in G major, Allegretto
  • Kk. 539 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 540 — Sonata in F major, Allegretto
  • Kk. 541 — Sonata in F major, Allegretto
  • Kk. 542 — Sonata in F major, Allegretto
  • Kk. 543 — Sonata in F major, Allegro
  • Kk. 544 — Sonata in B flat major, Cantabile
  • Kk. 545 — Sonata in B flat major, Prestissimo
  • Kk. 546 — Sonata in G minor, Cantabile
  • Kk. 547 — Sonata in G major, Allegro
  • Kk. 548 — Sonata in C major, Allegretto
  • Kk. 549 — Sonata in C major, Allegro
  • Kk. 550 — Sonata in B major, Allegretto
  • Kk. 551 — Sonata in B major, Allegro
  • Kk. 552 — Sonata in D minor, Allegretto
  • Kk. 553 — Sonata in D minor, Allegro
  • Kk. 554 — Sonata in F major, Allegretto
  • Kk. 555 — Sonata in F minor, Allegro Domenico Scarlatti

 

Works of Jean-Philippe Rameau :

  • Pièces de clavecin. Trois livres. "Pieces for harpsichord", 3 books, published 1706, 1724, 1726/27(?). Tambourin (help·info)
    • RCT 1 - Premier Livre de Clavecin (1706)
    • RCT 2 - Pièces de clavecin (1724) - Suite in E minor
    • RCT 3 - Pièces de clavecin (1724) - Suite in D major
    • RCT 4 - Pièces de clavecin (1724) - Menuet in C major
    • RCT 5 - Nouvelles suites de pièces de clavecin (1726/27) - Suite in A minor
    • RCT 6 - Nouvelles suites de pièces de clavecin (1726/27) - Suite in G minor
  • Pieces de Clavecin en Concerts Five albums of character pieces for harpsichord, violin and viol. (1741)
    • RCT 7 - Concert I in C minor
    • RCT 8 - Concert II in G major
    • RCT 9 - Concert III in A major
    • RCT 10 - Concert IV in B flat major
    • RCT 11 - Concert V in D minor
  • RCT 12 - La Dauphine for harpsichord. (1747)
  • RCT 12bis - Les petits marteaux for harpsichord.
  • Several orchestral dance suites extracted from his operas

     

    Works of Couperin

    COUPERIN  Cemballo Suite -in A minor Cummings                          Couperin Cemballo Suite -in C major   Cummings                            

    Couperin Cemballo Suite -in D major   Cummings                            

    Couperin Cemballo Suite-in F major  Cummings                               

    Couperin Cemballo Tombeau  de M. de Blancrocher Cummings

     

     

  • After the Baroque

    Through the 19th century, the harpsichord was almost completely supplanted by the piano. In the 20th century composers returned to the instrument, as they sought out variation in the sounds available to them. Under the influence of Arnold Dolmetsch, Violet Gordon-Woodhouse (1872-1951) and in France, Wanda Landowska (1879-1959), were at the forefront of the instrument's renaissance.

    Concertos for the instrument were written by Francis Poulenc (the Concert champêtre, 1927-28), Manuel de Falla, Bertold Hummel,[6] Henryk Mikołaj Górecki, Philip Glass and Roberto Carnevale. Bohuslav Martinů wrote both a concerto and a sonata for the instrument, and Elliott Carter's Double Concerto is scored for harpsichord, piano and two chamber orchestras.

    In chamber music, György Ligeti wrote a small number of solo works for the instrument (including "Continuum"), and Henri Dutilleux's "Les Citations" (1991) is scored for harpsichord, oboe, double bass and percussions. Both Dmitri Shostakovich (Hamlet, 1964) and Alfred Schnittke (Symphony No.8, 1998) wrote works that use the harpsichord as part of the orchestral texture.

    Harpsichordist Hendrik Bouman has composed pieces in the 17th and 18th century style, including works for solo harpsichord, harpsichord concerti, and other works that call for harpsichord continuo. Other contemporary composers writing new harpsichord music in period styles include Grant Colburn, Miguel Robaina, Fernando de Luca and Gianluca Bersanetti.

     Nomenclature

    The type of instrument now usually called harpsichord in English is generally called a clavicembalo (sometimes in the corrupt form gravicembalo, both masculine) or simply cembalo in Italian, and this last word is generally used in German as well (Cembalo, neuter). The Dutch word is klavecimbel (neuter). The typical French word is clavecin (masculine), though in French historical sources the word épinette (feminine, cognate with English spinet) is sometimes used, in a global sense, meaning any instrument with a harpsichord-like action. The standard Spanish word is clavecín (masculine), with clavicémbalo as an alternative (along with the rarer forms clavicímbalo and clavicímbano; all masculine). The Portuguese words are espineta (feminine) and cravo (masculine, cognate with the element clav- in the Italian words for the instrument).

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    Working LEGO Harpsichord         

         

       

                                                                  

     

         

       

    Anonymous Neapolitan harpsichord, property of Grant O'Brien

       

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

      

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