What follows are a few examples from the issues and sentences.  For the full list see the page 'Challenges'.  Participants are free to add their own challenges, but each challenge should include one or more generic topics plus a set of at least three sentences and/or queries to be discussed during the workshop. 

  • Approximation, qualitative values, proportion etc. of measures: e.g. “Light microscopes can magnify effectively to about 1,000 times the size of the actual specimen; at greater magnifications, the image becomes increasingly blurry.”
  • Abstraction and high level descriptions: e.g. “Enzymes proofread DNA during its replication and repair damage in existing DNA”
  • Timing of events in processes: e.g. “As it enters the cisternal space, the new protein folds into its native conformation.”
  • Explanation: “The logistics of carrying out metabolism set limits on cell size. ”
  • Hypotheticals, particularly as parts of explanations: e.g. “The lysosome provides a space where the cell can digest macromolecules safely, without the general destruction that would occur if hydrolytic enzymes roamed at large.”
  • Representation of “may”, “typical”, qualitative reasoning under uncertainty: e.g. “The daughter cells may then repeat the cycle.” “Pneumonia may be caused by bacteria”. “The typical lifespan of a mouse of this strain is around 6 months”
  • Relative measure, maximum, minimum: e.g. “Resolving power is a measure of the clarity of the image; it is the minimum distance two points can be separated and still be distinguished as two separate points.” 
  • Representation of context: e.g. “In adults, the illness is rarely serious, but in infants in can be fatal”. “In the elderly, pneumonia is a common cause of confusion.”