26. Persia, Parthia

Index:

Assar, Gholamreza Farhad

Title:

An early Parthian 'victory' coin / Gholamreza F. Assar, Morteza Ghassem Bagloo

Source:

Parthica 8 (2006) p. 25-35

 

Index:

Assar, Gholamreza Farhad

Title:

Genealogy and coinage of the early Parthian rulers. I / Gholamreza F. Assar

Published:

Pisa : Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali, 2005

Note:

Offprint from: Parthica 6 (2004) p. 29-63

 

Index:

Assar, Gholamreza Farhad

Title:

Genealogy and coinage of the early Parthian rulers. II / Gholamreza F. Assar

Source:

Parthica 7 (2005) p. 29-63

 

Index:

Assar, Gholamreza Farhad

Title:

A revised Parthian chronology of the period 91-55 BC / Gholamreza F. Assar

Source:

Parthica 8 (2006) p. 55-104

 

Index:

Assar, Gholamreza Farhad

Title:

Some remarks on Parthian gold coins : the Parthian calendars / Gholam Reza Assar

Source:

Actes du XIe Congrès International de Numismatique : organisé à l'occasion du 150e anniversaire de la Société Royale de Numismatique de Belgique, Bruxelles, 8-13 septembre 1991 = Proceedings of the XIth International Numismatic Congress : organized for the 150th anniversary of the Société Royale de Numismatique de Belgique, Brussels, September 8th-13th 1991. Vol. I: Monnaies grecques et grecques d'époque impérale / éd. par le Séminaire de numismatique Marcel Hoc sous la dir. de Tony Hackens, Ghislaine Moucharte ; avec la collab. de Catherine Courtois ... [et al.]. – P. 289-294

 

Index:

Assar, Gholamreza Farhad

Title:

Some remarks on the chronology and coinage of the Parthian 'Dark Age' / Gholamreza F. Assar

Source:

Electrum 15 (2009) p. 195-234

 

Index:        

Babelon, Ernest Charles François 1854-1924

Title:

Les Perses achéménides, les satrapes et les dynastes tributaires de leur empire Cypre & Phénicie / par Ernest Babelon

Series:

Catalogue des monnaies grecques de la Bibliothèque nationale

Published:

Paris : Rollin & Feuardent, 1893

 

Index:

Bodzek, Jarosław Artur

Title:

A note on a satrapal coin : perhaps another Mazaces issue? / Jaroslaw Bodzek

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 9 (2014) p. 13-23

Abstract:

The author’s aim is to discuss a small silver coin with the depiction of a horseman on the obverse and a seated personage in Iranian uniform on the reverse. This obol or hemiobol appeared on the antiquary market in 2010 and was probably struck by Mazaces, the last satrap of Egypt. This is indicated by the presence of the 'Mazaces symbol' on the coin’s obverse. Various possibilities exist as to where the coin was struck. The most probable of these is Egypt (Memfis), where the minting activity of the satrap is already well attested. The case for attributing the coin to Babylonia is less probable, although Mazaces did strike coins here, probably after 331 BC. Lastly, the possibility that Mazaces struck the coin in Cilicia before becoming satrap of Egypt (before 333 BC) cannot be ruled out.

 

Index:

Bodzek, Jarosław Artur

Title:

Remarks on the origins of Achaemenid satrapic coinages / Jarosław Bodzek

Source:

Folia Numismatica 28 (2014) 2 p. 3-10

Abstract:

The author’s aim is to discuss the origins of Achaemenid satrapal coinages, which were mainly struck in the western satrapies by Achaemenid officials of varying nationality and rank. The first issues identified by iconography as satrapal cannot be dated to any earlier than the third quarter of the 5th century BC, while the earliest coins inscribed with the names of Achaemenid officials date to around 413 BC. Satraps did not begin to produce coins purely by chance. The coinages emerged during a period of political change that took place following the events of the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars. At this time, the autonomy of the representatives of the Great King in the western part of the empire increased, while localised revolts resulted in greater freedom of rule for the satraps. Additionally, more tasks required direct satrapal financing. The introduction of satrapal coinages was, however, preceded by a significant increase in the minting activity in the Achaemenid state. Coins were struck by Greek and non-Greek cities and by local dynasts and rulers. Especially important amongst these (for this paper) were issues bearing the names of issuers such as Tymnes and Histeaus of Termera and Themistocles of Magnesia, as these may have directly inspired satraps to strike their own coins.

 

Index:

Boillet, Pierre-Yves

Title:

La production de l’atelier monétaire d’Ecbatane : mise en perspective historique et financière / Pierre-Yves Boillet

Source:

Revue Numismatique 170 (2013) p. 191-211

Abstract:

Ecbatana, royal residence of the Achaemenids, seat of a military command under the Seleucids, and capital of Media, is still little known. Through a study of its coinage, together with a quantitative analysis, it is possible to measure the output of its mint and thus better understand the role of the town in the administration of the Seleucid kingdom. From this analysis, Ecbatana appears as a minor economic center, a far cry from the image transmitted by literary sources.

 

Index:

Caley, Earle Radcliffe 1900-1984

Title:

Chemical composition of Parthian coins / by Earle R. Caley

Series:

Numismatic notes and monographs ; no. 129

Published:

New York : American Numismatic Society, 1955

 

Index:

Caley, Earle Radcliffe 1900-1984

Title:

Notes on the chemical composition of Parthian coins with special reference to the drachms of Orodes I / Earle R. Caley

Source:

The Ohio Journal of Science 50 (1950) 3 p. 107-120

 

Index:

Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh

Title:

The Frataraka coins of Persis : bridging the gap between Achaemenid and Sasanian Persia / Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis

Source:

The world of Achaemenid Persia : history, art and society in Iran and the ancient Near East : proceedings of a conference at the British Museum, 29th September-Ist October 2005 / ed. by John Curtis and St. John Simpson. - London : Tauris, 2010. - P. 379-394

 

Index:

Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh

Title:

Parthian coins : kingship and divine glory / by Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis

Source:

The Parthian Empire and its religions : studies in the dynamics of religious diversity = Das Partherreich und seine Religionen : Studien zu Dynamiken religiöser Pluralität / hrsg. von Peter Wick und Markus Zehnder ; unter Mitarb. von Jan Schäfer. - Gutenberg : Computus, 2012. - (Pietas : Bd. 5). - P. 67-81

 

Index:

Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh

Title:

Religious iconography on ancient Iranian coins / Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis

Source:

After Alexander : Central Asia before Islam / ed. by Joe Cribb & Georgina Herrmann. - Oxford [etc.] : Oxford University Press, 2008. - (Proceedings of the British Academy ; 133). - P. 313-334

Abstract:

This article aims to draw attention to the importance of coin iconography in the Parthian and Sasanian periods and to suggest an alternative approach to the conventional reading of the symbolism. The iconography of Iranian coins after the conquest of Alexander shows similarity with the iconography of Seleucid coins, and in both cases the king on the obverse enjoys divine support. The chapter suggests that the iconography of pre-Islamic Iranian coins must therefore be understood not as part of the Hellenistic tradition but should be seen within its Iranian/Zoroastrian context.

 

Index:

Daryaee, Touraj 1967-

Title:

History, epic, and numismatics: on the title of Yazdgerd I (Rāmšahr) / Touraj Daryaee

Source:

American Journal of Numismatics 2nd ser. 14 (2002) p. 89-95

 

Index:

Debord, Jean

Title:

Les monnayages 'perses' à l'effigie d'Alexandre / Pierre Debord

Source:

Mécanismes et innovations monétaires dans l'Anatolie achéménide : numismatique et histoire : actes de la Table Ronde Internationale d'Istanbul, 22-23 mai 1997 / éd. par Olivier Casabonne. - Paris : De Boccard, 2000. - (Varia Anatolica ; 12). - P. 255-268, pl. 38-39

 

Index:

Descat, Raymond 1946-

Title:

Notes sur l'histoire du monnayage achéménide sous le règne de Darius 1er / Raymond Descat

Source:

L'or perse et l'histoire grecque : actes de la Table ronde CNRS, Bordeaux, 20-22 Mars 1989 / réunis par Raymond Descat. - Bordeaux : Revue des Études Anciennes, 1990. – (Revue des Études Anciennes ; 91.1-2). - P. 15-29

Abstract:

Study on the chronology and function of the Achaemenid coinage during the reign of Dareios I. Issues of the light Croeseid about 513 B.C., of the gold Daric about 493 B.C.

 

Index:

Descat, Raymond 1946-

Title:

Remarques sur les origines du monnayage achéménide / Raymond Descat

Source:

Mécanismes et innovations monétaires dans l'Anatolie achéménide : numismatique et histoire : actes de la Table Ronde Internationale d'Istanbul, 22-23 mai 1997 / éd. par Olivier Casabonne. - Paris : De Boccard, 2000. - (Varia Anatolica ; 12). - P. 1-8

 

Index:

Dobbins, Edward

Title:

Countermarked Characene tetradrachms of Attambelos IV / Edward Dobbins

Source:

American Journal of Numismatics 2nd ser. 7-8 (1995-1996) p. 83-112, pl. 13-14

 

Index:

Gardner, Percy 1846-1937

Title:

Coins from Central Asia / [Percy Gardner]

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 3rd ser. 1 (1881) p. 8-12, pl. 2

 

Index:

Gardner, Percy 1846-1937

Title:

The gold coinage of Asia before Alexander the Great / by Percy Gardner

Published:

London : Frowde, [1908]

Note:

Offprint from: Proceedings of the British Academy 3 (1908)

 

Index:

Gardner, Percy 1846-1937

Title:

The Parthian coinage / by Percy Gardner

Series:

The international numismata orientalia ; 5

Published:

London : Trübner, 1877

 

Index:

Gonnella, Robert

Title:

Eine bisher unbekannte Kupferdrachme von Artaban II (10-38 n. Chr) / Robert Gonnella

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 170 (Mai 1993) p. 21-24

 

Index:

Gonnella, Robert

Title:

Ein überprägtes Tetradrachmon des Vonones I. (8 bis 12 n. Chr.) / Robert Gonnella

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 178 (August 1995) p. 29-32

 

Index:

Gurnet, François

Title:

Deux notes à propos du monnayage de Xusrō II / François Gurnet

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 140 (1994) p. 25-41, pl. 4

 

Index:

Head, Barclay Vincent 1844-1914

Title:

The coinage of Lydia and Persia, from the earliest times to the fall of the dynasty of the Achaemenidae / by Barclay V. Head

Series:

International numismata orientalia

Published:

London : Trübner, 1877

 

Index:

Hill, George Francis 1867-1948

Title:

Attambelos I of Characene / by George F. Hill

Series:

Numismatic notes and monographs ; no. 14

Published:

New York : American Numismatic Society, 1922

 

Index:

Hill, George Francis 1867-1948

Title:

Notes on the imperial Persian coinage / [G.F. Hill]

Source:

Journal of Hellenic Studies 39 (1919) p. 116-129, pl. 5

 

Index:

Koch, Heidemarie 1943-

Title:

A hoard of coins from eastern Parthia / by Heidemarie Koch

Series:

Numismatic notes and monographs ; no. 165

Published:

New York : American Numismatic Society, 1990

 

Index:

Lindsay, John 1789-1870

Title:

A view of the history and coinage of the Parthians : with descriptive catalogues and tables, illustrated with a complete set of engravings of coins, a large number of them unpublished / by John Lindsay

Published:

Cork : [s.n.], 1852

 

Index:

Longpérier, Henri Adrien Prévost de 1816-1882

Title:

Mémoires sur la chronologie et l'iconographie des rois parthes arsacides / par Adrien de Longpérier

Published:

Paris : Leroux, 1882

 

Index:

MacDowall, David William 1930-

Title:

The early western satraps and the date of the Periplus / by David W. MacDowall

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 7th ser. 4 (1964)

 

Index:

Markov, Aleksei Konstantinovich 1858-1926

Title:

Catalogue des monnaies arsacides, subarsacides, sassanides, dabweihides, ainsi que des pièces frappées par les ispehbeds arabes du Tabaristan et les gouverneurs de la Perse et du Maverannahr au nom des khalifs / par Alexis de Markoff

Series:

Collections scientifiques de l'Institut des langues orientales du Ministère des affaires étrangères ; 5

Published:

Saint-Pétersbourg : Eggers, 1889

 

Index:

Markov, Aleksei Konstantinovich 1858-1926

Title:

Les monnaies des rois Parthes : supplément à l'ouvrage de M. le comte Prokesch-Osten. Fasc. 1 / par Alexis de Markoff

Published:

Paris : Libr. numismatique de C. Van Peteghem, 1877

 

Index:

Markov, Aleksei Konstantinovich 1858-1926

Title:

Les monnaies des rois Parthes : supplément à l'ouvrage de M. le comte Prokesch-Osten. Fasc. 2 / par Alexis de Markoff

Published:

Paris : Libr. numismatique de C. Van Peteghem, 1877

 

Index:

Mildenberg, Leo 1913-2001

Title:

On the so-called satrapal coinage / Leo Mildenberg

Siurce:

Mécanismes et innovations monétaires dans l'Anatolie achéménide : numismatique et histoire : actes de la Table Ronde Internationale d'Istanbul, 22-23 mai 1997 / éd. par Olivier Casabonne. - Paris : De Boccard, 2000. - (Varia Anatolica ; 12). - P. 9-20, pl. 1-3

 

Index:

Morgan, Jacques Jean Marie de 1857-1924

Title:

Étude sur la décadence de l'écriture grecque dans l'Empire [erse sous la dynastie des Arsacides (171 av. J.-C. à 228 ap. J.-C.) : d'après les documents numismatiques / [J. de Morgan]

Siurce:

Revue Archéologique 4e sér.  20 (juillet-décembre 1912) p. 1-31

 

Index:

Morgan, Jacques Jean Marie de 1857-1924

Title:

Manuel de numismatique orientale de l'antiquité et du moyen âge. Fasc. 1 / J. de Morgan ; publ. achevée sous la dir. de K.J. Basmadjian

Published:

Paris : Geuthner, 1923

 

Index:

Morgan, Jacques Jean Marie de 1857-1924

Title:

Traité des monnaies grecques et romaines / par Ernest Babelon. III: Monnaies orientales. T. I: Numismatique de la perse antique. Texte / par Jacques de Morgan

Published:

Paris : Leroux, 1933

 

Index:

Morgan, Jacques Jean Marie de 1857-1924

Title:

Traité des monnaies grecques et romaines / par Ernest Babelon. III: Monnaies orientales. T. I: Numismatique de la perse antique. Planches / par Jacques de Morgan

Published:

Paris : Leroux, 1933

 

Index:

Mosig-Walburg, Karin 1953-

Title:

Antike und frühmittelalterliche iranische Münzen aus der Geldgeschichtlichen Sammlung der Deutschen Bundesbank / Karin Mosig-Walburg

Source:

Iranistik 9-10 (2006-2007) pp. 57-123

 

Index:

Olbrycht, Marek Jan 1964-

Title:

Bemerkungen zur parthischen Münzprägung unter Vologases I und Pakoros II / Marek J. Olbrycht

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 3-4 (1999) p. 69-93

 

Index:

Olbrycht, Marek Jan 1964-

Title:

Parthian king's tiara : numismatic evidence and some aspects of Arsakid political ideology / Marek J. Olbrycht

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 2 (1997) p. 27-65, pl. 1-4

 

Index:

Potts, Daniel T. 1953-

Title:

Foundation houses, fire altars and the 'frataraka' : interpreting the iconography of some post-Achaemenid Persian  coins / by Daniel T. Potts

Source:

Iranica Antiqua 42 (2007) p. 271-300

Abstract:

The iconography on Persid coins of the frataraka dynasty has been discussed by many scholars. Interpretations have considered whether the building shown on the reverse of these coins was 1. a fire temple; 2. an atāshgah, i.e. a repository of holy fire: 3. a tomb; 4. a coronation tower: 5. a 'foundation house' or repository for Zoroastrian paraphernalia; or 6. a tower altar/fire altar. These putative functions, and the building's relationship to the similarly shaped Zendan-e Sulaiman at Pasargadae and Ka'ba-e Zardosht at Naqsh-e Rustam, are evaluated.

 

Index:

Prokesch-Osten, Anton von 1795-1876

Title:

* Les monnaies des rois parthes / par M. le comte Prokech-Osten …

Published:

Paris : La Société Française de Numismatique, 1874-1875

 

Index:

Prokisch, Bernhard 1957-

Title:

Die antiken iranischen Münzen des Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseums / von Bernhard Prokisch

Source:

Jahrbuch des Oberösterreichischen Musealvereines 132 (1987) p. 7-37

 

Index:

Regling, Kurt Ludwig 1876-1935

Title:

Dareikos und Kroiseios / von K. Regling

Source:

Klio 14 (1910) p. 91-112

 

Index:

Rezakhani, Khodadad

Title:

From Aramaic to Pahlavi : epigraphic observations based on the Persis coin series / Khodadad Rezakhani

Source:

The Parthian and early Sasanian empires : adaptation and expansion : proceedings of a conference held in Vienna, 14-16 June 2012 / ed. by Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis ... [et al.]. - Oxford : Oxbow, 2016. - (Archaeological monographs series). - P. 69-75

 

Index:

Root, Margaret Cool

Title:

The Persian archer at Persepolis : aspects of chronology, style and symbolism / Margaret Cool Root

Source:

L'or perse et l'histoire grecque : actes de la Table ronde CNRS, Bordeaux, 20-22 Mars 1989 / réunis par Raymond Descat. - Bordeaux : Revue des Études Anciennes, 1990. – (Revue des Études Anciennes ; 91.1-2). - P. 33-50

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to discuss selected aspects of the Persian Archer coinage within the context of Persepolis. First I shall discuss the Apadana foundation deposits at the site, since they play such a significant role in scholarship on the chronology of early Persian and archaic Greek coinage. The thrust of this section will be to shed new light both on the absence of Archer coins in this deposit and on the emphatic presence of gold « Croeseids ». Then I shall proceed to a discussion of the rhetorical nature of the Apadana deposits. The aim here is to penetrate in a deeper way the imperial ideology which is reflected in the Apadana palace very literally from the foundations upward. This discussion attempts to see the foundation deposits (with their exclusion of Archer coins) as part of a rhetorical program of the building which is also articulated (albeit in different terms) on the facade reliefs of its great stairways. Finally, in Section III, I shall take initial steps toward analysing the artistic properties of the Persian Archer series within the broad context of the Achaemenid imperial program as we know it best : from Persepolis.

 

Index:

Sellwood, David

Title:

Deux notes sur les drachmes arsacides / D.G. Sellwood

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 13 (1971) p. 154-159

 

Index:

Seyrig, Henri 1895-1973

Title:

Un tétradrachme d'Artavazde I / Henri Seyrig

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 6 (1964) p. 139-140

 

Index:

Sheedy, Keneth A.

Title:

Portraiture and the Persians / Kenneth Sheedy

Source:

Journal of the Numismatic Association of Australia 17 (2006) p. 120-125

 

Index:

Simonetta, Bono

Title:

Brevi note di numismatica partica / Bono Simonetta

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 144 (November 1986) p. 88-92

 

Index:

Simonetta, Bono

Title:

Considerazioni sull'inizio dell'anno partico nella monetazione di Seleucia sul Tigri / Bono Simonetta

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 109 (Februar 1978) p. 2-8

 

Index:

Simonetta, Bono

Title:

Le contromarche della monetazione Arsacide / Bono Simonetta

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 119 (August 1980) p. 62-67

 

Index:

Simonetta, Bono

Title:

Dramme di Ariarathes IV coniate per il cinquantenario del suo regno / Bono Simonetta

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 139 (August 1985) p. 59-61

 

Index:

Simonetta, Bono

Title:

Note di numismatica partica : la monetazione di Tiridates (c.30-26 a.C.) / Bono Simonetta

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 66 (1987) p. 87-96, pl. 13-14

 

Index:

Simonetta, Bono

Title:

Osservazioni sulla monetazione Partica in bronzo da Mithradates I a Phraates IV / Bono Simonetta

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 61 (1982) p. 43-57, pl. 4

 

Index:

Simonetta, Bono

Title:

Problemi di numismatica partica : osservazioni sulle attribuzioni delle monete partiche coniate fra il 70 ed il 57 A.C. / Bono Simonetta

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 54 (1975) p. 65-78, pl. 11-12

 

Index:

Simonetta, Bono

Title:

Sui 'chalkoi' di Arsaces II / Bono Simonetta

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 149 (Februar 1988) p. 2-3

 

Index:

Simonetta, Bono

Title:

Tetradrammi partici firmati / Bono Simonetta

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 129 (Februar 1983) p. 2-4

 

Index:

Thomas, Edward 1813-1886

Title:

Parthian and Indo-Sassanian coins / by Edward Thomas

Source:

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland n.s. 15 (1883) 2 (april) p. 73-99

 

Index:

Tuplin, Christopher J.

Title:

The changing pattern of Achaemenid Persian Royal coinage / Christopher Tuplin

Source:

Explaining monetary and financial innovation : a historical analysis / ed. by Peter Bernholz, Roland Vaubel. - Cham : Berlin : Springer 2014. - (Financial and monetary policy studies ; 39). - P. 127-168

Abstract:

This chapter deals with coinage minted during the Achaemenid Persian imperial period that may be regarded as royal: (a) the gold darics and silver sigloi first created in the late sixth century BC as a successor to the royal coinage of Lydia and (b) other issues from the late fifth century onwards which draw on the iconography of the daric/siglos coinage or have other royal associations and which began to appear at a time when the production of darics and sigloi had diminished. Coined money was a cultural feature, even peculiarity, of the empire’s Aegean and East Mediterranean edges, and the various innovations involved in the story of royal coinage (a specifically west Anatolian phenomenon) are most readily understood in political or ideological terms rather than economic ones.

 

Index:

Walker, Alan

Title:

Forgeries and inventions of Parthian coins : gold coins of Vonones I and silver drachms of Osroes I, Vologases V and VI, Artabanus IV, and of Artabanus IV with the name Tiridates / [A. Walker]

Source:

Bulletin on Counterfeits 19 (1995) 2

 

Index:

Winkelmann, Sylvia

Title:

Waffen und Waffenträger auf parthischen Münzen / Sylvia Winkelmann

Published:

Pisa : Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali, 2006

Note:

Offprint from: Parthica 8 (2006) p. 131-152

 

Index:

Wroth, Warwick William 1858-1911

Title:

Catalogue of the coins of Parthia / by Warwick Wroth

Series:

Catalogue of Greek coins in the British Museum ; 23

Published:

London : Trustees [of the British Museum], 1903

 

Index:

Wroth, Warwick William 1858-1911

Title:

On the rearrangement of Parthian coinage / [Warwick Wroth]

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 3rd ser. 20 (1900) p. 181-202, pl. 7-9