32. Monetary aspects, coin circulation

Index:

Alfen, Peter Gerritt van

Title:

Mechanisms for the imitations of Athenian coinage : Dekeleia and mercenaries reconsidered / Peter G. van Alfen

Published:

Bruxelles : [s.n.], 2011

Note:

Offprint from: Revue Belge de Numismatique 157 (2011) p. 55-93

Abstract:

This study reexamines two frequently cited mechanisms for the production of imitative Athenian ‘owls’ in the East: the occupation of Dekeleia (413-404 bc) and mercenary pay. Close examination of the hoard evidence and the imitative series suggests that neither of these mechanisms played important roles driving imitative owl production.

 

Index:

Alfen, Peter Gerritt van

Title:

'Metoikêsis' and archaic monetary coordination : Teos-Abdera and Phokaia-Velia / Peter van Alfen

Published:

Antalya : Suna-İnan Kıraç Akdeniz Medeniyetleri Araştırma Enstitüsü, 2014

Note:

Offprint from: Birinci Uluslararasi Anadolu Para Tarihi ve Numismatik Kongresi : bildiriler = First International Congress of the Anatolian Monetary History and Numismatics / editörler: Dortluk, Kayhan, Oguz Tekin, Remziye Boyraz Seyhan ; [İngilizce editörü: Mark Wilson], - Antalya : Suna-İnan Kıraç Akdeniz Medeniyetleri Araştırma Enstitüsü, 2014. - P. 631-652

 

Index:

Alfen, Peter Gerritt van

Title:

Problems in the political economy of archaic Greek coinage / Peter van Alfen

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 7 (2012) p. 13-32, pl. 1-4

Abstract:

This paper considers shortcomings in current methodologies applied to the study of archaic Greek coinage. Recognizing a need for methodologies and frameworks that shift analytical focus to the dense decision processes that initiated and administered the production (rather than distribution and consumption) of early coinage, the author suggests significantly different, synthetic approaches. Close study of the coinage (bottom up), derived from traditional numismatic methodologies, like die studies, and appropriate theoretical applications (top down), derived from the fields of political science and institutional economics, may help to frame and model these decision processes.

 

Index:

Alfen, Peter Gerritt van

Title:

Xenophon 'Poroi' 3.2 and Athenian 'owls' in Aegean-Near Eastern long distance trade / Peter van Alfen

Source:

I ritrovamenti monetali e i processi storico-economici nel mondo antico / a cura di Michele Asolati, Giovanni Gorini / a cura di Michele Asolati, Giovanni Gorini. - Padova : Esedra, cop. 2012. - (Numismatica Patavina ; 12). - P. 11-32

 

Index:

Amandry, Michel 1949-

Title:

Le monnayage provincial d'Auguste à Hadrien / Michel Amandry

Source:

Des rois au prince : pratiques du pouvoir monarchique dans l'Orient hellénistique et romain, IVe siècle avant J.-C. - IIe siècle après J.-C. / sous la dir. d'Ivana Savalli-Lestrade et Isabelle Cogitore ; avec les contrib. de Michel Amandry ... [et al.]. - Grenoble : ELLUG, Université Stendhal, 2010. - P. 207-218

 

Index:

Ashton, Richard 1946-

Title:

The Attalid poll-tax / [Richard Ashton]

Source:

Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 104 (1994) p. 57–60

 

Index:

Ashton, Richard 1946-

Title:

Recent epigraphic evidence for the start of Rhodian and Lykian league plinthophoroi / R.H.J. Ashton

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 165 (2005) p. 85-89

 

Index:

Bellinger, Alfred Raymond 1893-1978

Title:

Greek mints under the Roman empire / by Alfred R. Bellinger

Source:

Essays in Roman coinage presented to Harold Mattingly / ed. by R.A.G. Carson and C.H.V. Sutherland. - London : Oxford University Press, 1956. – P. 137-148

 

Index:

Bogaert, Raymond Leopold Joseph 1920-

Title:

Le cours du statère de Cyzique à Athènes aux Ve et IVe siècles avant J.C. : état de la question / Raymond Bogaert

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 123 (1977) p. 17-39

 

Index:

Bousquet, Jean

Title:

Les unités monétaires dans les Comptes de Delphes / [Jean Bousquet]

Source:

Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique 110 (1986) 1 p. 273-283

 

Index:

Brandis, Johannes 1830-1873

Title:

Das Münz-, Mass- und Gewichtswesen in Vorderasien bis auf Alexander den Grossen / von J. Brandis

Published:

Berlin : Hertz, 1866

 

Index:

Brenot, Claude

Title:

La circulation monétaire rhodienne jusqu'en 166 / Alain Bresson

Source:

Dialogues d'Histoire Ancienne 19 (1993) p. 119-169

 

Index:

Bresson, Alain

Title:

Electrum coins, currency exchange and transaction costs in Archaic and Classical Greece / Alain Bresson

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 155 (2009) p. 71-80

Abstract:

This paper is part of a more general investigation into currency exchange and transaction costs in the ancient Greek world. I will limit myself here to the issue of currency exchange connected with the use of electrum coinage. The electrum coinage of Western Asia Minor, perhaps introduced around 590-580 BCE, had all the advantages of monometallism and the lowered transaction costs associated with the use of money. However, it also had some drawbacks,and as early as the 550s a bimetallist (gold-silver), and later, a trimetallist system (with bronze) was introduced. This new system simplified the production of coins and alleviated users’ mistrust of coins struck on an alloy like electrum. But multimetallism also introduced a new complexity and raised transaction costs linked to the use of money. The initial electrum coinage certainly made a major contribution to the success of money as a new means of payment. During the Classical period, the apparently paradoxical continued activity of some local or regional electrum mints (those of Phokaia, Mytilene, Lampsacus and above all Cyzicus) paradoxically helps explain monometallism’s initial success.

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

À l’origine d’un succès planétaire : l’apparition et le développement de la monnaie frappée dans le monde grec / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Géopolitique 106 (juillet 2009) p. 15-22

Abstract:

One gives the general context of the birth of coinages (stricto sensu) by Greek cities around 600 BC in Asia Minor. In opposition with palatial economies (either Mesopotamian or Egyptian), Greek cities were poor with a low ratio of fiscal taxation on their citizens. Money may have been invented to make a profit for the city paying its expenditures (which means mostly military expenditures). It is amusing to recognize how cultural differences of perception exist between the Anglo-Saxon and the "continental" way of thinking or between numismatists and anthropologists. Some have argued that philosophy and tragedy were only possible after coinage was invented (and thus very much a consequence of it).

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Les applications restreintes de la 'loi de Gresham' au monde hellénistique / François de Callataÿ

Published:

[Padova] : Esedra, [2006]

Note:

Offprint from: I ritrovamenti monetali e la legge di Gresham : atti del III Congresso internazionale di numismatica e di storia monetaria, Padova, 28-29 ottobre 2005 / a cura di Michele Asolati, Giovanni Gorini. - Padova : Esedra, cop. 2006

Abstract:

This paper argues that the Hellenistic world made a (very) limited use of the Gresham law. The users had often not the choice of the coins they had to use (see the closed monetary economies: Ptolemies in Egypt, Attalids after the introduction of the cistophori, etc.). Coinages of the Hellenistic world tend to be of pure alloy, to belong to a weight standard and to circulate very long. Money users were not characterized by a process of selective hoarding; they failed to file or to trim the edges of the coins. The issuing powers tried to impose as unique legal tender their own coins and massive imitations of a leser quality is not the rule (see however the pseudo-Rhodians issues). Reduced weight standards for coinages issued in the orbit of other ones is a more common practice (see Tyre and Aradus).

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Armies poorly paid in coins (the Anabasis of the Ten-Thousands) and coins for soldiers poorly transformed by the markets (the Hellenistic Thasian-type tetradrachms) in Ancient Greece / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 155 (2009) p. 51-70

Abstract:

This paper focuses on two counter-examples for which highly valuable coins issued to pay Greek mercenaries were poorly used on the markets. Either – and that is a radical motive indeed – because soldiers were not or poorly paid in coins (as it was the case with the Anabasis of the Ten-Thousands, 401-399 BC), or – and that must not be underestimated as well – because the vast amount of precious coins issued and given to them were brought back in contexts leaving few opportunities to make a monetary use of these coins, which are thus better understood as special purpose money (as with the bulk of the Thasian type tetradrachms struck at the end of the 2nd and the first half of the 1st c. BC).

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Athenian New Style tetradrachms in Macedonian hoards / F. de Callataÿ

Source:

American Journal of Numismatics. 2nd ser. 3-4 (1991-1992) p. 11-20

Abstract:

Several hoards (IGCH 478, CH4 66, CH7 133, IGCH 524 and IGCH 976) found in Macedonia contain new style Athenian tetradrachms (stephanephoroi). A set of four successive issues is always overrepresented (Epigene-Sosandros; Polemon-Alketes; Mikion-Euryklei and Karaix-Ergokle), while in the meantime these four issues are rarely found elsewhere. One cannot escape the conclusion that during four (or possibly five) years, in the late 120s BC, an order was given to bring most of the Athenian monetary production to the North. The responsible for this order must be the Romans, in order to match their military expenditures in Macedonia.

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Conférence d'ouverture de M. François de Callataÿ directeur d'études d'Histoire monétaire et financière du monde grec : 3 mai 1999

Series:

Conférence d'ouverture / École pratique des hautes études, Section des sciences historiques et philologiques ; 4

Published:

Paris : À la Sorbonne, 2000

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Estimation du nombre originel de coins : en augmentant l'échantillon / F. de Callataÿ 

Source:

Acta Numismatica 21-23 (1993) p. 31-48

Abstract:

In order to control the coherency of the many statistical methods which have been put forward to estimate the original  number of (obverse) dies, we have checked on different samples (coinages) the results at different times during the building of the samples (royal tetradrachms of Mithridates Eupator, the last kings of Bithynia, late Alexanders of Odessos and Mesembria, late Lysimachi of Byzantium, dated cistophori of Ephesus, drachms of Ariarathes IX of Cappadocia, tetradrachms of Tigranes the Great of Armenia, as well as the Hellenistic tetradrachms struck by the cities of Abydus, Cyzicus, Aegeai, Heraclea, Lebedus, Smyrna, Syros and Tenedus). The general pattern is that statistical methods use to underestimate the original number of obverse dies because they don't fully recognize the high ratio of dies poorly represented by 1 or 2 coins only. The Esty method appears as the less distorting.

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

L’étude des monnaies et l’histoire économique du monde / par François de Callataÿ

Source:

Bulletin de la Classe des Lettres 6e sér. 16 (2005) p. 539-558

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

The fabulous wealth of the Hellenistic kings : coinage and 'Weltmachtpolitik' / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Words and coins : from Ancient Greece to Byzantium / [catalogue ed. by Vasiliki Penna ; editorial team: Yannis Stoyas, Evangelia Georgiou, Nicolas Ducimetière ; essays by Charles Mèla ... [et al.]. - Gent : MER, [2012]. - P. 91-101

Abstract:

This paper sums up how coinages were fundamental for the policy of Hellenistic kings competing between themselves. It exemplifies the common pattern along which coins were primarily struck for military expenditures, and above all to pay mercenaries. The Pangean mines first, the extravagant booty made by Alexander in the Persian treasuries second allowed to monetize precious metals on an unprecedented scale. Quotations are given to relevant literature in Plutarch, Pliny, Arrian, Diodorus, Saint Augustine, Atheneaus, Plautus, Terence and Polybius. In addition, Two poems of Cavafis (Orophernes and Philhellene) are fully given for the way they capture the spirit of these troubled times.

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Fiscalité et monnayage dans l'œuvre de Georges Le Rider / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Travaux de numismatique grecque offerts à Georges Le Rider / éd. par Michel Amandry et Silvia Hurter ; avec la collab. de Denyse Bérend. - London : Spink, 1999. – P. 109-121

Abstract:

Since his study on Les Alexandres d'argent en Asie Mineure (Journal des Savants, 1986), Georges Le Rider has often insisted on and favoured a fiscal explanation for Greek coinages. Countermarks and overstrikes are likely to be connected with exchange rates (e.g.: at Susa under the Parthians, at Byzantium and Chalcedon c. 235 BC). He paid a special attention to closed monetary systems (the incuse coins in Magna Grecia in the 6th c. BC, Egypt under the Ptolemies, the Attalids and the cistophori) or to issuing powers which proceeded to a double coinage, one for the inner circulation and another for external purposes (Macedonia since Philip II onwards). He also investigated cases of fiscal interest as the Ephesian imitations issued by the city of Arados. Central is the idea that profit is at the very heart of coinage. These studies powerfully argue against a too "primitivist" view of the exchanges in Hellenistic times but, in the same time, they take distances with the commercial explanations proposed until a recent past for the same coinages (Rostovtzeff, Newell and Thompson).

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Guerre et monnayage à l'époque hellénistique : essai de mise en perspective suivi d'une annexe sur le monnayage de Mithridate VI Eupator / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Économie antique : la guerre dans les économies antiques : [3e Rencontres sur l'économie antique, Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges, 6-8 mai 1999] /  [textes rassembles par Jean Andreau, Pierre Briant, Raymond Descat]. - Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges : Musée Archéologique Départemental, 2000. - P. 337-364

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Guerres et monnayages à l'époque hellénistique / par François de Callataÿ

Source:

Dossiers d'Archéologie 248 (novembre 1999) p. 28-35

Abstract:

There is a general agreement that, as a rule (but with exception), ancient coinages were mostly issued to match state expenditures and that military expenses generally come first in any budget before the 19th c. This paper focuses on two particularly well documented cases for the Hellenistic kingdoms: Alexander the Great and Mithridates Eupator. For Alexander, not only the peak of strikes in the years 325-323BC has been related with the paying of the disbanded mercenaries but the very pattern of strikes seems to indicate the geographical origins of these mercenaries. It does not seem random indeed if the mints of Lampsacus and Abydus specialized producing gold staters (for the Thracians on their way back home) while the coastal mints of Western Asia Minor mainly issued drachms (for the continental Greek mercenaries). Since the silver tetradrachms of Mithridates are dated by month, they represent a unique opportunity to study the rhythm of their issues. It turns out that the link with military expenditures is extremely strong (if not the only one in this particular case). Soldiers were paid before or after (if successfull), not during the campaigns. Not all the soldiers were paid (as a quantitative analysis tends to demonstrate) and some actions, as the building of a fleet or the so-called second Mithridatic war (led only with tributary troops), didn't necessitate fresh issues of coins. We are thus left with the following statement: coins were struck for military purposes, but first to pay mercenaries.

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

L’instauration par Ptolémée Ier Sôter d’une économie monétaire fermée / François de Callataÿ

Published:

[Le Caire] : Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, [2005]

Note:

Offprint from: L' exception égyptienne? : production et échanges monétaires en Egypte hellénistique et romaine : actes du colloque d'Alexandrie, 13-15 avril 2002 / éd. par Frédérique Duyrat et Olivier Picard. - Le Caire : Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 2005. – P. 117-134

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

La monnaie de compte à l’époque hellénistique : le nécessaire réexamen des textes (en particulier du sens du terme argurion) à la lumière de la documentation numismatique / [François de Callataÿ]

Published:

Roma : Istituto [Italiano di Numismatica], 2008

Note:

Offprint from: Annali dell'Istituto Italiano di Numismatica 54 (2008) p. 19-34

Abstract:

This paper deals with the accounting money during Hellenistic times. It argues against the danger to take for real coins any quotations of value expressed in monetary terms. In particular, the words argurion or chrysion (as opposed to a arguron or chryson, without iota) don't have the restricted meaning of monetized silver or gold but, more genera. They signify more generally, signifies "expressed as the equivalent in silver or gold coins" as it is clear from many epigraphical and literary evidence. In several cases (the Persian treasuries captured by Alexander the Great, the Thracian ruler Seuthes, the gift from Ptolemy to the Rhodians, the penalties paid by Antiochus III and the Etolians to the Romans), the vast amounts of money evoked by textual evidence is not supported by corresponding coinages in terms of value. And this can also be true for small amounts of money as with the obols of Theagenes of Thasos. Such a revision of the words argurion and chrusion modifies the vision we can have of how monetized the Hellenistic world was.

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

A quantitative survey of Hellenistic coinages : recent achievements / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Making, moving and managing : the new world of ancient economies, 323-31 BC / ed. by Zofia H. Archibald, John K. Davies and Vincent Gabrielsen. - Oxford : Oxbow, cop. 2005. - P. 73-91

Abstract:

This paper offers a summary of past research in quantifying Hellenistic coinages. Beyond the methodological debate and the shift of mentalities between c. 1975 and now, we compare results got by many authors, focusing on the more substantial coinages of the time (Alexander the Great, Seleucids, Philip II, Athenian stephanephoroi, Lysimachus, Demetrios Poliorketes, Miletus and Chalcis. We opt for an average value of 20,000 coins per obverse die (because that is a value we could possibly divide or multiply by two, but not by three) and for the equivalent of Attic weight drachm as the standard of comparison. Nothing absurd emerges from the comparison of the hundreds of die-studies already produced for Hellenistic coinages. Quite the contrary. And the same is true when comparing the Hellenistic results with what has been tempted for the Roman world (Duncan-Jones). The issues of Taras, Case-studies for civic coinages include the issues of Rhodes, Phaselis, Maroneia and Athens, and for royal isues, Philip II, Alexander the Great (Lampsakos [Lampsacus]), Demetrius Poliorketes, Pyrrhus, the Attalids and Mithridates Eupator. The final paradox of these quantitative studies is the following: while the general tendency of quantitative studies of ancient coinages is clearly to calculate larger number of struck coins than those hitherto postulated, at the same time these large numbers will often appear as inadequate if placed within the hypothetical perspective of a highly monetized society.

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Quelques estimations relatives au nombre de monnaies grecques : les collections publiques et privées, le commerce et les trésors / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 143 (1997) p. 21-94

Abstract:

This paper aims to estimate different parameters never really estimated before: the amount of Greek coins kept in public (c. 40%?) or private (c. 60%?) hands, the average number of Greek coins sold every year and the impact of new hoards on the stock already known. All these estimates are surrounded by a rather high degree of uncertainty. Starting with the contents of the 4 biggest public collections of Greek coins (Berlin, London, New York and Paris - c. 100,000 each) and after have built the metallic composition of a typical public collection (c. 1.5% for gold and electrum; c. 36% for silver and c. 62.5% for bronze), we dare to propose the following estimates: c. 40,000 gold Grek coins, c. 650,000 silver coins and 770,000 for bronze coins (but here the uncertainty is by far greater and the total is likely to be grossly underestimated). These results are the equivalent of c. 140 kg of gold, 40 kg of electrum and c. 6 tons of silver. Taking into account the sale's catalogue for the years 1993-1994, the total number of Greek coins sold every year approximates 40,000 while the number really negotiated is likely to be close to 70,000. At last, we estimate the amount of Greek coins coming from reported hoards. It turns out that c. 25,000 gold, c. 4,250 electrum, c. 450,000 silver and c. 130,000 bronze Greek coins have so far been published by the IGCH and the 8 first CH. For the 1980s only, about 50,000 coins have been officially reported in the Coin Hoards. All in all, one Greek coin out of two would come from a duly reported find.

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Le retour (quantifié) du ‘miracle grec’ / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Stephanèphoros : de l'économie antique à l'Asie mineure : hommages à Raymond Descat / textes réunis par Koray Konuk. - Bordeaux : Ausoniuss, 2012. - P. 63-76

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Sur les origines de la monnaie ‘stricto sensu (nomisma)’ : à propos de deux livres récents (S. von Reden et L. Kurke) / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Revue Numismatique 157 (2001) p. 83-93

Abstract:

The article presents and discusses two recent books on the function of coinage in ancient Greece (S. von Reden, Exchange in Ancient Greece, London, 1995 and L. Kurke, Coins, Bodies, Games, and Gold. The Politics of Meaning in Archaic Greece, Princeton, 1999). Both explore the anthropological approach initiated by B. Laum and E. Will. The emphasis is more social with von Reden, more political with Kurke. Both are thought-provoking though unsatisfactory from a numismatic point of view. Note is taken of the constraints imposed by the amount of coinage preserved and of the way the two authors deal with - or do not deal with - theories advanced so far.

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Les taux de survie des émissions monétaires antiques médiévales et modernes : essai de mise en perspective et conséquences quant à la productivité des coins dans l'Antiquité / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Revue Numismatique 155 (2000) p. 87-109

Abstract:

Le taux de survie d'un monnayage se définit comme la proportion d'exemplaires conservés par rapport au nombre d'exemplaire émis. L'étude diachronique d'un tel taux, de l'Antiquité jusqu'à la période moderne, paraît se heurter à une difficulté insurmontable : celui d'avoir conservé, contre toute logique, un pourcentage beaucoup plus élevé de monnaies grecques que de monnaies médiévales ou modernes. La seule possibilité de sortir de cette contradiction est de revoir à la hausse la productivité moyenne des coins de droit telle que formulée anciennement pour les monnayages grecs. Cette productivité moyenne doit être recherchée la plupart du temps au-delà, et sans doute bien au- delà, des 10 000 exemplaires.

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Le transport des monnaies dans le monde grec / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 152 (2006) p. 5-14

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Les trésors achéménides et les monnayages d'Alexandre : espèces immobilisées et espèces circulantes? / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Revue des Etudes Anciennes 91 (1981) 1-2 p. 259-276

Abstract:

This paper aims to compare to sets of data: the amount of the Perisan treasuries captured by Alexander the Great and the amount of gold and silver coinages issued during the lifetime of Alexander or with his name up to the end of the 4th c. BC. The first is given by literary sources while the second one is less immediate since it demands to make some extrapolations and leaves room for uncertainty. It is tempting to correlate the 180,000 talents (in silver equivalent) found by Alexander at Persepolis and Susa (mainly) with the likely grand total of coins struck in the name of Alexander the Great (c. 3,000 obverse dies for tetradrachms, c. 3,300 for drachms and c. 1,200 for staters = 196,000 talents of equivalent silver if the average productivity of each obverse die was 30,000 coins). Given the level of uncertainty of these calculations, caution is clearly required.

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Le volume des émissions monétaires dans l'Antiquité : bref état de la question et présentation de deux livres récents relatifs à la période hellénistique / [François de Callataÿ]

Source:

Annali dell'Istituto Italiano di Numismatica 44 [1997] p. 53-62

Abstract:

This paper offers a status quaestionis about the quantification of issued coins in Greco-Roman times. The debate has moved from the possibility to estimate the number of obverse dies (c. 20 statistical methods have been proposed and used in this perspective) to the possibility to estimate the number of coins. With the results for 329 die-studies of Hellenistic coinages, the Recueil quantitatif des émissions monétaires hellénistiques appears as a powerful tool to better understand the pattern of distribution for ancient coinages. Nothing absurd emerges from this lenghty calculations. As nothing absurd emerges too from the study of the Mithridatic coinages and those associated to these wars. In order to make valid statements, we argue for reasoning ex absurdo, multiplying maximal estimates in order to be sure that real numbers must be under the proposed ones.

 

Index:

Campo, Marta

Title:

De donde venían y a donde iban las monedas fenicio-púnicas : producción, función y difusión de las emisiones / Marta Campo

Source:

La moneda y su papel en las sociedades fenicio-púnicas : XXVII Jornadas de Arqueología Fenicio-Púnica (Eivissa, 2012) / ed. por Benjamí Costa y Jordi H. Fernández. - Eivissa : Museu Arqueològic d'Eivissa i Formentera, 2013. – P. 9-33

Abstract:

The study-day dedicated to coinage and its role in Phoenican and Punic society (‘La moneda y su papel en las sociedades fenicio-punicas’) offers an over-view of centres of coin-production in Phoenicia proper, in areas controlled by Carthage, and in other parts of the western Mediterranean. As well as the location of these centres, consideration is given to the periods in which they were active, their reasons for striking, and the occurence of their issues beyond the immediate areas of production.

 

Index:

Carroccio, Benedetto

Title:

Spese belliche, finanza 'creativa' e tracolli monetari nell'Occidente antico: alcune evidenze / Benedetto Carroccio 

Published:

Soveria Mannelli : Rubbettino, 2011

Note:

Offprint from: Miscellanea di Studi Storici 16 (2009-2010) p. 49-87

Abstract:

Ancient states and dynasts were often engaged in wars for which they had no sufficient financiary means to finance since their beginning. The solution of their need of money to pay mercenaries and troops was not only in booties or land assignations, but also in reductions and devaluations of their coin standards, which were not only a Roman phenomenon of the Punic wars, but also a practice often noticeble in Sicily since the gradually established bronze monometallism of Dionysius I, and from the coinages of Agathocles and Italy during the Pyrric war. But standard reductions nourished inflation and further devaluations.

 

Index:

Cartledge, Paul

Title:

Money, labour and land : approaches to the economies of ancient Greece / ed. by Paul Cartledge, Edward E. Cohen and Lin Foxhall

Published:

London : Routledge, 2002

Abstract:

Drawing on comparative historical and anthropological approaches, sociological, economic and cultural theory, and developments in epigraphy, legal history, numismatics and spatial archaeology, this volume will be of interest to all students and scholars of ancient economies.

 

Index:

Cavaignac, Eugène 1876-

Title:

Études sur l'histoire financière d'Athènes au Ve siècle : le trésor sacré d'Eleusis jusqu'en 404 / E. Cavaignac

Published:

Versailles : chez l'auteur, 1909

 

Index:

Courbin, Paul

Title:

Dans la Grèce archaïque : valeur comparée du fer et de l'argent lors de l'introduction du monnayage / [Paul Courbin]

Source:

Annales 14 (1959) 2 p. 209-233

 

Index:

Cousinéry, Esprit Marie 1747-1833

Title:

Essai historique et critique sur les monnaies d'argent de la Ligue achéenne : accompagné de recherches sur les monnaies de Corinthe, de Sicyone et de Carthage, qui ont eu cours pour le service de cette fédération / par É. Cousinéry

Published:

Paris : Renouard, 1825

 

Index:

Cybulski, Stephan

Title:

Griechischen Münzen : erklärender Text zu Nr. 3 der Tabulae, quibus antiquitates Graecae et Romanae illustrantur / von Stephan Cybulski

Published:

Leipzig : Koehler, 1895

 

Index:

Davis, Gil

Title:

Dating the drachmas in Solon's laws / [Gil Davis]

Source:

Historia 61 (2012) 2 p. 127-158

Abstract:

Can the drachmas in the ‘laws of Solon’ be explained as silver weights, used in the Athenian economy as a silver standard before the adoption of coinage in the second half of the sixth century BCE? I believe the answer is a fi rm no. In this paper I marshal historical, archaeological, numismatic and literary evidence to demonstrate that pre-Peisistratid Athens had an essentially agrarian economy in which local trade was usually denominated in barley, and weighed silver was used only to a limited extent in foreign trade and travel. It was the expanding trade of the Peisistratid era that led to the adoption of coinage, following a well-established Ionian model.

 

Index:

Delrieux, Fabrice

Title:

La crise financière des cités grecques d'Asie Mineure au Ier siècle a.C. et la lettre de Cicéron à Q. Minucius Thermus (Fam., XIII, 56) / Fabrice Delrieux

Source:

Hellenistic Karia : proceedings of the First International Conference on Hellenistic Karia, Oxford, 29 June-2 July 2006 / ed. by Riet van Bremen and Jan-Mathieu Carbon. - Bordeaux : De Boccard, 2010. - P. 505-526

 

Index:

Dreyer, Boris

Title:

Roms Ostpolitik, Athen und der Beginn der Neustil-Silberprägung / Boris Dreyer

Source:

Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 129 (2000) p. 77-83

 

Index:

Domínguez Monedero, Adolfo Jerónimo

Title:

Comercio, santuarios y moneda en la Grecia arcaica / Adolfo J. Domínguez

Source:

Moneta, mercanti, banchieri : i precedenti greci e romani dell'Euro : atti del convegno internazionale, Cividale del Friuli, 26-28 settembre 2002 / a cura di Gianpaolo Urso. - Pisa : Edizioni ETS, 2003

 

Index:

Doyen, Charles

Title:

Remarques numismatiques à propos d'un traité entre Attale Ier de Pergame et la cité de Malla (Crète) / Charles Doyen

Source:

Liber amicorum Tony Hackens / éd. par Ghislaine Moucharte ... [et al.]. - Louvain-la-Neuve : Association de numismatique professeur Marcel Hoc, 2007. - P. 95-105

 

Index:

Doyen, Charles

Title:

Triobole éginétique réduit ou drachme symmachique? / Charles Doyen

Published:

Bruxelles : [s.n.], 2005

Note:

Offprint from: Revue Belge de Numismatique 151 (2005) p. 39-48

 

Index:

Droysen, Johann Gustave 1808-1884

Title:

Zum Finanzwesen der Ptolemäer / von Joh. Gust. Droysen

Source:

Sitzungsberichten der königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin vom Jahre 1882 (1882)

 

Index:

Duyrat, Frédérique 1970-

Title:

La conquête macédonienne : monnaie et mutations politiques en Transeuphratène occidentale / F. Duyrat

Source:

Transeuphratène 40 (2011) p. 61-81

Abstract:

The Macedonian conquest of the Persian Empire led to a complete change of coin production and circulation: 4th century coinages disappeared from the hoards during the 320s and were replaced by Alexander's silver tetradrachms and gold staters almost exclusively. Moreover, very small silver fractions, so frequently known during the 4th century, totally disappeared. Since 320, only large silver tetradrachms struck by Alexander and his heirs are found in hoards. From monetary systems full of small silver change used in daily life, the Levant began to hoard mostly large denominations used in sizeable payments.

 

Index:      

Duyrat, Frédérique 1970-

Title:

Deux politiques de l’or : Séleucides et Lagides au IIIe s. av. J.-C. / Frédérique Duyrat, Julien Olivier

Source:

Revue Numismatique 166 (2010) p. 71-93

Abstract:

The Seleucid and Lagid dynasties are usually considered as rivals, particularly in view of their opposite economic policies. This article confronts the gold currencies of both kingdoms during the 3rd century B.C., especially weight standards, gold fineness, denominations, production and circulation, which underline the differences between the policies. However, the Lagids, like the Seleucids, selected portrait types for their gold coins. Moreover, metal analysis suggests that Ptolemies and Seleucids took their gold from a stock with special features.

 

Index:

Faraguna, Michele

Title:

'Nomisma' e 'polis' : aspetti della riflessione greca antica sul ruolo della moneta nella società / Michele Faraguna

Source:

Moneta, mercanti, banchieri : i precedenti greci e romani dell'Euro : atti del convegno internazionale, Cividale del Friuli, 26-28 settembre 2002 / Fondazione Niccolò Canussio ; a cura di Gianpaolo Urso. - Pisa : Edizioni ETS, 2003

 

Index:

Faucher, Thomas

Title:

Productivité des coins et taux de survie du monnayage grec / Thomas Faucher

Published:

Bari : Edipuglia, 2011

Note:

Offprint from: Quantifying monetary supplies in Graeco-Roman times / François de Callataÿ (éd.). - Bari : Edipuglia, 2011. – P. 113-126

 

Index:

Flament, Christophe

Title:

L'atelier athénien : réflexions sur la ‘politique monétaire’ d'Athènes à l'époque classique / Christophe Flament

Source:

Liber amicorum Tony Hackens / éd. par Ghislaine Moucharte ... [et al.]. - Louvain-la-Neuve  : Association de numismatique professeur Marcel Hoc, cop. 2007. – P. 1-10

 

Index:

Flament, Christophe

Title:

La diffusion des monnaies grecques ou assimilées dans les territoires de l'antique Gaule Belgique / Christophe Flament

Source:

Trésors numismatiques du Cabinet numismatique François Cajot à Namur / sous la dir. de Jacques Toussaint. - Namur : Société Archéologique de Namur, cop. 2012. - (Monographies du Musée des Arts Anciens du Namurois ; 54). - P. 30-51

 

Index:

Gorini, Giovanni 1941-

Title:

Ripostigli e multipli della moneta corrente in Grecia / Giovanni Gorini

Source:

I ritrovamenti monetali e i processi storico-economici nel mondo antico / a cura di Michele Asolati, Giovanni Gorinii. - Padova : Esedra, cop. 2012. - (Numismatica Patavina ; 12). - P. 65-77

 

Index:

Grandjean, Catherine

Title:

De la drachme au denier / Catherine Grandjean

Source:

Revue Européenne des Sciences Sociales 45 (2007) p. 19-30

 

Index:

Grandjean, Catherine

Title:

Une monnaie fiduciaire issue du monde colonial / Catherine Grandjean

Source:

Aux origines de la monnaie fiduciaire : traditions métallurgiques et innovations nusmimatiques : actes de l'atelier international des 16 et 17 novembres 2012 à Tours / textes réunis par Catherine Grandjean et Aliki Moustaka. - Bordeaux : Ausonius ; Paris : De Boccard, 2013. - (Scripta antiqua ; 55). - P. 97-107

 

Index:

Hackens, Tony 1939-1997

Title:

La circulation monétaire dans la Béotie hellénistique : trésors de Thèbes 1935 et 1965 / Tony Hackens

Source:

Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique 93 (1969) 2 p. 701-729

 

Index:

Hadji, Athena

Title:

The Athenian coinage decree : inscriptions, coins and Athenian politics / Athena Hadji and Zoë Kontes

Source:

XIII Congreso Internacional de Numismática, Madrid, 2003 : actas = proceedings = actes. I / ed. por Carmen Alfaro, Carmen Marcos y Paloma Otero. - Madrid : Ministerio de Cultura, Subdirección General de Publicaciones, Información y Documentación, 2005. - P. 263-268

 

Index:

Hill, George Francis 1867-1948

Title:

ΤΕΤΡΑΔΡΑΧΜΟΝ ΧΡϒΣΟϒΝ / [G.F. Hill]

Source:

Hermes 36 (1901) 2 p. 317-319

 

Index:

Kroll, John H. 1938-

Title:

The monetary use of weighed bullion in archaic Greece / John H. Kroll

Source:

The monetary systems of the Greeks and Romans / ed. by W. V. Harris. - Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2008. - P. 12-37

 

Index:

Knoepfler, Denis 1944-

Title:

‘Alexandreion nomisma’ : l'apparition et la disparition de l'argent d'Alexandre dans les inscriptions grecques : quelques réflexions complémentaires / [Denis Knoepfler]

Source:

Topoi 7 (1997) 1 p. 33-50

 

Index:

Le Rider, Georges 1928-

Title:

Les Alexandres d'argent en Asie Mineure et dans l'Orient Séleucide au IIIe siècle av. J.-C. (c. 275-c. 225) : remarques sur le système monétaire des Séleucides et des Ptolémées / [Georges Le Rider]

Source:

Journal des Savants (1986) 1-3 p. 3-51, pls. 1-6

 

Index:

Le Rider, Georges 1928-

Title:

Les clauses financières des traités de 189 et de 188 / [Georges Le Rider]

Source:

Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique 116 (1992) 1 p. 267-277

 

Index:

Le Rider, Georges 1928-

Title:

La naissance de la monnaie : pratiques monétaires de l'Orient ancien / Georges Le Rider ; préf. de Pierre Chaunu

Published:

Paris : Presses Universitaires de France, 2001

 

Index:

Liard, Florence

Title:

Les sources d’argent pour la frappe des monnaies grecques aux époques archaïque et classique : aperçu des dernières découvertes scientifiques et archéologiques / Florence Liard

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 155 (2009) p 159-175

Abstract:

The results of the research led in the 1970-1980’s on 120 coins of the Asyut hoard have become a fundamental reference for scientific analysis of Greek coinage, from Archaic to Classical times. But essential advances which have since been made, have to be taken into account for a current state of the question. Isotopic analyses have brought into light the risk of inaccuracy relating to the instrumentation used, the problem posed by mixture of metals from diverse origins, by 'apparent' overlap between lead isotope fields of different silver sources. Recent archaeological finds have confirmed – or infirmed – earlier hypotheses, by the gathering – or the lack – of material clues to ancient silver exploitation. Additional lead isotope analysis applied to other monetary series contribute to precise the panorama of potential silver sources for archaic and classical coinage.

 

Index:

Mackil, Emily

Title:

Cooperative coinage / Emily Mackil and Peter G. van Alfen

Source:

Agoranomia : studies in money and exchange presented to John H. Kroll / ed. by Peter G. van Alfen. - New York : American Numismatic Society, 2006. - P. 201-246

 

Index:

Marchetti, Patrick

Title:

Autour de la frappe du nouvel amphictionique / Patrick Marchetti

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 145 (1999) p. 99-13

 

Index:

Masson, Olivier Jean Gabriel 1922-1997

Title:

Quelques noms de magistrats monétaires grecs. [I: I-III] / Olivier Masson

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 24 (1982) p. 17-26

 

Index:

Masson, Olivier Jean Gabriel 1922-1997

Title:

Quelques noms de magistrats monétaires grecs. [II]: IV: Abdère, Maronée / Olivier Masson

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 26 (1984) p. 48-60, pl. 3

 

Index:

Meadows, Andrew

Title:

Money in an ideal world : Plato’s laws and the dual nature of coinage / Andrew Meadows

Source:

Kermatia philias : timètikos tomos gia ton Iôannè Touratsoglou. A: Nomismatiki-epigrafiki / [ed. committee: Stella Drougou … et al.]. - Athens : Ministry of Culture, Numismatic Museum, 2009. - P. 25-31

 

Index:

Meadows, Andrew R.

Title:

Ptolemy VI, VIII, Cleopatra II, Cyprus and Argos : an enigmatic monetary transaction of the 2nd century BC / A.R. Meadows

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 165 (2005) p. 91-97

 

Index:

Meadows, Andrew R.

Title:

The spread of coins in the Hellenistic world / Andrew Meadows

Source:

Explaining monetary and financial innovation : a historical analysis /  Peter Bernholz, Roland Vaube (eds.). - Cham : Springer International Publishing, cop. 2014. - (Financial and monetary policy studies ; 39). - P. 169-195

Abstract:

After the conquests of Alexander the Great coinage took on new forms and spread into geographic regions it had not previously reached. Moreover it began to be issued into and used within new political and economic constructs, and it arguably started to reach sectors of the economy for which it had previously been unsuited for use. This paper focuses on these four types of change: form, geographic spread and an attendant shift in scale, systemic change and manipulation, and diversification of use. It offers outlines of the evidence for them as it is exhibited by some of the coinage, and also suggests ways in which numismatists and economic historians of the ancient world have attempted to rationalise or explain them.

 

Index:

Melville-Jones, John

Title:

Why did the ancient Greeks strike coins? / John Melville-Jones

Source:

Journal of the Numismatic Association of Australia 17 (2006) p. 21-30

 

Index:

Pébarthe, Christophe 1971-

Title:

Droit et marché en Grèce ancienne : de la monnaie athénienne comme loi / Christophe Pebarthe

Source:

Symposion 2011 : études d'histoire du droit grec et hellénistique : Paris, 7-10 septembre 2011 = Vorträge zur griechischen und hellenistischen Rechtsgeschichte : Paris, 7.-10. September 2011 / éd. par Bernard Legras, Gerhard Thür. - Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2012. - (Akten der Gesellschaft für Griechische und Hellenistische Rechtsgeschichte ; 23). - P. 237-259

 

Index:

Picard, Olivier 1940-

Title:

Le commerce de l'argent dans la charte de Pistiros / par Olivier Picard

Source:

Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique 125 (2001) 1 p. 413-451

 

Index:

Picard, Olivier 1940-

Title:

La découverte des gisements du Laurion et les débuts de la chouette / Olivier Picard

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 147 (2001) p. 1-10

 

Index:

Picard, Olivier 1940-

Title:

Le décret amphictionique sur le tétradrachme stéphanéphore et les Technites / Olivier Picard

Source:

Kermatia philias : timètikos tomos gia ton Iôannè Touratsoglou. A: Nomismatiki-epigrafiki / [ed. committee: Stella Drougou … et al.]. - Athens : Ministry of Culture, Numismatic Museum, 2009. - P. 33-43

 

Index:

Picard, Olivier 1940-

Title:

Hippias et les premières chouettes athéniennes / Olivier Picard

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 16 (1974) p. 151-154

 

Index:

Picard, Olivier 1940-

Title:

Innovations monétaires dans la Grèce du IVe siècle / par Olivier Picard

Source:

Comptes-rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 133 (1989) 3 p. 673-687

 

Index:

Picard, Olivier 1940-

Title:

Monétarisation et économie des cités grecques à la basse période hellénistique : la fortune d'Archippè de Kymè / [Olivier Picard]

Source:

Approches de l'économie Hellénistique. - Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges : Musée Archéologique de Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges ; Paris : de Boccard, 2006. - P. 83-117

 

Index:

Picard, Olivier 1940-

Title:

Monnaie et circulation monétaire à l’époque classique / Olivier Picard

Source:

Pallas 74 (2007) p. 111-127

 

Index:

Picard, Olivier 1940-

Title:

Les philosophes grecs et la monnaie / Olivier Picard

Source:

Revue Numismatique 157 (2001) p. 95-103

 

Index:

Picard, Olivier 1940-

Title:

Rome et la Grèce à la basse période hellénistique : monnaies et impérialisme / par Olivier Picard

Source:

Journal des Savants (2010) 2 (Juillet-Décembre) p. 161-192

 

Index:

Picard, Olivier 1940-

Title:

La valeur des monnaies grecques en bronze / Olivier Picard

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 153 (1998) p. 7-18

 

Index:

Psoma, Sélènè

Title:

Le nombre de chalques dans l'obole dans le monde grec / Sélènè Psoma

Source:

Revue Numismatique 153 (1998) p. 19-29

 

Index:

Psoma, Sélènè

Title:

Obols, drachms, and staters of bronze during the Hellenistic period / Selene Psoma

Source:

American Journal of Numismatics 2nd ser. 24 (2012) p. 11-19

Abstract:

In this paper epigraphic evidence for obols, drachms, and staters of bronzeor bronze is gathered and discussed. When the adjectives χαλκος, χαλκ,χαλκον appear in the same case with the monetary unit in inventories, they denote coins that were of debased silver. When adjectives deriving from ‘chalkous’, like ‘chalkinous’, ‘chalkina’ , ‘chalkinoun’, appear also in the same case withthe monetary unit, bronze coins are meant. When the adjective chalkou is in the genitive case in financial and other state documents, it refers to the metal of these coins. Such coins were used for donations and other expenses inside the city as is usual with bronze coinage. In the cases of Mytilene and Kyme, it itis suggested that staters of bronze are represented by bronze coins that sharedthe same types and diameter with these cities’ silver staters.

 

Index:

Psoma, Sélènè

Title:

Royal bronze coinages versus civic bronze coinages : the tale of two stories for Greek history / Selene Psoma

Source:

I ritrovamenti monetali e i processi storico-economici nel mondo antico / a cura di Michele Asolati, Giovanni Gorinii. - Padova : Esedra, cop. 2012. - (Numismatica Patavina ; 12). - P. 49-64

 

Index:

Psoma, Sélènè

Title:

'Tas sitarchias kai tous misthous' ([Arist.], Oec. 1351b) : bronze currencies and cash-allowances in Mainland Greece, Thrace and the Kingdom of Macedonia / Selene Psoma

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 155 (2009) p. 3-38

Abstract:

This paper examines cash payments for rations and the types of bronze coinages minted to make these payments. It analyses a passage in the Economica attributed to Aristotle, which describes the introduction of a bronze coinage designed to pay the sitarchia (siteresion, sitonion etc.) and provides a study of these terms used to denote these payments. It looks also at the use of bronze coins for military payments in Mainland Greece, the Kingdom of Macedonia and Thrace, examines the diffusion of Macedonian Royal Currencies in Thrace and Mainland Greece, the places where bronze currencies of the Ptolemies and the Seleucids are found in Thrace and Mainland Greece and studies the bronze currencies struck by cities in relation with war operations. The major innovation in the use of bronze coinage during the Hellenistic period: the minting and distribution of bronze coinage by military officials acting on their own authority.

 

Index:

Psoma, Sélènè

Title:

Τας παλαίας πεντεδραχμίας : un stratagème de Polyen et le monnayage d'argent des rois de Macédoine de 413 à 360 av. J.-C. / Sélènè Psoma

Source:

Revue Numismatique 155 (2000) p. 123-136

 

Index:

Rebuffat, François

Title:

Alexandre le Grand et les problèmes financiers au début de son règne : (été 336-printemps 334) / François Rebuffat

Source:

Revue Numismatique. 6e sér. 25 (1983) p. 43-52

 

Index:

Reinach, Théodore 1860-1928

Title:

Observation sur le système monétaire delphique du IVe siècle / [Théodore Reinach]

Source:

Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique 20 (1896) p. 251-256

 

Index:

Reinach, Théodore 1860-1928

Title:

L'anarchie monétaire et ses remèdes chez les anciens Grecs / par Théodore Reinach

Published:

Paris : Klincksieck, 1911

Note:

Offprint from: Mémoires de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 38 (1911) 2 p. 351-364

 

Index:

Reinach, Théodore 1860-1928

Title:

Les origines du bimétallisme : étude sur la valeur proportionnelle de l'or et de l'argent dans l'antiquité grecque / par Théodore Reinach

Published:

Paris : Rollin et Feuardent, 1893

Note:

Offprint from: Revue Numismatique 3e sér. 11 (1893)

 

Index:

Rutishauser, Brian

Title:

Athens and the Cyclades : economic strategies 540-314 BC / Brian Rutishauser

Published:

Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2012

Abstract:

This book examines the history and economy of the region of the Cyclades during the late sixth through late fourth centuries bc. Although certain aspects of geography in the Cyclades remained constant through ancient Greek history, islanders were able to adapt to changing conditions and to changing hegemony imposed from outside the region, in order to increase their levels of economic prosperity. By the end of the Archaic period, many of these islands had constructed their own naval forces and monumental architecture, and also minted their own coins. Athens established a naval hegemony over the region during the fifth century, which eventually put an end to independent navies and coinage and set the tone for conditions in the Cyclades until the end of the Classical period. Until the Peloponnesian War the Athenians maintained stability but redirected a portion of the wealth generated from the export of local island products and from commerce to Athens, through the exaction of tribute and other forms of taxation. The end of the Peloponnesian War saw a period of shifting hegemonies during the early fourth century, the most influential being the Second Athenian League. After this second period of Athenian hegemony came to an end, the Cyclades renewed local monumental construction and the issue of local coinage during the second half of the fourth century. This took place at a time when Athens became more dependent upon grain, including grain shipped on routes through the Cyclades, and when the Athenians took steps to promote commerce. The Cyclades prospered during this period due to their mutual economic interests with Athens.

 

Index:

Rutter, N. Keith

Title:

Early Greek coinage and the influence of the Athenian state / Keith Rutter

Source:

Coinage and society in Britain and Gaul : some current problems / ed. by Barry Cunliffe. - London : The Council for British Archaeology, 1981

 

Index:

Schaps, David M. 1946-

Title:

The invention of coinage and the monetization of ancient Greece / David M. Schaps.

Published:

Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press, cop. 2004

Abstract:

Coinage appeared at a moment when it fulfilled an essential need in Greek society and brought with it rationalization and social leveling in some respects, while simultaneously producing new illusions, paradoxes, and new elites. In a book that will encourage scholarly discussion for some time, David M. Schaps addresses a range of important coinage topics, among them money, exchange, and economic organization in the Near East and in Greece before the introduction of coinage; the invention of coinage and the reasons for its adoption; and the developing use of money to make more money.

 

Index:

Seaford, Richard A.S.

Title:

Money and the early Greek mind : Homer, philosophy, tragedy / Richard Seaford

Published:

Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , cop. 2004

Abstract:

How were the Greeks of the sixth century BC able to invent philosophy and tragedy? In this book Richard Seaford argues that a large part of the answer can be found in another momentous development, the invention and rapid spread of coinage, which produced the first ever thoroughly monetised society. By transforming social relations, monetisation contributed to the ideas of the universe as an impersonal system (presocratic philosophy) and of the individual alienated from his own kin and from the gods (in tragedy). Seaford argues that an important precondition for this monetisation was the Greek practice of animal sacrifice, as represented in Homeric epic, which describes a premonetary world on the point of producing money. This book combines social history, economic anthropology, numismatics and the close reading of literary, inscriptional, and philosophical texts. Questioning the origins and shaping force of Greek philosophy, this is a major book with wide appeal.

 

Index:

Stefanaki, Vassiliki E.

Title:

La circulation monétaire dans le Dodécanèse de l’époque archaïque à l’époque hellénistique : les exemples de Cos et de Calymna / Vassiliki E. Stefanaki, Angeliki Giannikouri

Source:

Nomisma : la circulation monétaire dans le monde grec antique ; actes du colloque international, Athènes, 14-17 avril 2010 / éd. par Thomas Faucher, Marie-Christine Marcellesi, Olivier Picard. - Athènes : École Française d'Athènes, cop. 2011. - (Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique. Suppl. ; 53). – P. 343-366

Abstract:

Study of the monetary circulation from the islands of Kos and Kalymnos in the region of Dodecanese based on data from hoards, excavations coins, stray finds, as well as written sources. Between the 5th and the end of the 3rd c. BC, the monetary circulation differs in these two Karian islands, despite their geographical proximity and their close relations. These differences are attributed to their political, commercial and cultural role in the Mediterranean region and their relations with the other citiesstates and kingdoms. Kalymnos reached its economic peak in the period of its political independence, that is, before the decree of homopoliteia and its incorporation in Kos as a demos in the last decade of the 3rd c. BC. Its subsequent political and economic history is interwoven with that of the Koan state, a fact which is also attested by the predominance of the Koan coinage in the Kalymnian hoards and in the numismatic material kept in the local Museum.

 

Index:

Soutzo, Michel C. 1841-1933

Title:

Essai de restitution des systèmes monétaires macédoniens des rois Philippe et Alexandre et du système monétaire égyptien de Ptolémée Soter / par Michel C. Soutzo

Published:

Bucarest : Socecŭ, 1893

Note:

Offprint from: Revue roumaine d'archéologie, d'histoire et de philologie 3 (1893) 2

 

Index:

Spek, Robartus Johannes van der 1949-

Title:

The 'silverization' of the economy of the Achaemenid and Seleukid empires and early modern China / R.J. van der Spek

Source:

The economies of Hellenistic societies, third to first centuries BC / ed. by Zosia H. Archibald, John K. Davies and Vincent Gabrielsen. - Oxford : Oxford University Press cop. 2011. - P. 402-420

Abstract:

The article explores in a comparative way the monetization and the role of silver in the Persian and Seleucid empires on the one hand and the flow of silver in early modern history from America via Europe and the Pacific to China on the other hand. The sudden increase of the role of silver, esp. in taxation, under Darius I, Alexander the Great (who brought the Persian treasury into circulation) and the 'Single Whip Tax Reform' in China 1571 are compared. The article makes use of the theories of D.O. Flynn and A. Giráldez, who

 

Index:

Stefanakis, Manolis I.

Title:

Looking towards the north : the circulation of Cyrenaic coins on Crete / Manolis I. Stefanakis

Source:

Le monete di Cirene e della Cirenaica nel Mediterraneo : ‘problemi e prospettive’ : atti del V Congresso Internazionale di Numismatica e di Storia Monetaria Padova, 17-19 marzo 2016 / a cura di Michele Asolati. - Padova : Esedra, 2016. - (Numismatica Patavina ; 13). - P. 287-299

Abstract:

Cyrenaic coinage circulated on Crete in large quantities. Tetradrachms of Cyrene and Barce of the 4th century BC were overstruck, mainly in the mints of Gortyna and Phaistos, towards the end of the 4th century, while didrachms of the early 3rd century BC (era of the rule of Magas in Cyrenaica) were hoarded, mainly in south-central Crete, in the decade 280-270 BC. This paper examines the geographical distribution of Cyrenaic coins on Crete and attempts to explain the ways and the circumstances under which the north African coins reached the island.

 

Index:

Stroud, Ronald Sidney 1933-

Title:

An Athenian law on silver coinage / [Ronald S. Stroud]

Source:

Hesperia 43 (1974) 2 (April-June) p. 157-188

 

Index:

Vondrovec, Klaus 1976-

Title:

Beginn und Ausbreitung der Münzprägung / Klaus Vondrovec

Source:

Götter, Menschen und das Geld der Griechen / hrsg. von Sabine Haag und Nicole Kurmann ; [Michel Alram ... et al.]. - Wien : Kunsthistorische Museum, 2011. – P. 13-25

 

Index:

Werz, Ulrich

Title:

Politische und wirtschaftliche Verbindungen / Ulrich Werz

Source:

Götter, Menschen und das Geld der Griechen / hrsg. von Sabine Haag und Nicole Kurmann ; [Michel Alram ... et al.]. - Wien : Kunsthistorische Museum, 2011. – P. 87-95

Abstract:

When several cities use the same units of weight, this can indicate a communal economic system and is often suggestive of political alliances. These relationships were even closer when several communities placed the same image on their coins.

 

Index:

Werz, Ulrich

Title:

Was kostet das Leben? / Ulrich Werz

Source:

Götter, Menschen und das Geld der Griechen / hrsg. von Sabine Haag und Nicole Kurmann ; [Michel Alram ... et al.]. - Wien : Kunsthistorische Museum, 2011. – P. 125-134

Abstract:

The various poleis in Greece, Asia Minor and the West minted coins according to various weight standards. As well as the Attic standard there were a large number of other standards. A selection of prices and wages from various regions and periods are treated here in their historical context.