I'm a professor at Vanderbilt University's Peabody College of Education and Human Development. My research focuses on students' learning processes, generally in the context of technology-enhanced or game-based environments. In particular, my research focuses on students' conceptual change processes, argumentation, and use of representations in these environments.

If you would like copies of any of my papers from the lists below, please email me at doug.clark@vanderbilt.edu. I'll send them right away! You can check out our current research on games for science learning at www.surgeuniverse.com   

New Work Underway

1. Clark, D. B., Tanner-Smith, E., & Killingsworth, S. (revised and resubmitted). Digital games, design, and learning: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

2. Sengupta, P., Krinks, K., & Clark, D. B. (revised and resubmitted). Conceptual Change in Physics through Use of Digital Games. 

Journal Articles

1. Clark, D. B., Sengupta, P., Brady, C., Martinez-Garza, M., & Killingsworth, S. (in press). Disciplinary Integration in Digital Games for Science Learning. International STEM Education Journal.

2. Adams, D. & Clark D. B. (2014). Integrating self-explanation functionality into a complex game environment: Keeping gaming in motion. Computers and Education.

3. Clark, D. B., Menekse, M., Özdemir, G., D’Angelo, C. M., & Schleigh, S. (2013 online/2014 publication). Exploring sources of variation in studies of knowledge structure coherence: Comparing force meanings and force meaning consistency across two Turkish cities. Science Education, 98(1), 143-181.

4. Martinez-Garza, M., Clark, D. B., Nelson, B., Slack, K., & D’Angelo, C. (2013). Advances in Assessment of students’ intuitive understanding of physics through gameplay dataInternational Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations.
5. Martinez-Garza, M., Clark, D. B., & Nelson, B., (2013). Digital games and the US National Research Council's science proficiency goals. Studies in Science Education, 49(2), 170-208.

6. Sengupta, P., Kinnebrew, J., Basu, S., Biswas, G., and Clark, D. (2013). Integrating computational thinking with K12 science education using agent-based computation: A theoretical framework. Education & Information Technologies, (18), 2, 351-380.

7. Clark, D. B., Touchman, S., Martinez-Garza, M., Ramirez-Marin, F., & Drews C. S. (2012). Bilingual language supports in online science inquiry environments. Computers and Education, 58(4), 1207-1224.

8. Clark, D. B., D’Angelo, C. & Schleigh S. (2011). Comparison of students' knowledge structure coherence and understanding of force in the Philippines, Turkey, China, Mexico, and the United States. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 20(20), 207-261.

9. Clark, D. B., Nelson, B., Chang, H., D’Angelo, C. M., Slack, K. & Martinez-Garza, M., (2011). Exploring Newtonian mechanics in a conceptually-integrated digital game: Comparison of learning and affective outcomes for students in Taiwan and the United States. Computers and Education, 57(3), 2178-2195.

10. Sampson, V. D.  & Clark, D. B. (2011). A comparison of the collaborative scientific argumentation practices of two high and two low performing groups. Research in Science Education, 41(1), 63-97. 

11. Clark, D. B., D’Angelo, C. M., & Menekse, M. (2009). Initial structuring of online discussions to improve learning and argumentation: Incorporating students' own explanations as seed comments versus an augmented-preset approach to seeding discussions. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 18(4), 321-333.

12. Özdemir, G. & Clark, D. B. (2009). Knowledge structure coherence in Turkish students' understanding of force. Journal of Research on Science Teaching, 46(5), 570-596.

13. Sampson, V. & Clark, D. B. (2009). The impact of collaboration on the outcomes of scientific argumentation. Science Education, 93(3), 448-484.

14. Clark, D. B., & Sampson, V. (2008). Assessing dialogic argumentation in online environments to relate structure, grounds, and conceptual quality. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(3), 293-321.

15. Sampson, V. & Clark, D. B. (2008). Assessment of the ways students generate arguments in science education: Current perspectives and recommendations for future directions. Science Education, 92(3), 447-472.

16. Clark, D. B., Reynolds, S., Lemanowski, V., Stiles, T., Yasar, S., Proctor, S., Lewis, E., Stromfors, C., & Corkins, J. (2008). University students' conceptualization and interpretation of topographic maps. International Journal of Science Education, 30(3), 377-408.

17.  Clark, D., Sampson, V., Weinberger, A., & Erkens, G., (2007). Analytic frameworks for assessing dialogic argumentation in online learning environments. Educational Psychology Review, 19(3), 343-374.

18.  Özdemir, G. & Clark, D. B. (2007). An overview of conceptual change theories. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education, 3(4), 351-361.

19.  Clark, D. B. & Sampson, V. D. (2007). Personally-Seeded Discussions to scaffold online argumentation. International Journal of Science Education 29(3), 253-277.

20.  Weinberger, A., Clark, D., Häkkinen, P., Tamura, Y., & Fischer, F. (2007). Argumentative knowledge construction in online learning environments in and across different cultures: A collaboration script perspective. Research in Comparative and International Education 2(1), 68-79.

21.  Medina-Jerez, W., Clark, D., & Ramirez-Marin, F. (2007). Science for ELL: Re-thinking our approach. The Science Teacher, 74(3), 52-56.

22.  Sampson, V. & Clark, D. (2007). Incorporating scientific argumentation into inquiry-based activities with online personally-seeded discussions. The Science Scope, 30(6), 43-47.

23.  Clark, D. B. (2006). Longitudinal conceptual change in students’ understanding of thermal equilibrium: An examination of the process of conceptual restructuring. Cognition and Instruction, 24(4), 467–563.

24.  Simons, K., & Clark, D. B. (2004). Supporting inquiry in science classrooms with the web. Computers in the Schools 3/4(21), 23-36.

25.  Clark, D. B., & Jorde, D. (2004). Helping students revise disruptive experientially supported ideas about thermodynamics: Computer visualizations and tactile models. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 41(1), 1-23.

26.  Clark, D. B. & Fischer, F. (2003). Learning through online collaborative discourse. The International Journal of Educational Policy, Research and Practice, IV(1), 11-16.

27.  Clark, D. B., & Linn, M. C. (2003). Designing for knowledge integration: the impact of instructional time. Journal of Learning Sciences, 12(4), 451-493.

28.  Clark, D. B., Weinberger, A., Jucks, I., Spitulnik, M., & Wallace, R. (2003). Designing effective science inquiry in text-based computer-supported collaborative learning environments. The International Journal of Educational Policy, Research and Practice, IV(1), 55-82.

29.  Linn, M. C., Clark, D. B., & Slotta, J. D. (2003). WISE design for knowledge integration. Science Education, 87(4), 517-538.

30.  Spitulnik, M., Bouillion, E., Rummel, N., Clark, D. B., Fischer, F. (2003). Collaborative online environments for lifelong learning: design issues from a situated learning perspective. The International Journal of Educational Policy, Research and Practice, IV(1), 83-116.

31.  Clark, D. B., & Slotta, J. D. (2000). Evaluating media-enhancement and source authority on the internet: the Knowledge Integration Environment. International Journal of Science Education, 22(8), 859-871.

Chapters in Books

1. Clark, D. B., Nelson, B., Atkinson, R., Ramirez-Marin, F., & Medina, W. (in press). Integrating flexible language supports within online science learning environments. H. Waxman (Ed.), Research on Technology Use in Multicultural Settings.

2.  Martinez-Garza, M., & Clark, D. B. (in press). Games for learning. In R. Gunstone (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Science Education. New York: Springer.

3.  Ramirez-Marin, F. & Clark, D. B. (2013). Academic language in science for English learners. Arias, MB and Faltis, C. (Eds.), Academic Language in Second Language Learning. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. 

4.  Clark, D. B. & Linn, M. C. (2013). The knowledge integration perspective: Connections across research and education. In S. Vosniadou (Ed.) International Handbook of Research on Conceptual Change (2nd Edition) (pp. 520-538). New York: Routledge.

5.  Clark, D. B., & Sengupta, P. (2013). Argumentation and modeling: Integrating the products and practices of science to improve science education. In M. Khine & I. Saleh (Eds.), Approaches and Strategies in Next Generation Science Learning (pp. 85-105). Hershey, PA: IGI Global/Information Science References doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-2809-0.ch005

6.  Martinez-Garza, M., & Clark, D. B. (2013). Teachers and teaching in game-based learning theory and practice. In M. Khine & I. Saleh (Eds.), Approaches and Strategies in Next Generation Science Learning (pp. 147-163). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-2809-0.ch008.

7.  Chinn, C., & Clark, D. B. (2013). Learning through collaborative argumentation. In Hmelo-Silver, C. E., Chinn, C. A., Chan, C. K. K., & O'Donnell, A. M. (Eds.) International Handbook of Collaborative Learning. (pp. 314-332). New York: Routledge.

8.  Clark, D. B., & Martinez-Garza, M. (2012). Prediction and explanation as design mechanics in conceptually-integrated digital games to help players articulate the tacit understandings they build through gameplay. C. Steinkuhler, K. Squire, & S. Barab (Eds.), Games, Learning, And Society: Learning And Meaning In The Digital Age (pp. 279-305)Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

9.  Clark, D. B., Martinez-Garza, M., Biswas, G., Luecht, R. M., & Sengupta, P. (2012). Driving assessment of students’ explanations in game dialog using computer-adaptive testing and hidden Markov Modeling. In D. Ifenthaler, D. Eseryel, & G. Xun (Eds.). Game-based Learning: Foundations, Innovations, and Perspectives (pp. 173-199). New York: Springer.

10.  Clark, D. B., Sampson, V. D., Chang, H., Zhang, H., Tate, E., & Schwendimann, B. (2011). Research on critique and argumentation from the Technology Enhanced Learning in Science Center. In M. Khine (Ed.) Perspectives on Scientific Argumentation: Theory, Practice and Research (pp. 157-200). The Netherlands: Springer.

11.  Jeong, A., Clark, D. B., Sampson, V. D., & Menekse, M. (2010). Sequential analysis of scientific argumentation in asynchronous online discussion environments. S. Puntambekar, G. Erkens, & C. Hmelo-Silver (Eds.), Analyzing Interactions in CSCL (Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Series): Methods, Approaches and Issues (pp. 207-234). The Netherlands: Springer.

12.  Clark, D. B., Sampson, V. D., Stegmann, K., Marttunen, M., Kollar, I., Janssen, J., Weinberger, A., Menekse, M., Erkens, G., & Laurinen, L. (2010). Online learning environments, scientific argumentation, and 21st century skills. In B. Ertl (Ed.) E-Collaborative Knowledge Construction: Learning from Computer-Supported and Virtual Environments (pp. 1-39). New York: IGI Global.

13.  Clark, D. B., Varma, K., McElhaney, K., & Chiu, J. (2008). Design rationale within TELS projects to support knowledge integration. D. Robinson & G. Schraw (Eds.), Recent Innovations in Educational Technology that Facilitate Student Learning (pp. 157-193). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

14.  Tate, E., Clark, D. B., Gallagher, J., & McLaughlin, D. (2008). Designing science instruction for diverse learners. In Y. Kali, M. C. Linn, & J. E. Roseman (Eds.), Designing Coherent Science Education (pp. 65-93). New York: Teachers College Press.

15.  Clark, D. B. & Chaudury, S. R. (2008). Creating coherent inquiry projects to support student cognition and collaboration in physics. J. Luft, R. Bell, & J. Gess-Newsome (Eds.), Science as Inquiry in the Secondary Setting (pp. 65-77). Arlington, VA: National Science Teacher Association Press.

16.  Clark, D. B., Stegmann, K., Weinberger, A., Menekse, M., & Erkens, G. (2008). Technology-enhanced learning environments to support students’ argumentation. In S. Erduran & M. P. Jiménez-Aleixandre (Eds.), Argumentation in Science Education: Perspectives from Classroom-Based Research (pp. 217-243). Dordrecht: Springer.

17.  D’Angelo, C. M., Touchman, S., & Clark, D. B. (2008). Overview of constructivism. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.) Psychology of Classroom Learning: An Encyclopedia (Volume 1. pp. 262-267). New York: MacMillan Reference.

18.  Baker, D., Piburn, M., & Clark, D. B. (2005). TEAMS: Working together to improve teacher education. In R. Yager (Ed.), Exemplary Science: Best Practices in Professional Development (pp. 35-44). Arlington, VA: NSTA Press.

19.  Clark, D. B. (2004). Hands-on investigation in Internet environments: Teaching thermal equilibrium. In M. C. Linn, E. A. Davis., & P. Bell (Eds.), Internet Environments for Science Education (pp. 175-200). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

20.  Clark, D. B., & Slotta, J. D. (2004). The Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE). In A. Kovalchick & K. Dawson (Eds.), Education & Technology: An Encyclopedia (Vol. 2, pp. 630-638). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

21.  Cuthbert, A. J., Clark, D. B., & Linn, M. C. (2002). WISE learning communities: Design considerations. In K.A. Renninger & W. Shumar (Eds.), Building Virtual Communities: Learning and Change in Cyberspace (pp. 215-246). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Work Submitted or in Preparation

1.  Clark, D. B., Tanner-Smith, E., & Killingsworth, S. (revised and resubmitted). Digital games, design, and learning: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research. 

2.  Krinks, K., Sengupta, P., & Clark, D. B. (in revision). Conceptual change in physics through use of digital games. Journal of the Learning Sciences

3.  Schleigh, S., Clark, D. B., & Menekse, M. (submitted). Constructed-response as an alternative to interviews in conceptual change studies: Students' explanations of force. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology.

4.  Martinez-Garza, M., Clark, D. B., Killingsworth, S., & Adams, D. (in preparation). Beyond fun: Pintrich, motivation to learn, and games for learning.

5.  Clark, D. B., Van Eaton, G., & Smith, B. (in preparation). Face to face and virtual collaboration in a digital game: Levels of physics thinking. 

6.  Van Eaton, G., & Clark, D. B. (in preparation). Designing digital objects to elicit conceptual change.

7.  Martinez-Garza, & Clark, D. B. (in preparation). Heuristics or mental models?: Learning in digital simulations and games.

8. Clark, D. B., Sengupta, P., Brady, C., Martinez-Garza, M., & Killingsworth, S. (submitted). Disciplinary Integration in Digital Games for Science Learning. International STEM Education Journal.

9. Basu, S., Sengupta, P., Dickes, A., Biswas, G., Kinnebrew, J. , & Clark, D. (submitted). Investigating learner interactions with a computational thinking based learning environment for middle school science: Challenges faced and scaffolds required. Educational Technology Research & Development.

10. Killingsworth, S., Adams, D., & Clark, D. B. (in preparation). Cognitive and Motivational Influences on Learning and Play in a Physics Game.

11. Martinez-Garza, M. & Clark, D. B. (submitted). Two systems, two stances: a novel theoretical framework for model-based learning in digital games. Submitted to Educational Psychologist.

12. Clark, D. B. & Martinez-Garza, M. (submitted). Deep Analysis of Nuances and Epistemic Frames Around Argumentation and Learning in Informal Learning Spaces. Submitted to Computers in Human Behavior.

13. Van Eaton, G. & Clark, D. B., (in preparation). Designing Digital Objects to Scaffold Learning. Chapter to appear in J. Wycliffe and F. Muwanga-Zake (Eds.) Educational and Learning Games: New Research. Nova Science Publishers.

14. Van Eaton, G. & Clark, D. B., (submitted). A Multispatial Analysis of Representation Creation. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology.

15. Clark, D. B., Martinez-Garza, M., Kinnebrew, J., Biswas, G. & Sengupta, P. (in preparation). Self-Explanation Functionality to Enhance Reflection in Games through Game Dialog: Pre-Post and Data-Mining Analyses of Student Trajectories and Learning.

16. Sengupta, P., Clark, D. B., Krinks, K., Killingsworth, S., & Brady, C. (In preparation). From trajectories to change in speed: Learning physics through representational translation in video games.

17. Adams, D. & Clark, D. B. (in preparation). Scaffolding student game play and learning through worked examples.

18. Virk, S. & Clark, D. B. (in preparation). Leveraging research on compare and contrast strategies to support student reflection and learning during game play.

19. Martinez-Garza, M. & Clark, D. B. (in preparation). Data-mining epistemic stances from raw game-play data. 


1. Clark, D. B. (2000). Scaffolding knowledge integration through curricular depth. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of California at Berkeley.