Doctor degree enrollment. Medical field universities.
The best examples are PH.D. (Doctor of Philosophy), US Degree (Doctor of Medicine)
and the Dutch (Professional Doctoratein Engineering).
The first medical schools to issue diplomas and medical degrees, were the Bimaristan hospitals of medival Islamic world.
Sir John Bagot Glubb states the first of these institutions was opened in Baghdad the reign of Harum al-Rashid. In 872 they appeared in Egypt, then in, Persia and Islamic Spain. Surgeons and physicians gave lectures about medicine at these first University-hospitals.
Medical students were taught Islamic medicine. Those who qualified were issued a Diploma or Degree allowing them to practice as a physician.
Medical men were first called a "Doctor" at the Medical School of Salerno. Records state that in 1221, the Emperor Frederick ll decreed "no one should practice medicine until they have been inspected by the public and approved by the Masters of Salerno". To start the 5 year course one had to show proof of legitimacy, have 3 years study of logic and be 21 years of age.
Academic Degree by Country
After graduation physicians in the US are required to complete at least one internship year and pass USMLE step 3. A Residency is required to receive or be eligible for specialty medicine status. Such as
general surgery or internal medicine. Cardiology or interventional radiology are a couple of examples that need further education after acquiring the MD. A fellowship can last 3-8 years. Additional training for various fields may lengthen with research time.
Canada requires the basic MD medical degree to practice medicine
McGill University in Montreal awards MD,C.M.(Medicinae Doctor et Chirurgiae Magister) or Doctor of Medice and Master of Surgery Degrees. The University of British Columbia in Vancouver has a four year MD PhD undergraduate program. It is limited to Canadian citizens and permanent residents of Canada. All applicants are required to take the Medical College Admission Test.
Graduate Record Examination is optional.
MB or Bachelor of Medicine were the first type of medical degrees to be issued in Canada and the United States of America.
Harvard, Columbia, Penn, Maryland and Toronto were the first North American Medical schools that granted the MB degree. Most physicians arrived from England and Scotland.
19th century England medical education bodies required practitioners to hold dual degrees
The Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgeon. Practioners in Scotland were required to have the same degrees.
North America medical schools changed to the Ancient traditions of the Universities of Scotland through the 1800's. They began granting the MB degree to qualified applicants.
New York's Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons was the first to grant MB Degree instead of MB.
In the United States MDs are issued by LCME accredited schools. They are an independent body sponsored by the AMA and the Association of America Medical Colleges.
Competition for admission to medical schools in the USA is high. A four year under-graduate degree,plus a Medical College Admission Test must be completed before entering Medical school.
Before graduation most schools will require the United States Medical Licensing Examination step 1 and step 2 of Clinical Knowledge and Clinical Skills. Typically the MD Degree is earned in 4 years.
IRELAND and some COMMON WEALTH countries
In Ireland and some Common Wealth countries, MD is a post graduate degree. This takes form in a 1rst Doctorate analogous to the PhD. Awarded after submission of a successful viva and thesis. The UK allows full or part-time research for your thesis. Less supervision is required compared to a PhD. A Portfolio of previously published work may also be accepted. Application for a MD requires MBBS, MBChB or equivalent US-MD degree. 5 years of post graduate experience is a standard requirement.
Universities such as Cambridge or Oxford, award the MD as a higher doctorate after submission of a portfolio containing substantial medical research.
If the MD is awarded for previously published research, the candidate is required to be a graduate or full-time staff member with several years experience at the University.
In Australia a MD may be obtained from the University of Melbourne. The doctorate of Medicine is their first professional degree for graduates of Bachelor of Bio-Medicine or Bachelor of Science. The university is the first to leave the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Science (MBBS). They offer the MD as a professional degree in medicine rather than a research degree.
The Degree of Physician in Argentina is equivalent to the North American MD. Usually 6 years of study is required followed by 3-4 years of a residency for a specialized field. This will include internships, social services and research. After obtaining a Medical Title and completing the residency stage required, a student may apply for a MD through a Doctorate of Medicine program. The course must be approved by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation.
In India the MD represents the level of training required to be licensed as a physician. The MD degree represents specialty training for medical practice.Equivalent training in the US or Canada would be a residency completed after a medical degree and approved internship. The MD course is restricted to medical graduates with a MBBS degree. The duration is 5 and 1/2 years. Training is medical disciplines non-surgical in nature. ( Example: Internal Medicine,Radiology, Pathology). Successful completion of an examination including both practical and theoretical elements is required. 3 years of study must also be completed before the MD will be awarded.
Research is not prominent as this is a qualification resembling professional doctorates in the USA and Canada. The equivalent would be Master of Surgery inOrthopedicsandGynecology.
A DNB (Diploma of the National Board of Examiners) is a 3rd qualification. It is equivalent to the MD and MS degrees. 3 years of recognized study must be completed and the passing of an examination presented by the board. Further specialization is done after obtaining a MD, MS, or DNB degree. 3 years of hard training and study followed by passing the examination (both theory and practical) is required for a DM.
(Doctorate in Medicine Super Specialty)Examples: Cardiology, Neurology, Neurology, Gastroenterology. Surgical specialties are MCh, MCh etc. degrees. The DM or MCh is equivalent to fellowship training in the USA and considered post doctoral degrees in India. (Similar to the PhD).
MBBS (Bachelors of Medicine and Bachelors of Surgery) is the equivalent degree in Pakistan. After completing 5 years of study the MBBS is awarded. Comprising 2 years of study in science subjects such as Anatomy, Physiology, Bio-Chemistry. Particular emphasis is placed on human anatomy. Subsequently there is 3 years of clinical internship and courses on Pharmacology and Medical Surgery. The student is required to work 1 year under a professor before an awarded degree of MBBS can be obtained. Specialization Degrees require passing of the examination presented by the College of Physicians & Surgeons Pakistan. (FCPS) Exam - 1 in specialization and obtain a internship in the related field. 3-6 years is the normal length of training. Next comes FCPS Exam - 2 . This includes intensive practical exams. After completion the medical student is awarded a fellowship. Before entering Medical College, tough entry exams must be passed. The Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC) supervise the qualifications of Medical Colleges and any foreign qualifications. The Pakistan College of Physicians and Surgeons award degrees in specialized fields.
EQUIVALENT DEGREES in other COUNTRIES
The Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery Degrees. (MB BS or MB ChB, with several variants).
In North America the American Osteopathic Medical Degree has similar MD training requirements.
Title of "Dottore in Medicina e Chirurgia" (Doctor in Medicine and Surgery) awarded on graduation in Italy. Physicians then use "Dr" or "Dott" before their name.
German Physicians receive the degree "Dr Med, Doktor der Medezin".
Mexico as well as most Latin countries, schools of medicine award the title "Titulo de Medico Cirujano y Partero" upon completing 6-7 years of study.
The curriculum includes a rotating internship and includes serving one year to under-serviced communities.
Danish and Norwegian countries use Candidatus Medicinae or Candidata Medicinae.
Poland awards the title "Lekarz or Lek". A higher doctoral degree resembling a PhD is named "dr n.med" or "doktor nauk medycznych".
In Nepal, an MBBS degree is awarded.
Iran awards a MD upon completion of 7 years of study started with 5 1/2 years university education. This includes 2 1/2 years basic services, 2 years clinical courses, 1 year physiologic followed by 1 1/2 years in an internship. Must be done in an accredited hospital, plus a thesis must be submitted.
China accredited medical schools award an MBBS to foreign students. Bachelor of Medicine is awarded to Nationals. MD is a higher academic research degree.