13. India

Index:

Allan, John Andrew 1885-1955

Title:

Catalogue of the coins in the Indian Museum, Calcutta : including the cabinet of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Vol. IV / ed. by John Allan

Published:

Oxford : Trustees of the Indian Museum, 1928

 

Index:

Bhattasali, Nalini Kanta 1888-1947

Title:

Coins and chronology of the early independent sultans of Bengal / by Nalini Kanta Bhattasali

Published:

Cambridge : Heffer & Sons, 1922

 

Index:

Brown, Cecil Jermayne

Title:

Catalogue of coins in the Provincial Museum Lucknow : coins of the Mughal emperors. Vol. I: Prefaces and plates / by C.J. Brown

Published:

Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1920

 

Index:

Brown, Cecil Jermayne

Title:

Catalogue of coins in the Provincial Museum Lucknow : coins of the Mughal emperors. Vol. II: Catalogue / by C.J. Brown

Published:

Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1920

 

Index:

Codrington, Oliver -1921

Title:

On a hoard of coins found at Broach / by O. Codrington

Published:

[S.l. : s.n., 1883]

Note:

Offprint from: Journal of the Bombay Branch of Royal Asiatic Society 15 (1882-1883) p. 339-370, pls. 1-4

 

Index:

Codrington, Oliver -1921

Title:

On copper coins of Bahmani Dynasty / by O. Codrington

Published:

[S.l. : s.n., 1884]

Note:

Offprint from: Journal of the Bombay Branch of Royal Asiatic Society 16 (1883-1884)

 

Index:

Codrington, Oliver -1921

Title:

Some rare coins of Amawee Khaleefehs / by O. Codrington

Published:

[S.l. : s.n., 1884]

Note:

Offprint from: Journal of the Bombay Branch of Royal Asiatic Society 16 (1883-1884) p. 93-98

 

Index:

Dames, Mansel Longworth 1850-1922

Title:

The mint of Kuraman, with special reference to the coins of the Qarlughs and Khwarizm-Shahs / by M. Longworth Dames

Source:

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (april 1908) p. 389-408

 

Index:

Deyell, John Scott

Title:

Cowries and coins : the dual monetary system of the Bengal Sultanate / John S. Deyell

Source:

Indian Economic Social History Review 47 (2010) p. 63-106

Abstract:

This article examines the establishment, operation and evolution of the dual–denomination monetary system of the Bengal Sultanate, 1205–1576. The Sultans ruled a populous country blessed with a consistent surplus production of agricultural commodities and textiles which they redistributed through their system of state revenue and expenditure. Also, traders drew on this surplus for the Indian Ocean trade. Both levels of the economy were served by the monetary system. A heavy, high purity silver coin met the needs of government and trade, while cowry shells met the needs of low-value transactions for most of the population. A private financial industry brokered the exchange of the two denominations. Over time the relative importance of cowries and silver tankas shifted, with the metallic currency predominant by the sixteenth century. This reflected the expansion of the Sultanate, the growing maturity of its state system and the improved availability of bullion. Bengal’s money appears to have been almost exclusively domestic in circulation and impact. However, neither silver nor cowry shells were available locally, and had to be imported. The high capacity of Bengal to absorb cowries and silver into its money supply must have been a significant driver of overland and maritime trading patterns.

 

Index:

Haider, Najaf

Title:

Precious metal flows and currency circulation in the Mughal Empire / by Najaf Haider

Source:

Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 39 (1996) 3 p. 298-364

Abstract:

From the late sixteenth century, the Mughal empire became, with the sole exception of Ming China, the biggest importer of foreign bullion outside Europe. In many modern publications, references to this phenomenon are confined to the context of studying the East-West trade in general, while there is some discussion of its relevance as a factor of change in the Mughal economy. An attempt has been made here to quantify precious metal flows to the Mughal empire and to put them in the perspective of its mint production and silver currency circulation. The significance of India's trade network with Iran and the Ottoman empire is highlighted together with the suggestion that the economic organisation of these regions had a greater influence on the transmission of precious metals to the former than is usually acknowledged. Also, as the level of money supply in medieval monetary economies was inextricably linked with the structure of the bullion market, mint organisation and fiscal measures of the state, the objective here is to point out the importance of this interface in any assessment of a precise relationship between trade and real economic changes.

 

Index:

Henderson, John Robertson 1863-

Title:

The coins of Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan / by J. R. Henderson

Published:

Madras : Government Press, 1921

 

Index:

Hultzsch, Eugen 1857-1927

Title:

The coinage of the sultans of Madura / by E. Hultzsch

Source:

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (july 1909) p. 667-683

 

Index:

Hussain, Syed Ejaz

Title:

Symbolism and the state authority : reflections from the art on Indo-Islamic coins / Syed Ejaz Hussain

Source:

Indian Historical Review 40 (2013) 1 p. 17-40

Abstract:

Symbols and rituals with regard to the legitimacy and manifestations of state authority have been the subject of debate in historical writings in recent decades. But most of the works on the subject discuss the legitimacy and authority in the context of visible symbols of power and rituals. So far as symbolism is concerned, it is both visible and invisible. Awrang, chatr, durbash, ‘alam, etc., were the visible symbols of power. But there were some invisible symbols of power hidden in sophisticated Islamic art. Islamic art in various forms and features in the early modern world told something that was sometimes not easily recognised in visible symbols of power. It is argued that one of the chief purposes the coinage served during the medieval period was its use as a medium of communication to the subjects by the ruling authority. Coins spoke to the people in two ways—through the language of inscription as well as through the language of art. The rulers used both these languages to legitimise and glorify their authority and power in order to create a sensory image in the mind of their subjects to win their faith and make them obey. The ruler also liked to perpetuate his achievements and munificence in the memory of his subjects. Inscriptions on coins carried political overtones and messages while a variety of symbols, decorative motifs and designs engraved on the body of the coins not only tell of the aesthetic tastes of the ruler and the contemporary society but they radiated certain calculated move and political expression.1 The present article makes an attempt to unravel the political rhetoric reflected through the invisible language of art and decorative designs found on the Indo-Islamic coins, particularly of the sultanate period. The author has consulted both published and unpublished coins preserved in public repositories and private collections in India and abroad. Both contemporary and modern works have been extensively used to analyse the numismatic evidence and reach a conclusion. However, the suggestions expressed herewith are purely hypothetical, even speculation. The arguments put forward are for provoking a discussion and sharing with those working with similar themes.

 

Index:

Jackson, Richard Plummer 1816-1891

Title:

Coin collecting in the Deccan / by R.P. Jackson

Published:

London : Harrison, 1909

Note:

Offprint from: British Numismatic Journal 5 (1908) p. 287-340, pl. 1-3

 

Index:

Khan, Muhammad Abdul Wali 1921-

Title:

Gold and silver coins of Sultans of Dehli in the Andhra Pradesh State Museum, Hyderabad / by Mohd. Abdul Wali Khan

Series:

Andhra Pradesh Government Museum series ; 11

Published:

Hyderabad : Government of Andhra Pradesh, 1974

 

Index:

Lane-Poole, Stanley 1854-1931

Title:

The coins of the Moghul emperors of Hindustan in the British Museum / by Stanley Lane-Poole ; ed. by Reginald Stuart Poole

Series:

Catalogue of the Indian coins in the British Museum ; [Vol. 4]

Published:

London : printed by order of the Trustees [of the British Museum], 1892

 

Index:

Lane-Poole, Stanley 1854-1931

Title:

The coins of the Muhammadan states of India in the British museum / by Stanley Lane-Poole ; ed. by Reginald Stuart Poole

Series:

Catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum

Published:

London : Trustees [of the British Museum], 1885

 

Index:

Lane-Poole, Stanley 1854-1931

Title:

The coins of the sultáns of Dehlí in the British museum / by Stanley Lane-Poole ; ed. by Reginald Stuart Poole

Series:

Catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum

Published:

London : Trustees [of the British Museum], 1884

 

Index:

Prakash, Om 1940-

Title:

On coinage in Mughal India / Om Prakash

Source:

Indian Economic & Social History Review 25 (1988) 4 p. 475-491

 

Index:

Reinaud, Joseph Toussaint 1795-1867

Title:

Explication de cinq médailles des anciens rois musulmans du Bengale  accompagné de quelques observations générales sur les monnaies : musulmanes à figures / par M. Reinaud ...

Published:

Paris : Dondey-Dupré, 1823

 

Index:

Rodgers, Charles James 1838-1898

Title:

* Catalogue of the coins. Pt. I: The coins of the Mogul emperors of India / comp. by Charles J. Rodgers.

Published:

New Delhi : Inter-India Publications, 1985

Edition:

Repr.

Note:

Repr. of: Catalogue of the coins / collected by Chas. J. Rodgers, and purchased by the Government of the Panjáb. Pt. I: The coins of the Mogul emperors of India - Calcutta : The Baptist Mission Press, 1893

 

Index:

Rodgers, Charles James 1838-1898

Title:

* Catalogue of the coins : collected by Chas. J. Rodgers, and purchased by the Government of the Panjáb. Pt. II: Miscellaneous mohammadan coins / comp. by Charles J. Rodgers

Published:

Calcutta : The Panjáb Government, 1894

 

Index:

Rodgers, Charles James 1838-1898

Title:

Catalogue of the coins of the Indian Museum. Pt. I: The sultáns of Dehlí and their contemporaries … / by Chas. J. Rodgers

Published:

Calcutta : Trustees of the Indian museum, 1893

 

Index:

Rodgers, Charles James 1838-1898

Title:

* Catalogue of the coins of the Indian Museum. Pt. II: The Mogul emperors of India, the East India Company, the native states, the Indian empire, medals and tokens / by Chas. J. Rodgers

Published:

Calcutta : Trustees of the Indian museum, 1894

 

Index:

Rodgers, Charles James 1838-1898

Title:

* Catalogue of the coins of the Indian Museum. Pt. III: Ancient coins of India, mediaeval coins of India, miscellaneous ... / by Chas. J. Rodgers

Published:

Calcutta : Trustees of the Indian museum, 1895

 

Index:

Rodgers, Charles James 1838-1898

Title:

Coin-collecting in northern India / by Charles J. Rodgers

Published:

Allahabad : Printed at the Pioneer Press, 1894

 

Index:

Rötzer, Klaus

Title:

Trouvaille d'Ahmadbd : monnaies de cuivre du Gujart de la première moitié du XVe siècle / par Klaues Rötzer

Source:

Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient 74 (1985) pp. 265-286

 

Index:

Thomas, Edward 1813-1886

Title:

The initial coinage of Bengal : introduced by the Muhammadans on their conquest of the country, A.H. 600 to 800 (A.D. 1203-1397). [Pt. I] / chiefly ill. from the specimens in the Kooch Baha ár trouvaille by Edward Thomas

Published:

Hertford : S. Austin, 1866

 

Index:

Thomas, Edward 1813-1886

Title:

The initial coinage of Bengal under the early Muhammadan conquerors. Pt. II: Embracing the preliminary period between A.H. 614-634 (A.D. 1217-1236-7) / by Edward Thomas

Published:

London : Trübner & Co., 1873

 

Index:

Thomas, Edward 1813-1886

Title:

On the coins of the Patan sultans of Hindustan / by Edward Thomas

Published:

London : [s.n.], 1847

 

Index:

Thurston, Edgar 1855-1935

Title:

Coins. Catalogue no. 3: Sultans of Dehlı́ / by Edgar Thurston

Edition:

[Repr.]

Published:

Madras : reprinted by the superintendent, Govt. Press, 1893

 

Index:

Whitehead, Richard Bertram 1879-1967

Title:

Catalogue of coins in the Panjab museum, Lahore. Vol. II: Coins of the Mughal emperors / by R. B. Whitehead

Published:

Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1915

 

Index:

Whitehead, Richard Bertram 1879-1967

Title:

Catalogue of coins in the Panjab Museum, Lahore. Vol. III: Coins of Nadir Shah and the Durrani dynasty / by R.B. Whitehead

Published:

Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1934

 

Index:

Wright, Henry Nelson

Title:

Addenda to the series of coins of the Pathán sultáns of Dehli / by H. Nelson-Wright

Source:

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (july 1900) p. 481-499

 

Index:

Wright, Henry Nelson

Title:

* Catalogue of the coins in the Indian Museum, Calcutta : including the cabinet of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Vol. III: Mughal emperors of India / by H. Nelson Wright

Published:

Oxford : Trustees of the Indian Museum, 1908

 

Index:

Wright, Henry Nelson

Title:

The coinage and metrology of the sult̤āns of Dehlī : incorporating a catalogue of the coins in the author's cabinet now in the Dehlī Museum / by H. Nelson Wright.

Published:

Delhi : Manager of Publications, 1936