05. Counterfeiting, imitations, forgeries

Index:

Alfen, Peter G. van

Title:

Problems in ancient imitative and counterfeit coinage / Peter G. van Alfen

Source:

Making, moving and managing : the new world of ancient economies, 323-31 BC / ed. by Zofia H. Archibald, John K. Davies and Vincent Gabrielsen. - Oxford : Oxbow, cop. 2005. - P. 322-354

 

Index:

Amandry, Michel 1949-

Title:

Mazzini, Auguste 503 / Michel Amandry

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 88 (2009) p. 211-214, pl. 16

 

Index:

Amela Valverde, Luis

Title:

Sobre unas imitaciones del denario RRC 443/1 de C. Julio César a nombre de A. Hircio y C. Carrinas = On some imitations of denarius RRC 443/1 of C. Julius Caesar on behalf of A. Hiritius and C. Carrinas / Luis Amela Valverde

Source:

Documenta & Instrumenta 10 (2012) p. 109-129

Abstract:

This article is about the imitations in bronze of the denarius RRC 443/1, known as the ‘Caesar's Elephant’, of C. Julius Caesar (cos. I 59 BC), made in the treverian oppidum Titelberg of the late Roman Republic, and presumably used to pay the Gallic auxiliaries.

 

Index:

Aubin, Gérard 1947-

Title:

Les moules monétaires de Corseul (Côtes-d'Armor) et la date de fabrication des faux deniers en Gaule / par Gérard Aubin

Source:

Gallia 47 (1990) p. 257-263

Abstract:

Three clay moulds coming from Corseul are conserved in Nantes museum. Two of them represent severian denarii. The third mould shows the print of a denarius obverse of Julia Domna (196-211), and on the other side, of an antoninianus reverse of Aurelian (Milan, late 271-summer 273). The production of cast denarii in the time of Aurelian, when the coinage of denarii had practically ceased, suggests the hypothesis of counterfeiters who took advantage of the disorganization of the monetary circulation to mislead hoarders. We must admit that the denarius had reached a parallel and unofficial rate, increasing in proportion with the debasement of the antoninianus. The series of severian coin-moulds may be the product of a late fraudulent activity (v. 265-305) contemporaneous with the manufacture of «barbarous radiates». A conspectus of casts found in hoards seems to confirm the hypothesis.

 

Index:

Balcer, Jack Martin 1935-

Title:

The archaic coinage of Skyros and the forgeries of Konstantinos Christodoulos / Jack Martin Balcer

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 57 (1978) p. 69-101, pls. 25-27

 

Index:

Beauvais, Guillaume 1698-1773

Title:

An essay on the means of distinguishing antique from countefeit coins and medals / transl. from the French of M. Beauvais ; with notes and illustrations by John Trotter Brockett

Published:

Newcastle : E. Charnley, 1819

 

Index:

Beauvais, Guillaume 1698-1773

Title:

Manière de discerner les médailles antiques de celles qui sont contrefaites / d'après Beauvais

Edition:

Ouvrage rev., cor., mis dans un nouvel ordre et augum. / par le vicomte de Colleville

Published:

Paris : A. Picard, 1885

 

Index:

Botrè, Claudio

Title:

The earliest roman counterfeit by means of gold/mercury amalgam / Claudio Botrè, Silvia Mani Hurter

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 79 (2000) p. 107-111

 

Index:

Bondesson, Tobias

Title:

Barbarisk imitation av bysantinsk solidus : ett soloffer på Själland AD 536? / av Tobias Bondesson & Lennart Bondeson

Source:

Fornvännen 107 (2012) 3  p. 167-170

Abstract:

In the spring of 2011, amateur archaeologist and metal detectorist Tommy H. Olesen discovered a Migration Period gold hoard near Gammel Lejre on Zealand in Denmark. Among the 20 gold items recoveredwas one coin, awestern imitation of a Byzantine solidus, dating to the second quarter of the 6th century AD. At that time there was a significant disturbance to the climate, caused by a major volcanic or celestial eventwhich darkened the sun for over a year. This, in combination with the location of the hoard in the landscape, supports the idea that the gold was deposited as an offering to restore the sun.

 

Index:

Brousseau, Louis

Title:

Un faux octobole d'Érétrie des collections Stack, BCD et Jameson / Brousseau (Louis)

Source:

Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique 68 (2013) 3 (mars) p. 44-50

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

À propos de certaines estampilles sur des contrefaçons modernes de monnaies grecques / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 156 (November 1989) p. 84-87

Abstract:

After the publication by Ph. Kinns of two modern forgeries countermarked with numbers (73 for Myrina and 72 for Kyme), we publish another one: the number 33 on a forgery for Mithridates Eupator, king of Pontus (today in the coin cabinet of Stockholm). It may be that we are in front a full series of numbered forgeries mainly related with Asia Minor. The forgeries themselves seem to have been engraved by different forgers. An Italian origin is suspected for the numbering. It looks like the famous eagle countermarked by the Este or the Gonzaga.

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Le Cabinet des Médailles de Bruxelles et les fausses monnaies grecques / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 88 (2009) p. 289-297

Abstract:

The coin cabinet of the Royal Library of Belgium is very rich in Greek coin forgeries; it owns more than 1,200 coins classified as such (chiefly gifts made by the dealers Paul Tinchant and Druso Franceschi) and a card file made by the author in the 1990s. This card file includes the contents of several major coin cabinets (Cambridge, London, New York, Oxford, Paris and Wien) as well as what has been published in the literature, to start with the Bulletin on Countefeits (c. 2.500 files).

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Contrefaçons de monnaies grecques / [François de Callataÿ]

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 138 (1992) p. 155-160, pl. 18

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

La controverse 'imitateurs/faussaires' ou les riches fantaisies monétaires de la Renaissance / [François de Callataÿ]

Source:

Copier et contrefaire à la Renaissance : faux et usage de faux : actes du Colloque organisé par RHR et la SFDES les 29, 30 et 31 octobre 2009, Université Paris 1-Panthéon-Sorbonne / sous la dir. de Pascale Mounier et de Colette Nativel. - Paris : H. Champion, 2014. - P. 269-291

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Deux faux récents des derniers alexandres de Mésembria et d'Odessos / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Cahiers Numismatiques 111 (mars 1992) p. 7-8

Abstract:

Two modern counterfeits of late Alexanders issued at Odessus and Mesembria are discussed. Reasons are given why they must be discarded as modern forgeries.

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Faut-il faire tomber les foudres ? / François de Callataÿ et Dominique Gerin

Published:

Stockholm : Svenska Numismatiska Föreningen, 1992

Note:

Offprint from: Florilegium numismaticum : studia in honorem U. Westermark edita / [red.: Harald Nilsson]. - Stockholm : Svenska Numismatiska Föreningen, 1992. – P. 103-109

Abstract:

Many Greek coinages, especially Hellenistic, display a thunderbolt on the reverse. These thunderbolts are generally illustrated horizontally in order to make more readible the legend beyond and below. As a matter of fact, this is most unlikely and, if these coinages were oriented at 12 'o clock as were all the others in the same cities, these thunderbolts must be seen vertically. The same must be true for other types like clubs or caduceus. In other words, in the Greek world, the image came before the text, very much in opposition with our world which gives primacy to the text on the image.

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Un faux 'tétradrachme en or' de Mithridate Eupator / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 225 (März 2007) p. 3-7

Abstract:

A gold tetradrachm of MIthridates Eupator has been recently acquired by a French dealer. This unique piece (25.34g) has been struck with an already known genuine obverse die and a new reverse die (ES - A = October 93 BC). A study of the coin with a magnifier reveals small dots in relief which prove that the dies used to strike this piece have been moulded and that we are dealing with a modern forgery. Ii offers a supplementary proof that forgers are now able to mould genuine dies with a very limited loss of quality.

 

Index:

Calomino, Dario 1977-

Title:

Collezionismo e commercio numismatico nella Verona di Scipione Maffei : testimonianze inedite su un 'raro medaglione d’Ottone' / Dario Calomino

Published:

Milano : Società Numismatica Italiana Onlus, 2011

Note:

Offprint from: Rivista Italiana di Numismatica 112 (2011) p. 303-326, pl. 1-4

Abstract:

The unveiling of some unpublished letters has shed new light on the trading and collecting of ancient coins in Verona between the late XVII and the early XVIII centuries. The author of these letters, dr. Antonio Bianchi, was an esteemed numismatist and famous dealer, who bought and sold Greek and Roman coins in Veneto and Northern Europe. One of the most precious specimens of his collection was a very large and rare coin of Otho struck by Alexandria of Egypt. The piece drew the attention of several collectors, arising doubts about its authenticity.

 

Index:

Campo, Marta

Title:

La moneda falsa a Hispània : producció i circulació / Marta Campo

Source:

La moneda falsa de l'antiquitat a l'euro / Marta Campo ... [et al.]. - Barcelona : MNAC, 2010. - P. 20-25

 

Index:

Campo, Marta

Title:

Producció i circulació de moneda falsa a la península Ibérica (s. IV. a.C.-I d.C.) / Marta Campo

Source:

Falsificació i manipulació de la moneda : XIV Curs d'història monetària d'Hispània / coord. cientifica Marta Campo. - Barcelona : MNAC, 2010. - P. 23-39

Abstract:

The earliest examples of counterfeit coins from the Iberian peninsula are those of issues of the Greek settlement of Emporion dating to the beginning of the 4th century BC. After that, our next evidence for counterfeiting comes from the period of the second Punic war, when the volume of silver coin in circulation increased substantially. From then on, the production of 'plated' silver is a constant factor that continued until the end of the Roman empire, as can be seen from coin-finds and from the distribution of counterfeiters’ tools. There is also the phenomenon of the copying of official Roman bronze coins during periods when small change was in short supply. In law, such copies were counterfeits, despite the fact that they were produced out of necessity.

 

Index:

Carlà, Filippo 1980-

Title:

Dal 'perpetuum exilium' al taglio della mano : falso in moneta e 'maiestas' nel diritto tardoromano, bizantino e romano-germanico / Filippo Carlà

Published:

Mainz : Verlag des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, 2016

Note:

Offprint from: Produktion und recyceln von Münzen in der Spätantike = Produire et recycler la monnaie au Bas-Empire / Jérémie Chameroy et Pierre-Marie Guihard (dir.). - Mainz : Verlag des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, 2016. - (RGZM-Tagungen ; Bd. 29). - P. 29-46

Abstract:

This article aims to offer a systematic overview of the evolution of laws concerning the crime of coin counterfeiting in Late Antiquity and in the Early Middle Ages. Starting from a clear distinction between the production of counterfeit coins and the adulteration of »authentic« coins, this contribution analyses the evolution of the punishment foreseen for these crimes between the 3rd and the 7th century. In particular, such a development is investigated in its connection with the evolution of the concept of maiestas, highlighting the differences and the reciprocal influences between Byzantine and Romano-Germanic law.

 

Index:

Chameroy, Jérémie 1976-

Title:

Münzgussformen des 3. Jahrhunderts in den Sammlungen des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz / Jérémie Chameroy

Source:

Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 54 (2007) 2 p. 533-572, pl. 1-12

Abstract:

The 43 coin moulds from the collection of the RGZM were used to cast denarii of the period from Antoninus Pius to Caracalla (141-217). They belong to a larger assemblage of coin moulds which came to light before 1950 at an unknown site. The composition of other forgers’ mould finds from the western provinces shows that the main casting phase of the Antonine and the Severan dynasties occurred between 240 and 270. The moulds from the RGZM, too, which do not reflect a fair picture of the original inventory, could date to this period. The counterfeiters took advantage of the end of the regular minting of denarii after 240 and concentrated more on casting these coins with a copper-tin alloy with silver appearance. As denarii became rarer around  260-270, the forgers more and more took the antoninianus coined in large numbers in the official mints as a model. During the great inflation period of the 270ies coin forgery seems to have decreased in favour of the production of imitations. The abundant coinage of imitations of antoniniani was meant to cover the increased need of coins.

 

Index:

Chameroy, Jérémie

Title:

L’officine de faux-monnayeurs de La Coulonche (Orne) : nummi coulés de la Tétrarchie en Occident /

Published:

London : Royal Numismatic Society, 2014

Note:

Offprint from: Numismatic Chronicle 174 (2014). p. 153-191, pl. 20-25

Abstract:

The discovery of clay moulds at La Coulonche (Orne) in the mid-19th century attested a workshop producing under the first Tetrarchy cast ‘nummi’ of Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius and Constantius. It is unique for continental Europe, but because the material was dispersed after being recorded, and a significant part of it lost, the find remains little known to scholars. The interdisciplinary research presented here, based on 147 moulds and fragments preserved in four collections, examines the way in which the moulds were made, the origin of their clays, and the nature of the alloy used for the cast ‘nummi’. The coin issues used to make the impressions on the clay indicate two phases of production (c.298-300, c.302-303), as is confirmed by study of contemporary hoards of ‘nummi’. The use of the casting technique and of an alloy with very low silver content show that this was a forgery operation, the production of cast ‘nummi’ being explicitly prohibited at least as early as Constantine the Great. Worsening price inflation at the turn of the 4th century would have encouraged counterfeiting operations in the provinces, but the limited evidence for the phenomenon, confined as it is to the north-west of the Empire at the time of the first Tetrarchy, suggests more local causes. The only other forgery workshop known in the west was at Duston (Northamptonshire), which ceased production of cast tetrarchic nummi at the same time as the workshop at La Coulonche, in 303, a year which also marks a Schatzfundhorizont in north-east Gaul. An inadequate supply of official ‘nummi’ to the north-west provinces until about 303, aggravated by the delayed spread of ‘nummi’ to Britain (and to certain coastal areas of the continent) held by the rebels Carausius and Allectus until two years after Diocletian’s monetary reform in 294, could explain these isolated operations on either side of the Channel. Finally, the increased output of ‘nummi’ at the mint of Trier from 303 ensured a better supply of billon laureates to the north-west provinces, as the hoards show. The reconquest of the north-west and its economic reintegration into the Empire will have caused the ephemeral workshops at La Coulonche and Duston to close.

 

Index:

Chassepol, François de

Title:

Traité des finances et de la fausse monnoie des Romains : auquel on a joint une dissertation sur la manière de discerner les médailles antiques d'avec les contrefaites

Published:

Paris : Briasson, 1740

 

Index:

Chassepol, François de

Title:

A treatise of the revenue and false money of the Romans : to which is annexed, a dissertation upon The manner of distinguishing antique medals from counterfeit ones / transl. from the original printed at Paris 1740

Published:

London : J. and P. Knapton, 1741

 

Index:

Crisà, Antonino

Title:

Paolo Cataldi, a counterfeiter of ancient coins at Buccheri (Syracuse, 1818) : some archival records / Antonino Crisà

Published:

Milano : Società Numismatica Italiana Onlus, 2012

Note:

Offprint from: Rivista Italiana di Numismatica 113 (2012) p. 385-390

 

Index:

Davies, John A.

Title:

The barbarous radiates from Richborough / J.A. Davies

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 52 (1982) p. 17-28, pl. 1-2

 

Index:

Davis, Phillip

Title:

Imitations of Republican denarii from Moesia and Thrace / Phillip Davis, Evgeni Paunov

Source:

HPAKΛEOYΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ ΘAΣIΩN : studia in honorem Iliae Prokopov sexagenario ab amicis et discipulis dedicat / ed: Evgeni Paunov and Svetosava Filipova. - Tirnovi : Faber, 2012. - P. 389-413

 

Index:

Degler, Adam

Title:

East Germanic imitation of an aureus of Severus Alexander with runic legend : the newest acquisition to the collection of ancient coins in the Ossolineum / Adam Degler

Source:

Wiadomości Numizmatyczne 49 (2015) 1-2 p. 47-65

Abstract:

The Ossolineum bought the coin discussed in this article at the 58th auction of the Warsaw Numismatic Centre held on 8 November 2014. It was initially identifi ed as a Gothic imitation of an aureus of Severus Alexander, most probably made in the Chernyakhiv culture. Only after close examination was it revealed that the coin had a runic inscription, which was part of the matrix and not carved on the coin. This means that it is the oldest known runic coin, as it should be dated to 271–332, whereas other runic coins or gold Scandinavian bracteates are dated no earlier than to the fifth century AD. The authenticity of the specimen has been confirmed by microscopic examination, comparative analysis of other imitations, numismatic objects produced in an analogical method or style and metal analyses. Attempts to trace the provenance of the specimen failed. The meaning of the inscription cannot be ascertained. The discovery of runic signs on the coin has serious implications for our knowledge of ancient East Germanic peoples. It means that we have to date the beginnings of Germanic coinage at least two  centuries earlier than has been accepted until recently. We must also accept that the links between the Baltic and Black Sea regions were very close.

 

Index:

Doyen, Jean-Marc 1954-

Title:

Une trouvaille occidentale d’imitations radiées. Pt. 1: Provenance et constitution / Jean-Marc Doyen

Source:

Bulletin du Cercle d'Études Numismatiques 17 (1980) 2 (avril-juin)  p. 29-43

 

Index:

Doyen, Jean-Marc 1954-

Title:

Une trouvaille occidentale d’imitations radiées. Pt. 2: Étude de l’ensemble / Jean-Marc Doyen

Source:

Bulletin du Cercle d'Études Numismatiques 17 (1980) 3 (juillet-septembre) p. 57-68

 

Index:

Doyen, Jean-Marc 1954-

Title:

Une trouvaille occidentale d’imitations radiées. Pt. 3: Le problème des 'imitations radiées' : propositions de classification et de datation / Jean-Marc Doyen

Source:

Bulletin du Cercle d'Études Numismatiques 17 (1980) 4 (octobre-decembre) p. 77-88

 

Index:

Friedlaender, Eduard Julius Theodor 1813-1884

Title:

Ein Verzeichniss von Griechischen falschen Münzen welche aus modernen Stempelin geprägt sind : zur Warnung zusammengestellt / von Julius Friedlaender

Published:

Berlin : Weber, 1883

 

Index:

Gaspar, Răzvan Bogdan

Title:

Counterfeiting Roman coins in the Roman Empire 1st–3rd A.D. : study on the Roman provinces of Dacia and Pannonia.  / Răzvan Bogdan Gaspar

Source:

Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology 2 (2015) 4 p. 31-74

Abstract:

This paper is based on the study of Roman silver coins, from archaeological sites located in Roman Dacia and Pannonia. Initially centred on the record of hybrid silver coins, the paper expanded its analysis on counterfeit pieces as well in order to fully understand all problems of roman silver coinage from the 1st to the 3rd centuries AD.

The new and larger area of research had more than one implications, coin distribution on the studied sites, influx of coin in the province, quantity of recorded counterfeited pieces being just some of them. Thus every situation was discussed in different chapters, first presenting the coins and the laws that protected them, the studied sites and the analyse of the silver coins on these sites, the general and compared situation between the provinces, interpretation of the counterfeited and hybrid pieces and finally, conclusions on the subject. All these tasks have been achieved one step at a time, each archaeological site providing precious data which piled up and was finally pressed in order to present the correct historical situation.

 

Index:

Geissler, Warner Reinhold 1807-

Title:

Ueber die Aechtheitsbeurtheilung der antiken römischen Münzen / von Warner Reinhold Geissler

Published:

Bautzen : Monse, 1871

 

Index:

Gerin, Dominique

Title:

Un faux statère de Stymphale entré au Cabinet du Roi avant 1685 / Dominique Gerin

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 221 (März 2006) p. 3-8

 

Index:

Giard, Jean-Baptiste

Title:

Inventions et récréations numismatiques de la Renaissance / [Jean-Baptiste Giard]

Source:

Journal des Savants (1974) 3 p. 192-208

 

Index:

Gitler, Haim 1962-

Title:

A group of false Roman coins dies / Haim Gitler, Markus Peter, Matthew Ponting

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 78 (1999) p. 101-107, pl. 13-16

 

Index:

Guihard, Pierre-Marie

Title:

Les faux-monnayeurs au travail : réflexions à partir de quelques moules en terre cuite du 3e siècle apr. J.-C. conservés au Musée de Normandie à Caen / Pierre-Marie Guihard

Source:

Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 45 (2015) 2 p. 263-282

Abstract:

The four clay casting moulds for coins from the collection L. Gosselin in the Musée de Normandie were used to produce  denari of the period of Caracalla and Elagabalus. An analysis of the production process shows that casting imitations of  denari was a task which would have required fundamental knowledge on techniques common to both potters and metal casters. However, according to the archaeological record this cooperation was not necessarily a given. Especially  casting imitations seems to have been a modest activity which was conducted partly in metal workshops, partly in  backyard workshops. Indeed, this archaeologically well documented evidence suggests that bronze smiths alone produced  counterfeited coins aside their usual business. Perhaps this work was transferred into the backyard or delegated  to people in the social environment. In any case, forging coins is an urban activity, a little criminal occupation which took  place as close as possible to the consumers: where a monetised everyday exchange offered best possibilities to make  profit with false coins.

 

Index:

Hollard, Dominique 1957-

Title:

Bronzes irréguliers frappés sous le règne de Victorin / D. Hollard

Source:

Cahiers Numismatiques 104 (juilliet 1990) p. 23-26

 

Index:

Holt, Frank Lee

Title:

Authenticity / Frank Holt

Source:

The Alexander medallion : exploring the origins of a unique artefact / Frank Holt and Osmund Bopearachchi. - Rouqueyroux : Imago Lattara, 2011. - P. 14-31

 

Index:

Jonghe, Baudouin de 1842-1925

Title:

Un sou d’or pseudo-impérial au revers de l’empereur tenant le labarum et un globe surmonté d’une victoire / [Baudouin de Jonghe]

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 65 (1909) 3 p. 245-251

 

Index:

Kiernan, Philip

Title:

Counterfeit bronze coinage in the third century A.D. : the Ardennes hoard of imitation. double sestertii of Postumus / Philip Kiernan

Published::

Berlin : Mann, [2009]

Note:

Offprint from: Kölner Jahrbuch 42 (2009) p. 625-687

 

Index:

Kisch, Guido 1889-1985

Title:

Numismatisches 'Kunstfälschertum' im Urteil der Zeitgenossen / Guido Kisch

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 36 (1954) p. 31-36

 

Index:

Krmnicek, Stefan

Title:

Antikes Falschgeld und moderne Fälschung antiker Münzen / Stefan Krmnicek

Source:

Täuschend echt : Begleitband zur Ausstellung des Instituts für klassische Archäologie im Museum der Universität Tübingen (MUT), Alte Kulturen, Schloß Hohentübingen, 11. November 2013 bis 8. Februar 2014 / Kathrin B. Zimmer (Hg.) ; [Texte: Bernd Engler ... [et al.]. - Tübingen : Museum der Universität Tübingen, cop. 2013. (Schriften des Museums der Universität Tübingen MUT, Bd. 4). - P. 107-117

 

Index:

Krmnicek, Stefan

Title:

Die falschen Münzen des Stuttgarter Regierungsrates Carl Sigmund Tux (1715–1798) / Stefan Krmnicek

Source:

Rezeption, Zeitgeist, Fälschung - Umgang mit Antike(n) : Akten des internationalen Kolloquiums am 31. Januar und 1. Februar 2014 in Tübingen / Kathrin Barbara Zimmer (Hrsg.). - Rahden : Leidorf, 2015. - (Tübinger Archäologische Forschungen ; Bd. 18). - P. 303-314

 

Index:

Lawrence, Richard Hoe

Title:

Medals by Giovanni Cavino, the ‘Paduan’ / by Richard Hoe Lawrence

Published:

New York : [s.n.], 1883

 

Index:

Markou, Evangéline 1975-

Title:

Copies modernes de statères d'or de Nikokréon de Salamine : à propos d'un défaut de coin / [Evangéline Markou]

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 153 (2007) p. 135-138

 

Index:

Mora Serrano, Bartolomé 1960-

Title:

Entre el negocio y la erudición : la falsificación de moneda hispana antigua en la historiografía numismática española / Bartolomé Mora Serrano

Source:

Falsificació i manipulació : XIV Curs d’història monetària d’Hispània / coord. científica Marta Campo. - [Barcelona] : MNAC, Gabinet Numismàtic de Catalunya, [2010]. - P. 103-122

Abstract:

An interest in forgery and the coins of Hispania goes back a long way. The close link between the study of numismatics and the collecting of so-called ‘medals’ led to forgeries’ appearing in the market, both in the form of newly-struck examples or ones made by casting and in the form of genuine specimens altered by either chemical treatment or tooling. Although monetary profit was at its root, the phenomenon can also be read in some cases as the result of over-imagination on the part of students and collectors alike and in others as the desire to supply evidence, by means of either altered specimens or purpose-made forgeries, that might elucidate historical or archaeological problems. Such forgeries, given currency by well-regarded numismatic studies, underline the close links between epigraphy and numismatics.

 

Index:

Pagnon, A.

Title:

Art de reconnaître les médailles fausses des vraies antiques, et les divers moyens qu'emploient les faussaires pour les contrefaire et les patiner : suivi d'un catalogue de médailles fausses frappées dans des coins anciens et modernes / par A. Pagnon

Published:

Marseille : V. Boy, 1857

 

Index:

Parisot-Sillon, Charles

Title:

Modes de production des fausses monnaies romaines à l’époque républicaine : à propos des coins d’un denier fourré à la légende Q•POM•RVFI/RVFVS•COS / Parisot-Sillon (Charles)

Source:

Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique 69 (2014) 10 (décembre) p. 304-308

Abstract:

This short paper presents an outstanding plated denarius (RRC 434/1) from the Bibliothèque nationale de France. Its most interesting feature is the similar design of its obverse and reverse types, as if the same die was erroneously used to strike both sides. This can only be explained if this coin was struck from transfer dies, replicated from a genuine Roman republican coin. Thus, new pieces of evidence are made available as regards the manufacture and scale of ancient counterfeited denarii.

 

Index:

Peter, Markus 1960-

Title:

Imitations of Roman coins / Markus Peter

Source:

A survey of numismatic research, 2002-2007 / general ed. Michel Amandry, Donal Bateson ; subed. Philp Attwood ... [et al.]. - Glasgow : International Association of Professional Numismatists, 2009. – P. 196-199

 

Index:

Peter, Markus 1960-

Title:

Von Betrug bis Ersatzkleingeld : Falschmünzerei in römischer Zeit / Markus Peter

Source:

Mainz am Rhein : Von Zabern, 2011

Note:

Offprint from: Gefährliches Pflaster : Kriminalität im Römischen Reich / hrsg. von Marcus Reuter und Romina Schiavone. - Mainz am Rhein : Von Zabern, 2011. - (Xantener Berichte ; Bd. 21). - P. 107-119

 

Index:

Picard, Olivier 1940-

Title:

Quand la fausse monnaie est prise pour argent comptant / par Olivier Picard

Source:

Dossiers d'Archéologie 312 (Avril 2006) p. 52-57

 

Index:

Pilon, Fabien

Title:

Le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, terre de fauxmonnayage au Bas-Empire / Fabien Pilon, François Reinert

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 90 (2011) p. 111-133, pl. 10-12

Abstract:

From the last third of the 3rd century until the middle of the 4th, seven workshops in what is now the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg produced imitations of the official Roman coins of the time at different moments. The metrological study of the coins found, and of other monetary artefacts, has allowed the nature and main characteristics of each of these workshops to be identified. In the last quarter of the 3rd century four workshops produced barbarous radiates Berdorf, Breinert, Givenich and Tetelbierg) and three produced silvered or tinned antoniniani of Gallienus and Postumus Mamer, Berdort, Brienert). As for the 4th century, there was a workshop in Rosport c. 320 and another in Waldbillig c. 350 ; both struck imitations of bronze coins. There is a clear concentration of workshops in the area of Trier, but in remote places – even in caves. This seems to indicate that those responsible wanted, on the one hand, to conceal their not fully legal activities, but, on the other, this may also have been the result of Germanic incursions that are not easily proven by the archaeological record.

 

Index:

Pilon, Fabien

Title:

Un premier atelier irrégulier du milieu du IVe siècle localisé en Gaule (Le Mesnil-Amelot, Seine-et-Marne, France) / Fabien Pilon

Source:

Revue Numismatique 162 (2006) p. 311-336, pl. 39-40

Abstract:

Excavations carried out in 2001 at the Gallo-Roman site οί La Pièce du Gué (Le Mesnil Amelot, Seine-et-Marne, France), led to the finding of fifteen mid-4th-century forgeries (at least five of them struck with the same reverse die copying the ‘one standard’ Gloria exercitus type) which were discarded in the fill of a cellar together  with seventeen monetary artefacts (two cylinders and fifteen blanks). This material manifestly attests to the local striking of minimi, usually dated to the years 354-366 and having an average weight of 0.54 g and diameter of 9.7 mm. This production, evidently based on a third part of a nummus, with a rate of 1 92 to the pound, closely resembles the hoards found at Reims (Marne, France) and the North Leigh Roman villa (Oxfordshire, England), and raises the question of organisation concerning weight in mid-4th-century forgeries.

 

Index:

Pinder, Moritz Eduard 1807-1871

Title:

Die Beckerschen falschen Münzen / beschr. von M. Pinder

Published:

Berlin : Nicolaische Buchhandlung, 1843

 

Index:

Pinder, Moritz Eduard 1807-1871

Title:

Numismatique beckerienne : recueil des médailles contrefaites par Becker / décr. par M. Pinder

Published:

Paris : A. Leleux, 1853

 

Index:

Prokopov, Ilya Ilya Simeonov 1952-

Title:

Coin forgeries and replicas 2006 / Ilya Prokopov

Series:

Coin collections and coin hoards from Bulgaria. [Coin forgery series] ; vol. 5

Published:

Sofia : Provias, 2006

 

Index:

Prokopov, Ilya Ilya Simeonov 1952-

Title:

Coin forgeries and replicas 2007 / Ilya Prokopov

Series:

Coin collections and coin hoards from Bulgaria. [Coin forgery series] ; vol. 6

Published:

Sofia : Provias, 2007

 

Index:

Prokopov, Ilya Ilya Simeonov 1952-

Title:

Counterfeit studios and their coins : handbook of the individual collector / by Ilya Prokopov and Rumen Manov

Series:

Coin collections and coin hoards from Bulgaria. [Coin forgery series] ; vol. 4

Published:

Sofia : Popov-Popeto, 2005

 

Index:

Prokopov, Ilya Ilya Simeonov 1952-

Title:

The imitations of late Thasian tetradrachms : chronology, classification and dating / Ilya S. Prokopov

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. I / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : [International Numismatic Council]. 2011. – P. 337-344, pls. 1-5

 

Index:

Prokopov, Ilya Ilya Simeonov 1952-

Title:

Modern counterfeits and replicas of ancient Greek and Roman coins from Bulgaria / Ilya Prokopov, Kostadin Kissyov, Eugeni Paunov

Series:

Coin collections and coin hoards from Bulgaria. [Coin forgery series] ; vol. [2]

Published:

Sofia : [Popov-Popeto], 2003

Abstract:

This is the second book on the counterfeits of ancient coins from present-day Bulgaria. In 1997, a team of three  co-authors lead by Dr. I. Prokopov prepared and edited a first small book of fake coins, which was subsequently published in Sofia. The present catalogue is a result of that continuing initiative and work.  The authors prepared the second book in 1998 in the same format. It was not until 2003 that a publisher for this book was found. Prior to publication it was necessary to edit andreformat the manuscript - this publication is the result of that work and reflects information gathered up to the spring of 2003.

 

Index:

Schimko, Johann Gottlieb Stephan 1785-1868

Title:

Beiträge zur Numismatik, besonders zur Erkenntniß der Echtheit der alten Münzen und anderen Gegenständen von Metall : nebst einigen numismatischen Epigrammen / von Johann Gottlieb Schimko

Published:

Olmütz : Druck und Papier von Alois Skarnitzl, 1841

 

Index:

Schwabacher, Willy 1897-1972

Title:

Die Münzen der Olynthos-Grabung : zu Hugo Gaebler's 'Fälschungen makedonischer Münzen II' / [W. Schwabacher]

Source:

American Journal of Archaeology 42 (1938) 1 (January-March) p. 70-76, pl. 10-12

 

Index:

Sestini, Domenico, 1750-1832

Title:

Sopra i moderni falsificatori di medaglie greche antiche nei tre metalli e descrizione di tutte quelle prodotte dai medisimi nello spazo di pochi anni

Published:

Firenze : presso Attilio Tofani, 1826

 

Index:

Spier, Jeffrey

Title:

Sir Charles Frederick and the forgery of ancient coins in eighteenth-century Rome / Jeffrey Spier and Jonathan Kagan

Source:

Journal of the History of Collections 12 (2000) 1 p. 35-90

 

Index:

Stefanaki, Vassiliki E.

Title:

Les fausses monnaies d’Hiérapytna : monnaies fourrées et imitations modernes / Vassiliki E. Stefanaki

Published:

[S.l. : s.n., 2007]

Note:

Offprint from: Nomismatika Khronika 26 (2007) p. 29-38, pl. 1-2

 

Index:

Steinbüchel, Anton von 1790-

Title:

Die Becker'schen falschen Münzstämpel in ausfürlichen Verzeichnissen : für Sammler und Freunde der Münzwissenschaft : mit einer Einleitung über Münzkunde überhaupt / von A. von Steinbüchel.

Published:

Wien : Friedrich Volke's Buchhandlung, 1836

 

Index:

Teixell Navarro, Imma

Title:

Noves aportacions al coneixement de la moneda d'imitació a ‘Tarraco’ : des de l'antoninià fins al tremís / Imma Teixell Navarro

Source:

Falsificació i manipulació : XIV Curs d’història monetària d’Hispània / coord. científica Marta Campo. - [Barcelona] : MNAC, Gabinet Numismàtic de Catalunya, [2010]. - P. 69-80

Abstract:

Presented are new contributions relating to fakes of the period of the city of Tarraco from archeological contexts, taking into account that up to the present imitation coinage in both silver and gold have been absent from the latest archeological excavations. Thus bronze coinage remains the main protagonist during the intervals of the production of imitations wich have been identified from certain periods of the Empire. Also have been reflected the behaviour of imitations during the Visigothic epoch taking into account the few examples known which imitate the production from the area of Terracuna.

 

Index:

Wigg-Wolff, David George 1956-

Title:

Zur Interpretation und Bedeutung der 'Barbarisierungen' der römischen Kaiserzeit / David G. Wigg-Wolf

Source:

Faux, contrefaçons, imitations : actes du quatrième colloque international du Groupe suisse pour l'étude des trouvailles monétaires (Martigny, 1er-2 mars 2002) = Fälschungen, Beischläge, Imitationen : Sitzungsbericht des vierten internationalen Kolloquiums der Schweizerischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Fundmünzen (Martigny, 1.-2.März 2002) / éd. par Anne-Francine Auberson, Harald R. Derschka, Suzanne Frey-Kupper. - Lausanne : Éd. du Zèbre, 2004. - (Etudes de numismatique et d'histoire monétaire ; 5). - P. 55-75, pl. 4

 

Index:

Woytek, Bernhard 1974-

Title:

Imitations of Roman Republican 'denarii' : new metallurgical data / B.W. Woytek ... [et al.]

Source:

American Journal of Numismatics 2nd ser. 24 (2012) p. 133-162, pl. 34

Abstract:

This article presents the results of scientific analyses performed on nine an- cient imitations of Roman Republican silver denarii , which are part of a group commonly referred to as ‘Geto-Dacian’ imitations, and discusses the data in a broader context. The coins were dissected and analyzed for their composition in the core with synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (ji-SRXRF); their microstructure was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) using backscattered electrons. Micrographs of all the cross-sections are published. The majority of the coins were found to have a high standard of fineness of more than 93% silver, which is in good agreement with the few modern analyses of this class of coinage published up to now (performed with a different analytical method, viz. atomic absorption spectrometry, AAS). The coins were also analysed for their main impurities (Au, Pb, Bi), and this data was compared with trace metal signatures of published groups of Republican denarius imitations as well as official Roman denarii.