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JEJ.Hapludalfs

Key to Great Groups 

JEJ. Other Udalfs. Hapludalfs, p. 208 

JEJ. Hapludalfs are the Udalfs that do not have a glossic, kandic, or natric horizon or a fragipan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. They do not have very dark red colors throughout the argillic horizon. The base of the argillic horizon is normally less than 150 cm below the soil surface and, in many areas, is less than 100 cm below the surface. In an undisturbed soil, there generally is a thin, very dark brown A horizon, 5 to 10 cm thick, over a lighter colored brownish eluvial horizon. The eluvial horizon grades into a finer textured argillic horizon, generally at a depth of about 30 to 45 cm in loamy materials. Because the Hapludalfs have been cultivated extensively, many of those on slopes have lost their eluvial horizons. These soils formed principally in late-Pleistocene deposits or on a surface of comparable age. They are extensive soils in the Northeastern States, excluding New England, and in Europe, excluding most of Scandinavia. The vegetation on Hapludalfs in the United States was a deciduous broadleaf forest, but the soils are now mostly farmed. Temperature regimes are mesic or thermic. 

Definition 

Hapludalfs are the Udalfs that:

1. Do not have a glossic, kandic, or natric horizon;

2. Have an argillic horizon that in some part has hue of 5YR or yellower, a color value, moist, of 3.5 or more, or a color value, dry, more than 1 unit higher than the moist value;

3. Do not have a fragipan within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface;

4. Either have a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact within 150 cm of the soil surface or have a clay distribution in which the clay content decreases with increasing depth by 20 percent or more from its maximum within 150 cm of the soil surface and, if there is a clay increase of 3 percent or more (absolute) below that layer, less than 5 percent of the volume in the layer where the clay content decreases consists of skeletans on faces of peds, if:

                a. Hue is redder than 10YR and chroma of more than 4 is dominant;

                b. Hue is 2.5YR or redder, the value, moist, is less than 4, and the value, dry, is less than 5 throughout the major part of the argillic horizon; or

                c. There are many coarse redox concentrations that have hue redder than 7.5YR or chroma of more than 5. 

Key to Subgroups 

JEJA. Hapludalfs that have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface. Lithic Hapludalfs 

JEJB. Other Hapludalfs that have all of the following:

1. One or both of the following:

                a. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years, and slickensides or wedge-shaped aggregates in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower; and

2. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either:

                a. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface; and

3. An Ap horizon or materials between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm that, after mixing, have one or more of the following:

                a. A color value, moist, of 4 or more; or

                b. A color value, dry, of 6 or more; or

                c. Chroma of 4 or more. Aquertic Chromic Hapludalfs 

JEJC. Other Hapludalfs that have both:

1. One or both of the following:

                a. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years, and slickensides or wedge-shaped aggregates in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower; and

2. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either:

                a. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Aquertic Hapludalfs 

JEJD. Other Hapludalfs that have both:

1. Saturation with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both:

                a. 20 or more consecutive days; or

                b. 30 or more cumulative days; and

2. One or both of the following:

                a. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years, and slickensides or wedge-shaped aggregates in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Oxyaquic Vertic Hapludalfs 

JEJE. Other Hapludalfs that have both:

1. One or both of the following:

                a. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years, and slickensides or wedge-shaped aggregates in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower; and

2. An Ap horizon or materials between the mineral soil surface and a depth of 18 cm that, after mixing, have one or more of the following:

                a. A color value, moist, of 4 or more; or

                b. A color value, dry, of 6 or more; or

                c. Chroma of 4 or more. Chromic Vertic Hapludalfs 

JEJF. Other Hapludalfs that have one or both of the following:

1. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years, and slickensides or wedge-shaped aggregates in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

2. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower. Vertic Hapludalfs 

JEJG. Other Hapludalfs that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, a fine-earth fraction with both a bulk density of 1.0 g/cm3 or less, measured at 33 kPa water retention, and Al plus 1/2 Fe percentages (by ammonium oxalate) totaling more than 1.0. Andic Hapludalfs 

JEJH. Other Hapludalfs that have, throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, one or both of the following:

1. More than 35 percent (by volume) fragments coarser than 2.0 mm, of which more than 66 percent is cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments; or

2. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter; and

                a. In the 0.02 to 2.0 mm fraction, 5 percent or more volcanic glass; and

                b. [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more. Vitrandic Hapludalfs 

JEJI. Other Hapludalfs that have both:

1. Fragic soil properties:

                a. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick; and

2. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either:

                a. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Fragiaquic Hapludalfs 

JEJJ. Other Hapludalfs that have both:

1. Fragic soil properties:

                a. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick; and

2. Saturation with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both:

                a. 20 or more consecutive days; or

                b. 30 or more cumulative days. Fragic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs 

JEJK. Other Hapludalfs that have both:

1. In one or more horizons within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface, redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less and also aquic conditions for some time in normal years (or artificial drainage); and

2. A sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. Aquic Arenic Hapludalfs 

JEJL. Other Hapludalfs that have:

1. An abrupt textural change; and

2. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either:

                a. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface; and

3. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 60 percent at a depth of 125 cm from the top of the argillic horizon, at a depth of 180 cm from the mineral soil surface, or directly above a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallowest. Albaquultic Hapludalfs 

JEJM. Other Hapludalfs that have both:

1. An abrupt textural change; and

2. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either:

                a. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Albaquic Hapludalfs 

JEJN. Other Hapludalfs that have both:

1. Interfingering of albic materials in the upper part of the argillic horizon; and

2. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either:

                a. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Glossaquic Hapludalfs 

JEJO. Other Hapludalfs that have both:

1. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either:

                a. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface; and

2. A base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 60 percent at a depth of 125 cm from the top of the argillic horizon, at a depth of 180 cm from the mineral soil surface, or directly above a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallowest. Aquultic Hapludalfs 

JEJP. Other Hapludalfs that have both:

1. An Ap horizon that has a color value, moist, of 3 or less and a color value, dry, of 5 or less (crushed and smoothed sample) or materials between the soil surface and a depth of 18 cm that have these color values after mixing; and

2. Redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either:

                a. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Aquollic Hapludalfs 

JEJQ. Other Hapludalfs that have redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either:

1. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

2. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface. Aquic Hapludalfs 

JEJR. Other Hapludalfs that have anthraquic conditions. Anthraquic Hapludalfs 

JEJS. Other Hapludalfs that are saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface in normal years for either or both:

1. 20 or more consecutive days; or

2. 30 or more cumulative days. Oxyaquic Hapludalfs 

JEJT. Other Hapludalfs that have fragic soil properties:

1. In 30 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

2. In 60 percent or more of the volume of a layer 15 cm or more thick. Fragic Hapludalfs 

JEJU. Other Hapludalfs that have an argillic horizon that:

1. Consists entirely of lamellae; or

2. Is a combination of two or more lamellae and one or more subhorizons with a thickness of 7.5 to 20 cm, each layer with an overlying eluvial horizon; or

3. Consists of one or more subhorizons that are more than 20 cm thick, each with an overlying eluvial horizon, and above these horizons there are either:

                a. Two or more lamellae with a combined thickness of 5 cm or more (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon); or

                b. A combination of lamellae (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon) and one or more parts of the argillic horizon 7.5 to 20 cm thick, each with an overlying eluvial horizon. Lamellic Hapludalfs 

JEJV. Other Hapludalfs that have a sandy particle-size class throughout the upper 75 cm of the argillic horizon or throughout the entire argillic horizon if it is less than 75 cm thick. Psammentic Hapludalfs 

JEJW. Other Hapludalfs that have a sandy or sandy-skeletal particle-size class throughout a layer extending from the mineral soil surface to the top of an argillic horizon at a depth of 50 cm or more. Arenic Hapludalfs 

JEJX. Other Hapludalfs that have interfingering of albic materials in one or more subhorizons of the argillic horizon. Glossic Hapludalfs 

JEJY. Other Hapludalfs that have:

1. An argillic, kandic, or natric horizon that is 35 cm or less thick; and

2. No densic, lithic, or paralithic contact within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface. Inceptic Hapludalfs 

JEJZ. Other Hapludalfs that have a base saturation (by sum of cations) of less than 60 percent at a depth of 125 cm below

the top of the argillic horizon, at a depth of 180 cm below the mineral soil surface, or directly above a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallowest. Ultic Hapludalfs 

JEJZa. Other Hapludalfs that have a mollic epipedon, an Ap horizon that meets all of the requirements for a mollic epipedon except thickness, or materials between the soil surface and a depth of 18 cm that meet these requirements after mixing. Mollic Hapludalfs 

JEJZb. Other Hapludalfs. Typic Hapludalfs 

Definition of Typic Hapludalfs 

Typic Hapludalfs are the Hapludalfs that:

1. Do not have a lithic contact within 50 cm of the soil surface;

2. Do not have either:

                a. Cracks within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface that are 5 mm or more wide through a thickness of 30 cm or more for some time in normal years, and slickensides or wedge-shaped aggregates in a layer 15 cm or more thick that has its upper boundary within 125 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. A linear extensibility of 6.0 cm or more between the mineral soil surface and either a depth of 100 cm or a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallower;

3. Do not have, throughout a cumulative thickness of 18 cm or more and within a depth of 75 cm, one or more of the following:

                a. A bulk density, in the fraction less than 2.0 mm in size, of 1.0 g/cm3 or less, measured at 33 kPa water retention, and acid-oxalate-extractable aluminum plus 1/2 acid-oxalateextractable iron of more than 1.0 percent; or

                b. Fragments coarser than 2.0 mm constituting more than 35 percent of the whole soil and cinders, pumice, and pumicelike fragments making up more than 66 percent of these fragments; or

                c. A fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter; and

                                (1) In the 0.02 to 2.0 mm fraction, 5 percent or more volcanic glass; and

                                (2) [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is equal to 30 or more;

4. Do not have redox depletions with chroma of 2 or less in layers that also have aquic conditions in normal years (or artificial drainage) either:

                a. Within the upper 25 cm of the argillic horizon if its upper boundary is within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface; or

                b. Within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface if the upper boundary of the argillic horizon is 50 cm or more below the mineral soil surface;

5. Are not saturated with water in any layer within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface for 7 or more consecutive days or 20 or more cumulative days in normal years;

6. Do not have anthraquic conditions;

7. Have a texture finer than loamy fine sand in one or more subhorizons within 50 cm of the mineral soil surface;

8. Do not have a mollic epipedon, an Ap horizon that meets all of the requirements for a mollic epipedon except thickness, or materials between the soil surface and a depth of 18 cm that meet these requirements after mixing;

9. Have an argillic horizon that is finer than the sandy particle-size class in some part of the upper 75 cm if the argillic horizon is more than 75 cm thick or in any part if the argillic horizon is less than 75 cm thick;

10. Have a base saturation (by sum of cations) of 60 percent or more at a depth of 125 cm below the top of the argillic horizon, at a depth of 180 cm below the soil surface, or directly above a densic, lithic, or paralithic contact, whichever is shallowest;

11. Do not have interfingering of albic materials in any subhorizon of the argillic horizon;

12. Have an argillic horizon that meets none of the following:

                a. Consists entirely of lamellae; or

                b. Is a combination of two or more lamellae and one or more subhorizons with a thickness of 7.5 to 20 cm, each layer with an overlying eluvial horizon; or

                c. Consists of one or more subhorizons that are more than 20 cm thick, each with an overlying eluvial horizon, and above these horizons there are either:

                                (1) Two or more lamellae with a combined thickness of 5 cm or more (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon); or

                                (2) A combination of lamellae (that may or may not be part of the argillic horizon) and one or more parts of the argillic horizon 7.5 to 20 cm thick, each with an overlying eluvial horizon;

13. Have an argillic horizon that is more than 35 cm thick; and

14. Have fragic soil properties:

                a. In less than 30 percent of the volume of all layers 15 cm or more thick that have an upper boundary within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface; and

                b. In less than 60 percent of the volume of all layers 15 cm or more thick.

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