15. Bosporus, Crimea, Black Sea

Index:

Abramzon, Mikhail Grigorievitch 1961-

Title:

A hoard of silver coins of the 6th-4th centuries B.C. from the Taman Peninsula / Mikhail G. Abramzon and Nina A. Frolova

Source:

Revue Numismatique 160 (2004) p. 9-32

Abstract:

The Taman hoard 1948 (54 archaic silver coins and 2 lead ingots) is of great interest for the study of the early Bosporan monetary system (types, denominations, standards). It gives us many informations concerning the political and economical relations between the Kimmerian Bosporus and some other cities in the Greek world.

 

Index:

Abramzon, Mikhail Grigorievitch 1961-

Title:

Тhe rebellion in Phanagoria in 63 BC (new numismatic evidence) / Mikhail G. Abramzon, Vladimir D. Kuznetsov

Source:

Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia 17 (2011) 1 p. 75-110

Abstract:

The authors publish the coins found in excavations at Phanagoria in 2007-2008, conducted by the Taman Archeological Mission of the Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences. This unique numismatic material allows the authors to clarify a number of important events in the history of the Bosporan Kingdom under Mithradates VI Eupator. The most significant finds of the two archaeological seasons are a so-called ‘hoard’ and two purses containing Bosporan and Pontic coins, many isolated silver coins of Panticapaion and Phanagoria, a tetradrachm of Mithradates VI and a golden piece of jewellery found in a large burnt building situated on the acropolis. These finds are thought to be connected not just with the general historical context of the epoch but specifically with the events of 63 BC.

 

Index:

Abramzon, Mikhail Grigorievitch 1961-

Title:

Two hoards of Bosporan coins / M.G. Abramzon, N. A. Frolova, Yu. V. Gorlov

Source:

Revue Numismatique 157 (2001) p. 287-303, pl. 27-30

Abstract:

Two hoards, respectively discovered in 1963 and 1978 in the Anapa district, associating civic and royal Bosporan coins, are published. The first one, consisting in 150 bronzes from which 93 were saved, was buried under Claudius I, the second, consisting in 34 bronzes, was buried under Hadrian.

 

Index:

Abramzon, Mikhail Grigorievitch 1961-

Title:

Two hoards of coins and jewellery items from the time of the Roman-Bosporan War of AD 45-49 from the site of Artezian / Mikhail G. Abramzon, Mikhail Yu. Treister and Nikolaï I. Vinokurov

Source:

Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia 18 (2012) 2 p. 207-278

Abstract:

This article is the publication of two hoards found in 2009 during excavations of the fortified settlement of Artezian in the Eastern Crimea, which met its end at the very beginning of the Roman-Bosporan war of AD 45–49. The assemblages contain 244 bronze Bosporan coins from the end of the 1st century BC to the first half of the 1st century AD (Caesarea, Agrippia, Aspurgus, Gepaepyris, Mithridates VIII), 10 silver denarii of the Roman emperors Augustus and Tiberius, and also various items of gold, silver and bronze jewellery and glass vessels. The discovery of these hoards not only provides further archaeological confirmation of the historical events of the mid-1st century BC, but also makes it possible to establish, with more precision, the chronology of certain categories of jewellery items and glass vessels, which in a number of cases had only been represented by rare specimens of Bosporan, Eastern-Mediterranean and Roman workmanship of a high level. Deserving of special attention is the find, in the context of hoards, of a well-preserved gladius of the Mainz type. For the first time it has proved possible reliably to record the initial phase of the Bosporan-Roman War of AD 45–49 at an archaeological site, situated within the territory of the European Bosporus. The unique nature of the materials from Artezian lies in their diversity and the narrow chronological range of their hoarding, linked to important events of not only Bosporan but also Mediterranean history, which had a considerable influence on the military-political situation in the Pontic region.

 

Index:

Amela Valverde, Luis

Title:

Aristarco de Cólquide (HGC 7 207) / Luis Amela Valverde

Source:

Acta Numismàtica 46 (2016) p. 71-76

 

Index:

Blaramberg, Ivan Pavlović de

Title:

Choix de médailles antiques d'Olbiopolis ou Olbia, faisant partie du cabinet du conseiller-d'état de Blaramberg a Odessa : avec XX planches, gravées d'aprés ses dessins sur les médailles originales accompagnées d'une notice sur Olbia, et d'un plan de l'emplacement ou se voient aujourd'hui les ruines de cette ville

Published:

Paris : Firmin Didot, 1822

 

Index:

Bodzek, Jarosław Artur

Title:

Coins from Greek cities on the northern coast of the Black Sea in the collection of the National Museum in Cracow. I: ’Olbian 'as[s]es' / Jarosław Bodzek

Source:

Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization 8 (1997) p. 61-69

 

Index:

Bodzek, Jarosław Artur

Title:

A find of an Istrian cast 'wheel coin' at Koshary (Ukraine) / Jarosław Bodzek, Evgenia F. Redina

Source:

Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization 17 (2013) p. 309-318, pl. 1-2

Abstract:

This article’s aim is to publish a cast Istrian ‘wheel coin’ found at the Koshary site. The site is located on the northern shore of the Black Sea on the right bank of the Tiligulskii Liman and consists of a settlement, a sacral zone around an open air altar (eschara) and a necropolis. The settlement existed between the end of the 5th and the middle of the 3rd centuries BC. Among other artifacts, 55 coins have been found at the site during regular archaeological excavations. Apart from a bronze coin of Tyras and the discussed Istrian piece, all the other coins found at Koshary are Olbian. The ‘wheel coin’ was discovered in a dugout located in the southern part of the sacral area around the eschara. The cast ‘wheel coins’ were produced in the 5th-4th centuries BC in Istros and were in circulation in a wide area covering a great part of the western  and northwestern Black Sea shore. The find at Koshary, when combined with other finds in Luzanivka and Ochakov, marks a trade route between Istros, Nikonion and Olbia. As it was found in the eschara area, one can suppose that the Istrian coin was not used as currency, but possessed a sacral nature instead.

 

Index:

Bodzek, Jarosław Artur

Title:

Koshary (Ukraine) : international relations in the light of numismatic evidence / Jarosław Bodzek

Published:

Oxford : Archaeopress, 2011

Note:

Offprint from: Pontika 2008 : recent research on the northern and eastern Black Sea in ancient times ; proceedings of the international conference, 21st-26th April 2008, Kraków / ed. by Ewdoksia Papuci-Władyka. - Oxford : Archaeopress, 2011. - (BAR International series ; 2240). - P. 7-11

Abstract:

Four coin finds made at Koshary (Ukraine) are discussed here. A coin of Tyras struck at the turn of the 3rd century BC was found during excavations conducted by the Polish-Ukrainian Expedition of the Institute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University and the Odessa Archaeological Museum. The discovery of a coin of Tyras is unique for the chora of Olbia. The three other finds were made by chance or during illicit digging on or near the site. Two of them have already been published by V. P. Alexeev (2008b; 2008c). A hoard of coins of Odessos said to be found in the Koshary settlement should be treated with caution. The character of the find, as well as the less than clear circumstances of their discovery, lead to this conclusion. The two remaining finds, an early posthumous Lysimachus stater and a bronze coin of Alexander the Great, are said to have been found in the neighbourhood of Koshary. The obscurity surrounding the circumstances of their discovery, however, prevents us from establishing their precise relation to the ancient settlement at Koshary.

 

Index:

Bodzek, Jarosław Artur

Title:

Olbian 'asses' in the collection of the National Museum in Cracow : supplement / Jaroslaw Bodzek

Source:

Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization 10 (2007) p. 63-68

Abstract:

Several years ago I published an article on Olbian 'asses' in the collection of the National Museum in Cracow. Since then, the Olbian set at the Cracow Museum has acquired more coins, including two 'aes grave' to which these remarks are devoted. Both coins belong to what is termed second series 'asses'. The series is composed of three denominations, all bearing the legend apiX. the largest (weight ca. 115g, diameter ca. 70.0mm) has a gorgoneion for obverse and on the reverse a rendition of an eagle holding a dolphin in its claws.

 

Index:

Draganov, Dimitar

Title:

The coinage of the Scythian kings in the West Pontic area: iconography / Dimitar Draganov

Source:

Archaeologica Bulgarica 14 (2010) 3 p. 29–52

 

Index:

Furtwängler, Andreas E. 1944-

Title:

Les premières séries monétaires du Caucase : pourquoi ont-elles été émises ? / Andreas E. Furtwängler

Source:

Monnaie antique, monnaie moderne, monnaies d'ailleurs ... : métissages et hybridations / sous la dir. de Patrick Pion et Bernard Formoso ; avec la collab. de Roland Étienne. - Paris : De Boccard, 2012. - (Colloques de la Maison René-Ginouvès ; 8). - P. 67-76

Abstract:

This overview relates to the first coins minted in colonial establishments in Miletus on the western, northern and eastern coast of the Black Sea. It highlights the fact that the first issues of small fractions in the form of arrow heads with little metallic value by the Milesian apoikiai of the western coast related to the monetary system of Miletus established as early as the 6th century BC. The traditional local means of exchange was adapted to the fractional system of the motherland, which had the advantage of not requiring an investment in precious metals. Regarding the first coins of the Caucasus, from the colonial Milesian establishment of Phasis on the eastern coast, this was diametrically opposed to that of Miletus and of the colonial foundations of the western and northern coast. The considerable weight of the first coins minted at Phasis, as well as the choice of the standard appears, on the contrary, to be part of the taxes collected by the royal administration or the Zeptouchies of Colchide with respect to the Achaemenid Empire.

 

Index:

Furtwängler, Andreas E. 1944-

Title:

Zum Prägeanlaß der frühen kolchischen Silberprägung / [Andreas A. Furtwängler]

Source:

Autour de la mer noire : hommage à Otar Lordkipanidzé / Institut des sciences et techniques de l'antiquité ; éditeurs Daredjan Kacharava, Murielle Faudot et Evelyne Geny. - Besançon : Presses universitaires franc-comtoises 2002. – (Publications des PUFC ; 862). – P. 71-81

 

Index:

Giel, Christian

Title:

Kleine Beiträge zur antiken Numismatik Südrusslands / Chr. Giel

Published:

Moskau : O. Herbeck, 1886

 

Index:

Gavrilov, Alexander V.

Title:

Coin finds from the Kuru Baš fortified settlement and some questions concerning the history of Theodosia in the late 2nd and 1st centuries BC / Alexander V. Gavrilov

Source:

Mithridates VI and the Pontic kingdom / ed. by Jakob Munk Højte. - Aarhus : Aarhus University Press, cop. 2009. - (Black Sea Studies ; 9). - P. 329-352

 

Index:

Golenko, Konstantin Vladimirovic

Title:

Pontisches anonymes Kupfer : (Chronologie, Klassifikation, Prägungsart) / Golenko K[onstantin V[ladimirovic]

Published:

[Stuttgart : Universität Stuttgart, 2001]

Note:

Transl. from the Russian of: Pontijskaja anonimnaja med‘ : (chronologija, klassifkacija, charakter. - Originally publ. in: Vestnik drevnej istorii. Moskva 107 (1969) p. 130-154

Abstract:

The author discusses copper coinage with a leather helmet, Iess often a helmeted head or a rose, depicted on the obverse and a star and half-moon or bow on the reverse (Baldwin, RN, 1913). According to the most widely accepted view, these coins were struck by the governors of Mithradates VI in Pontos, Colchis or Bosporus. The author tries to justify a somewhat different opinion about this anonymous copper: that it was struck in Pontos under the predecessors of Mithradates VI. He cites several factors which favour this view, for example: the absence of anonymous coinage in hoards (both Pontic and Bosporan) of Mithradates's time, the abundance of city copper during the reign of this king, the absence in this latter coinage of the countermarks which are characteristic of the anonymous copper coinage, the greater weight of the anonymous coins, and the differing metallic composition of the anonymous and city issues. By analysing the countermarks the author arrives at a new chronological classification of the anonymous Pontic coinage, nearly the reverse of the classification adopted by Baldwin. In Appendix II are published several rare coins of this type from the Hermitage collection.

 

Index:

Hind, J.G.F.

Title:

The types of the Phasian silver coins of the fifth-fourth centuries BC (The ‘Kolkhidki’ of western Georgia) / J.G.F. Hind

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 165 (2005) p. 1-14, pl. 1

 

Index:

Keleş, Vedat

Title:

Cult of Mithras and the Mithras descriptions on Trapezous city coins / Vedat Keleş

Source:

Cercetări Numismatice 14  (2008) p. 220–231

 

Index:

Kovalenko, Sergej A. 1960-

Title:

The coinage of Theodosia in the 5th-4th centuries BC / Sergei A. Kovalenko and Arcady A. Molchanov

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 165 (2005) p. 15-22, pl. 2

 

Index:

Kovalenko, Sergej A. 1960-

Title:

On the beginning of coinage in the Cimmerian Bosporus / Sergei A. Kovalenko and Vladimir P. Tolstikov

Source:

Ancient West & East 12 (2013) p. 181-204

Abstract:

The article deals with the time and circumstances of the beginning of coinage in Panticapaeum, the future capital of the Bosporan kingdom. Recent discoveries made by the archaeological expedition of the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, are considered. Numismatic, archaeological and historical evidence allows the authors to conclude that the earliest Bosporan coins were being struck in the beginning of the 5th century BC. Their production was caused by the necessity to cover the expenses of the large-scale programme of public and cult building that turned Panticapaeum into a real urban centre.

 

Index:

Köhler, Heinrich Karl Ernst von 1765-1838

Title:

Description d'une médaille de Spartocus roi du Bosphore-Cimmérien du cabinet du cabinet du … comte de Romanzoff : avec un supplément contenant la description de plusieurs médailles grecques rares et inédites qui se trouvent dans le même cabinet / [H.K.E. von Köhler]

Published:

St. Pétersbourg : de l'impr. de N. Gretsch, 1824

 

Index:

Lazarov, Latchezar

Title:

An interesting autonomous bronze coin of Mesambria / Latchezar Lazarov

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 143 (1997) p. 17-20

 

Index:

Mielczarek, Mariusz

Title:

Coinage of Nikonion : Greek bronze cast coins between Istrus and Olbia / Mariusz Mielczarek

Source:

XIII Congreso Internacional de Numismática, Madrid, 2003 : actas = proceedings = actes. I / ed. por Carmen Alfaro, Carmen Marcos y Paloma Otero. - Madrid : Ministerio de Cultura, Subdirección General de Publicaciones, Información y Documentación, 2005. - P. 273-276

 

Index:

Myzgin, Kirill

Title:

Finds of Bosporan coins in the territory of the East-European Barbaricum / Kirill Myzgin, Georgiiy Beidin

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 7 (2012) p. 57-91

Abstract:

The article presents an analysis of the finds of Bosporan coins from the territory of the East European Barbaricum. The catalogue lists the information referring to 61 finds, of which 53 can be considered as credible. The main area of the finds in question is the territory between the Dnieper and the Don, with some single archaeological sites attested in Belarus and the territory along the Volga. From the chronological point of view, the coin finds represent three phases. The first one, lasting for as long as two centuries, began at the end of the 1st century BC with an inflow of Bosporan coinage into the Barbaricum territories. Trade links between the local populations and the Bosporan Kingdom constituted the source of this inflow. The second phase coincided with the period of the Gothic Wars in the 230s-260s. It was the period of the most intense inflow, which was directly connected with the conquest of the Bosporan Kingdom by the Germanic tribes. The third, and the last, stage took place after the end of the Gothic Wars. This phase, like the first one, was characterized by the role of trade relations in providing coinage into the Barbaricum.

 

Index:

Petac, Emanuel

Title:

About the chronology of the posthumous Lysimachus type staters from western and northern Black Sea region / Emanuel Petac

Published:

[S.l.] : International Economic History Association , 2006

 

Index:

Sallet, Alfred Friedrich Constantin von 1842-1897

Title:

Beiträge zur Geschichte und Numismatik der Könige des cimmerischen Bosporus und des Pontus von der Schlacht bei Zela bis zur Abdankung Polemo II / von Alfred von Sallet

Published:

Berlin : Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, 1866

 

Index:

Stempkovsky, Ivan Aleksandrovich 1789-1832

Title:

Notice sur les médailles de Rhadaméadis, roi inconnu du Bosphore-Cimmérien, décovertes en Tauride en 1820 / par M. de Stempkovsky ...

Published:

A Paris : de l'Impr. de Firmin Didot, 1822

 

Index:

Stolba, Vladimir F.

Title:

'Archers' of the blessed city : city's deliverance in the coinage of Early Hellenistic Olbia / Vladimir F. Stolba

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 10 (2015) p. 43-59, pl. 1-3

Abstract:

Despite continuous and thorough studies of Olbian coinage, the chronology of some coin series produced by this Pontic city and the messages communicated by their types remain obscure. One such controversial issue, standing out from the total mass, is the so-called ‘archers’, the early Hellenistic coins bearing the image of Demeter in mural crown on the obverse and an archer on the reverse. Taking an integrated approach, this article examines archaeological, iconographical, stylistic and prosopographical evidence elucidating the chronology of this issue and demonstrates its association with the major turning point in the city’s history, namely its deliverance from the siege laid by Macedonian troops in the course of Zopyrion’s campaign against the Scythians around 331 BC.

 

Index:

Stolba, Vladimir F.

Title:

Ein bithynisches Tetradrachmon mit spätrömischem Graffito aus Kopenhagen / Wladimir Stolba

Source:

Nordisk Numismatisk Årsskrift (1992-1993) p. 5-11

 

Index:

Stolba, Vladimir F.

Title:

La courone de la déesse Parthénos : à propos d’un aspect du monnayage de Chersonèse au IVe-IIe siècle avant J.-C. / Wladimir F. Stolba

Source:

Bulletin de l’Association des Amis du Cabinet des Medailles 9 (1996) p. 11-20

 

Index:

Stolba, Vladimir F.

Title:

Monetary crises in the early Hellenistic poleis of Olbia, Chersonesos and Pantikapaion : a re-assessment / Vladmir F. Stolba

Source:

XIII Congreso Internacional de Numismática, Madrid, 2003 : actas = proceedings = actes. I / ed. por Carmen Alfaro, Carmen Marcos y Paloma Otero. - Madrid : Ministerio de Cultura, Subdirección General de Publicaciones, Información y Documentación, 2005. - P. 395-403

 

Index:

Stolba, Vladimir F.

Title:

Ein Münzfund aus Eupatoria von 1917 und der Beginn der Prägung von Kerkinitis / von Wladimir Stolba

Source:

Hellas und der griechische Osten : Studien zur Geschichte und Numismatik der griechischen Welt : Festschrift für Peter Robert Franke zum 70. Geburtstag / Hrsg.: Wolfgang Leschorn, Auguste V. B. Miron und Andrei Miron. - Saarbrücken : SDV, 1996. – P. 225-241

 

Index:

Stolba, Vladimir F.

Title:

The numismatics of Chersonesos and Kerkinitis as evidence of Greek and Barbarian interrelations in Western Tauris / by Vladimir F. Stolba

Source:

Une koinè pontique : cités grecques, sociétés indigènes et empires mondiaux sur le littoral nord de la mer Noire, VIIe s. a.C.-IIIe s. p.C. / textes réunis par Alain Bresson, Askold Ivantchik et Jean-Louis Ferrary. - Bordeaux : Ausonius, 2007. – P. 85-97

 

Index:

Stolba, Vladimir F.

Title:

An old acquisition of the Royal Collection of Coins and Medals in Copenhagen: ‘unique’ variety or counterfeit? / Vladimir F. Stolba

Source:

Magister monetae : studies in honour of Jørgen Steen Jensen / M. Andersen, H.W. Horsnaes & J.Ch. Moesgaard (eds.). - Köpenhamn : Nationalmuseum, 2007. – P. 21-25

 

Index:

Stolba, Vladimir F.

Title:

SAMMAS : zur Prägung eines bosporanischen Tyrannen / Wladimir F. Stolba

Source:

Stephanos nomismatikos : Edith Schönert-Geiss zum 65. Geburtstag / hrsg. von Ulrike Peter. - Berlin : Akademie Verlag, 1998. – P. 601-611

 

Index:

Szemiothowa, Anna

Title:

Monety Olbii w zbiorach Muzeum Narodowego w Warszawie / Anna Szemiothowa

Source:

Rocznik Muzeum Narodowego w Warszawie 7 (1963) p. 125-184

 

Index:

Tsetskhladze, Gocha R. 1973-

Title:

On the numismatics of Colchis : the classical archaeologist's perspective / Gocha R. Tsetskhladze

Source:

Dialogues d'Histoire Ancienne 19 (1993) 1 p. 233-256

 

Index:

Vickers, Michael

Title:

Kolkhidki : a footnote / Michael Vickers, Amiran Kahidze and Irene Varsholomidze

Published:

London : Royal Numismatic Society, 2010

Note:

Offprint from: Numismatic Chronicle 170 (2010) p. 1-2, pl. 1