Dr. D. Sudhakar




  • Kumar KK, Kokiladevi E, Arul L, Varanavasiappan S and Sudhakar D. 2018. Engineering Disease Resistance in Rice. In Biotechnologies of Crop Improvement, Volume 2, Transgenic Approaches. Edited by Gosal SS and Wani SH, Springer International Publishing, 485 pages.
  • Nandhakumar N, Kumar KK, Sudhakar D and Soorianathasundaram K. 2018. Plant regeneration, developmental pattern and genetic fidelity of somatic embryogenesis derived Musa spp., Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology 16:587–598.



  • Manikandan R, Balakrishnan N, Sudhakar D and Udayasuriyan V. 2016. Development of leaffolder resistant transgenic rice expressing cry2AX1 gene driven by green tissue‐ specific rbcS promoter. World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 32:37. DOI 10.1007/s11274‐015‐ 2006‐z.
  • Manikandan R, Balakrishnan N, Sudhakar D and Udayasuriyan V. 2016. Transgenic rice plants expressing synthetic cry2AX1 gene exhibits resistance to rice leaf folder (Cnaphalocrosis medinalis). 3 Biotech, 6:10 DOI 10.1007/s13205‐015‐0315‐4.
  • Rajesh T, Maruthasalam S, Kalpana K, Poovannan K, Kumar KK, Kokiladevi E, Sudhakar D, Samiyappan R, and Balasubramanian P. 2016. Stability of sheath blight resistance in transgenic ASD16 rice linesexpressing a rice chi11 gene encoding chitinase, Biologia plantarum 60: 749-756
  • Joshi JB, Nallathambi G, Kumar KK, Kokiladevi E, Arul L, Balasubramanian P and Sudhakar D. 2016. An efficient recovery of transgenic plants from a tropical indian maize inbred line. J Microbiol Biotech Food Sci, 5 (4) 335‐340.


  • Nachimuthu V, Raveendran M, Sudhakar D, Rajeswari S, Balaji AP, Govinthraj, P Karthika G, Manonmani S, Suji KK and Robin S. 2015. Analysis of Population Structure and Genetic Diversity in Rice Germplasm Using SSR Markers: An initiative towards association mapping of agronomic traits in Oryza sativa. Rice, 8:30; DOI 10.1186/s12284‐015‐ 0062‐5.
  • Sakthi AR, Naveenkumar A, Deepikha PS, Balakrishnan N, Kumar KK, Kokila Devi E, Balasubramani V, Arul L, Singh PK, Sudhakar D, Udayasuriyan V, Balasubramanian P. 2015. Expression and inheritance of chimeric cry2AX1 gene in transgenic cotton plants generated through somatic embryogenesis. In vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology-Plant, 51: 379–389
  • Joshi JB, Geetha S, Singh B, , Kumar KK, Kokiladevi E, Arul L, Balasubra¬maniam P, Sudhakar D. 2015. A maize α-zein promoter drives an endosperm-specific expression of transgene in rice. Physiol Mol Biol Plants, 21: 35-42.

  • Hifzur Rahman, N. Jagadeeshselvam, R. Valarmathi, B. Sachin, R. Sasikala, N. Senthil, D. Sudhakar, S. Robin and Raveendran Muthurajan. 2014. Transcriptome analysis of salinity responsiveness in contrasting genotypes of finger millet (Eleusine coracanaL.) through RNA‑sequencing. Plant Molecular Biology, DOI 10.1007/s11103-014-0199-4.  

  • Joshi JB, Yathish KR, Joel AJ, Kumar KK, Kokiladevi E, Arul L, Gnanam R, Balasubra¬maniam P, Sudhakar D. 2014. A high-throughput regeneration protocol for recalcitrant tropical Indian maize (Zea mays L) inbreds. Maydica 59: 211-216.
  • Bollineni H, Krishnan SG, Sundaram RM, Sudhakar D, Prabhu KV, Singh NK, Pal D, Sushma D, Khurana JP and Singh AK. 2014. Marker assisted biofortification of rice with pro-vitamin A using transgenic Golden Rice® lines: progress and prospects. Indian J. Genet., 74(4) Suppl.

  • Prathima, M. Raveendran, K. K. Kumar, P. R. Rahul, V. Ganesh Kumar, R. Viswanathan, A. Ramesh Sundar, P. Malathi, D. Sudhakar, P. Balasubramaniam. 2013. Differential Regulation of Defense-Related Gene Expression in Response to Red Rot Pathogen Colletotrichum falcatum Infection in Sugarcane. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology , 171:488–503. DOI 10.1007/s12010-013-0346-4. 
  • Singh S, Sudhakar D and Modi MK. 2013. Rice: Genetic Engineering Approaches to Enhance Grain Iron Content. In Improving Crop Productivity in Sustainable Agriculture, Edited by Narendra Tuteja, Sarvajeet Singh Gill, and Renu Tuteja. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
  • Praghadeesh M, Dhananjay D, Sudhakar D, Jayamani P and Krishnaveni S. 2013. In vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Pigeonpea. Madras Agricultural Journal.100: 32-37

  • Farre G, Sudhakar D, Naqvi S, Sandmann G, Christou P, Capell T, Zhu C. 2012. Transgenic rice grains expressing a heterologous q-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase shift tocopherol synthesis from the c to the a isoform without increasing absolute tocopherol levels. Transgenic Res., 21:1093–1097.
  • Anandan R, Sudhakar D, Balasubramanian P and Gutiérrez-Mora A. 2012. In vitro somatic embryogenesis from suspension cultures of Carica papaya. Scientia Horticulturae, 136: 43-49.

  • Gómez-Galera S, Sudhakar D, Pelacho AM, Capell T, Christou P. 2011. Constitutive expression of a barley Fe phytosiderophore transporter increases alkaline soil tolerance and results in iron partitioning between vegetative and storage tissues under stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 53: 46 – 53.

  • Gómez-Galera S, Rojas E, Sudhakar D, Zhu C, Pelacho AM, Capell T and Christou P. 2010. Critical evaluation of strategies for mineral fortification of staple food crops. Transgenic Research, 19: 165-180.

  • Venkatesan S, Raja JAJ, Maruthasalam S, Kumar KK, Ramanathan A, Sudhakar D and Balasubramanian P. 2009. Transgenic resistance by N gene of a Peanut bud necrosis virus isolate of characteristic phylogeny, Virus Genes (2009) 38:445–454.

  • Rajesh, S., S. Krishnaveni, D. Sudhakar, M. Raveendran, P. Sivakumar, R. Gnanam and A. Manickam. 2008. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.), IR64 with Mungbean LEA Protein Gene for Water-Stress Tolerance. American Journal of Plant Physiology, 3(3):101-110.
  • Kalaiarasan, P, Sivakumar, M and Sudhakar, D. 2008. Engineering Genetic Resistance against Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in Tomato using a Antifungal Rice Chitinase Gene (chi 11). Indian J of Nemato., 38(1): 34-41
  • Arul L, Benita G, Sudhakar D, Thayumanavan B, Balasubramanian P 2008. β-glucuronidase of family-2 glycosyl hydrolase: A missing member in plants. Bioinformation 3: 194-197.

  • Maruthasalam S, Kalpana K, Kumar KK, Loganathan M, Poovannan K, Raja JAJ, Kokiladevi E, Samiyappan R, Sudhakar D and Balasubramanian P. 2007. Pyramiding transgenic resistance in elite indica rice cultivars against the sheath blight and bacterial blight. Plant Cell Rep., 26: 791–804

  • Sareena S, Poovannan K, Kumar K K, Raja J A J, Samiyappan R, Sudhakar, D and Balasubramanian P. 2006. Biochemical responses in transgenic rice plants expressing a defence gene deployed against the sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. Current Sci., 91: 1529-1532.
  • Kalpana K, Maruthasalam S, Rajesh T, Poovannan K, Kumar KK, Kokiladevi E, Raja JAJ, Sudhakar D, Velazhahan R, Samiyappan R and Balasubramanian P. 2006. Engineering sheath blight resistance in elite indica rice cultivars using genes encoding defense proteins. Plant Science, 170: 203-215.
  • Poulsen M, Kroghsbo S, Schroder M, Wilcks A, Jacobsen H, Miller A, Frenzel T, Danier J, Rychlik M, Shu Q, Emami K, Sudhakar D, Gatehouse A, Engel KH and Knudsen I. 2006. A 90-day safety study in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA). Food Chem Toxicol., 45: 350-363.

  • Kumar KK, Maruthasalam S, Loganathan M. Sudhakar D, Balasubramanian P. 2005. An Improved Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Protocol for Recalcitrant Elite Indica Rice Cultivars. Plum Molecular Biology Reporter 23: 67-73

  • Kumar KK, Poovannan K, Nandakumar R, Thamilarasi K, Geetha C, Jayashree N, Kokiladevi E, Raja JAJ, Samiyappan R, Sudhakar D and Balasubramanian P 2003. A high throughput functional expression assay system for a defence gene conferring transgenic resistance on rice against the sheath blight pathogen, Rhizactonia solani. Plant Science 165: 969-976.

  • Kurek I , Dulberger R , Azem A, Tzvi BB, Sudhakar D, Christou P and Breiman A. 2002. Deletion of the C-terminal 138 amino acids of the wheat FKBP73 abrogates calmodulin binding, dimerization and male fertility in transgenic rice. Plant Molecular Biolog,y 48: 369–381.

  • Fu X, Sudhakar D, Peng J, Richards DE, Christou P, Harberd NP. 2001. Expression of Arabidopsis GAI in Transgenic Rice Represses Multiple Rice Gibberellin Responses. Plant Cell, 13: 1791-1802.


  • Fu X, Duc LT, Fontana S, Bong BB, Tinjuangjun P, Sudhakar D, Twyman RM, Christou P, Kohli A. 2000. Linear transgene constructs lacking vector backbone sequences generate low copy number transgenic plants with simple integration patterns. Transgenic Res., 9: 11-19.
  • Gahakwa D, Maqbool S, Fu X, Sudhakar D, Christrou P, Kohli A. 2000. Transgenic rice as a system to study the stability of transgene expression: Multiple heterologous transgenes show similar behaviour in diverse genetic backgrounds. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 101: 388-399.
  • Mazithulela G, Sudhakar D, Heckel T, Mehlo L, Christou P, Davies JW, Boulton M. 2000. The maize streak virus coat protein transcription unit exhibits tissue-specific expression in transgenic rice. Plant Science, 155: 21-29.

  • Peng J., Richards DE, Hartely NM, Murphy GP, Devos KM, Flintham JE, Beales J, Worland AJ, Pelica F, Sudhakar D, Christou P, Gale MD, Harberd NP. 1999. Green Revolution genes encode mutant gibberellin response modulators. Nature, 400: 265-261.


  • Sudhakar D, Duc L, Bong BB, Tinjuangjun P, Bano S, Valdez M, Jefferson R, Christou P. 1998. An efficient rice transformation system utilising mature seed derived explants and a portable, inexpensive particle bombardment device. Transgenic Research, 7: 289-294
  • Sudhakar D, Fu X, Stoger E, Williams S, Spence J, Brown DP, Bharathi M, Gatehouse JA and Christou P. 1998. Expression and immunolocalization of the snowdrop lectin, GNA in transgenic rice plants. Transgenic Research, 7: 371-378.
  • Valdez V, Cabrera Ponce JL, Sudhakar D, Herrera Estrella L and Christou P. 1998. Transgenic Central American, West African and Asian elite rice varieties resulting from particle bombardment of foreign DNA into mature seed derived explants. Annals of Botany, 82: 795-801.
  • Rao KV, Rathore KS, Hodges TK, Fu X, Stoger E, Sudhakar D, Williams S, Christou P, Bharathi M, Brown DP, Powell KS, Spence J, Gatehouse, AMR and Gatehouse, JA. 1998 Expression of snowdrop lectin (GNA) in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to rice brown planthopper, The Plant Journal, 15: 469-477.


On-Going Projects Details:
 S. No Project Name  Funding Agency  Duration Budget
1 BPH and False smut resistant rice (PI)

2015 to 2019

28.85 lakhs  
2 Cloning nematicidal protein encoding cry genes from Indian isolates of Bt and expression in tomato (PI)
DBT, New Delhi 
 2015 - 2018

45.112 lakhs   
3 Programme support for Developing resilient rice through genomics (PI)
DBT, New Delhi 
 2016 - 2021

116.22 lakhs   
4 Genetic improvement of rice for yield, NUE, WUE, abiotic and biotic stress tolerance through RNA Guided Genome Editing (CRISPR/Cas9/Cpf1) (PI)
 2015 - 2018

70.89 lakhs   
5 Development of Fusarium resistant elite banana cultivars of NE India (Co-PI) DBT - NER  
 2018 - 2021

25.23 lakhs   
Completed Projects Details:

S. No Project Name  Funding Agency Duration Budget
1 Genetic Engineering of elite rice cultivars for resistance to major pest and diseases (PI)  Rockefeller Foundation
1999 - 2003

USD 51,000   

Development of Molecular Markers for insect and disease resistance and production of transgenics in rice Rockefeller Foundation (PI)   Rockefeller Foundation

2000 -  2005

USD 200,000    
 3 Development of molecular markers for leaffolder, brown plant hopper and yellow stem borer and pyramiding insect resistance genes in rice (PI)   
DBT, New Delhi
2002 - 2007

76.8 lakhs
4 Development of transgenic Bt eggplant resistant to Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee and field evaluation of IPM in vegetable crops (Co-PI)   USAID -IPM-CRSP
2003 - 2005

USD 45000   
5 Development of transgenic banana with  increased shelf life (Co-PI)
DBT, New Delhi

2004 - 2006

16.66 lakhs   
6 Development of rice lines capable of synthesizing pro-vitamin A in endosperm by genetic transformation (PI)  DBT, New Delhi
2002 - 2007

43 lakhs   
7 Development of Indica rice lines capable of synthesizing Provitamin A in endosperm by marker assisted back-cross breeding (PI)  DBT, New Delhi
2007 - 2012

43.698 lakhs   
8 Development of Adapted Germplasm for India with High Levels of pro-Vitamin Carotenoid  (PI)  IRRI, Philippines
01.01.2009 To 31.12.2009

33.876 lakhs   
9 Development of transgenic greenhouse facility at TNAU, Coimbatore (PI)  DBT, New Delhi
2004 - 2007

41 lakhs   
10 Rice Biofortification with enhanced iron and zinc in high yielding non-basmati cultivars through marker assisted breeding and transgenic approach  phase 1 (PI)  DBT, New Delhi
2005 - 2011

44.30 lakhs   
11 Rice Biofortification with enhanced iron and zinc in high yielding non-basmati cultivars through marker assisted breeding and transgenic approach – phase 2 (PI)  DBT, New Delhi
2012 - 17

178.635 lakhs   
12 Programme support for Research and Development in Agricultural Biotechnology at TNAU – Development of micro-nutrient rich maize cultivars meant for poultry feed through transgenic means (PI) DBT, New Delhi
2006 - 2012

764 lakhs   

Novel approaches for production of hybrid seeds with characteristics of improved insect resistance and higher yield Phase I (Co-PI)

2008 - 2011

100.748 lakhs   

Development of lnsect Resistance Technology for Crop Plants through cry2Ai gene (Co-PI)

2014 - 2017

59.154 lakhs   

Genetic engineering of cotton for leaf curl virus disease resistance through RNAi technology (Co-PI)

2012 - 2014

20 lakhs   
16 Sustainable cocoa production in Tamil Nadu (Co-PI) Kraft Foods, UK 2013 - 2018 48.925 lakhs   

Genetic engineering of major crops for insect resistance (Co-PI)
JK Agri Genetics

2011 - 2014

10 lakhs   

Engineering rice for resistance to major lepidopteran pests using a novel synthetic cry2AX1 gene

2010 - 2014

31.432 lakhs   

Development of insect Resistance Technology for Crop Plants (Co-PI)
DBT, New Delhi

2014 - 2017

38.602 lakhs