Kidney stones, also called renal calculi, are solid concretions (crystal aggregations) of dissolved minerals in urine; calculi typically form inside the kidneys or bladder. The terms nephrolithiasis and urolithiasis refer to the presence of calculi in the kidneys and urinary tract, respectively.
Types of Renal Calculi
There are five types of kidney stones:
1. Calcium phosphate stones
2. Calcium oxalate stones
3. Struvite stones - Magnesium ammonium phosphate
4. Uric acid stones - Result from a problem metabolizing purines (the chemical base of adenine, xanthine, theobromine [in chocolate] and uric acid). They may form in a condition such as gout.
5. Cystine stones - Rare- Result from a hereditary inability to reabsorb cystine. Most children's stones are this type.
Symptoms of kidney stones include