11. Northern Africa, Egypt

Index:

Anderson, Julie R.

Title:

A Mamluk coin from Kulubnarti, Sudan / Julie R. Anderson

Source:

British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 10 (2008) p. 65–71

 

Index:

Anwar, Sherif

Title:

Shi'ism and the early dinars of the Fātimid Imam-caliph al-Mu'izz li-dīn Allāh (341-365/952-975) : an analytic overview / Sherif Anwar and Jere L. Bacharach

Source:

Al-Masaq 22 (2010) 3 (December) p. 259-278

Abstract:

The Imam-caliph al-Mu'izz li-dīn Allāh undertook a series of monetary changes which were to have a monumental impact on all future Fātimid coinage, would lead to many imitations even after the dynasty had fallen, and create an easily identifiable pattern that attracted medieval merchants and modern collectors. The fact that al-Mu‘izz’s coinage went through three stages with slight variations in the wording and layout indicates that he was determined to create a new model for Fātimid coinage which would distinguish it from the Aghlabid and ‘Abbāsid coinage that preceded and competed with it. In contrast, Sijilmasa coinage was so conservative in layout due to its role in the African trade.

 

Index:

Ariza Armada, Almudena

Title:

Signos y símbolos judíos en la moneda islámica occidental (siglos II-III/VIII-IX) : el caso Idrīsí = Jewish signs and symbols in western Islamic coinage (II-III/VIII-IX centuries) : the Idrīsid case / Almudena Ariza Armada

Source:

Anaquel de Estudios Árabes 26 (2015) p. 29-54

Abstract:

This article analyzes the traces left by the Jews on the Idrīsid coinage. These traces will be evident in a group of letters, names and Hebrew terms as well as on a few different monetary symbols. First, I will expose the role played by Jews in Muslims lands and the religious ideas that conditioned their work as metalworkers and coin minters. Secondly, I will analyze the Idrīsid case: the role of the Jewish tribes in mining and in the manufacture of coins as well as the signs and symbols that they reproduced on their coins. In addition, I will also analyze the possible influence that the symbols found on the eastern Umayyad could have had on the Idrīsid coinage and its possible Jewish origin.

 

Index:

Asolati, Michele

Title:

Ritrovamenti di monete islamiche in Cirenaica dalle indagini archeologiche della Missione Archeologica Italiana a Cirene / Michele Asolati

Source:

The 2nd Simone Assemani symposium on islamic coins / ed. by Bruno Callegher and Arianna D'Ottone. - Trieste : EUT, 2010. (Polymnia ; 1). - P. 34-48

 

Index:

Bacharach, Jere Lehman 1938-

Title:

Al-Ikhshīd, the Hamdānids and the Caliphate : the numismatic evidence / Jere L. Bacharach

Source:

Journal of the American Oriental Society 94 (1974) 3 (July-September) p. 360-370

 

Index:

Bacharach, Jere Lehman 1938-

Title:

Circassian monetary policy : copper / Jere L. Bacharach

Source:

Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 19 (1976) 1 (February) p. 32-47

 

Index:

Bacharach, Jere Lehman 1938-

Title:

Circassian monetary policy : silver / Jere L. Bacharach

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 7th ser. 11 (1971) p. 267-281

 

Index:       

Bacharach, Jere Lehman 1938-

Title:

The coinage of Kafur : a cautionary tale / Jere L. Bacharach

Source:

Israel Numismatic Journal 10 (1988-1989) p. 71-79

 

Index:

Bacharach, Jere Lehman 1938-

Title:

The early Islamic bronze coinage of Egypt : additions / Jere L. Bacharach and Henri Amin Awad

Source:

Near Eastern numismatics, iconography, epigraphy, and history : studies in honor of George C. Miles / Dickran K. Kouymjian, ed.. - Beirut : American University of Beirut, 1974. - P. 185-192

 

Index:

Bacharach, Jere Lehman 1938-

Title:

The inscriptions on Abd al-Malik's all epigraphic coinage / Jere L Bacharach

Source:

Abjadiyat 5 (2010) p. 110-115

 

Index:

Bacharach, Jere Lehman 1938-

Title:

Monetary movements in medieval Egypt, 1171-1517 / Jere L. Bacharach

Source:

Precious metals in the later medieval and early modern worlds / ed. by J. F. Richards. - Durham : Carolina Academic Press, cop. 1983. - P. 159-181

 

Index:

Bacharach, Jere Lehman 1938-

Title:

Les premiers dirhams Ikhshīdides /  Jere L. Bacharach, Samir Shamma

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 17 p. 139-144

 

Index:

Bacharach, Jere Lehman 1938-

Title:

Rare early Egyptian Islamic coins and coin weights : the Awad Collection / Jere L. Bacharach and Henry Amin Awad

Source:

Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 18 (1981) p. 51-56

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

Apparition prématurée de l'écriture naskhy sur un dinar de l'Imam Fatimite al Moustaly Billah / par Paul Balog

Source:

Bulletin de l'Institut d'Égypte 31 (1948-1949) p. 181-185

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

The coinage of the Mamlūk sultans of Egypt and Syria / Paul Balog

Series:

Numismatic studies ; no. 12

Published

New York : American Numismatic Society, 1964

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

Deux dinars inédits du dernier roi ayoubite d'Egypte Al Malek al Achraf Abou'l Fath Moussa / par Paul Balog

Source:

Bulletin de l'Institut d'Égypte 31 (1948-1949) p. 187-190, pl. 1-3

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

Dinars ikhchidites trouvés à Assiout (Haute-Égypte) en automne 1954 / [Paul Balog]

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 101 (1955) p. 103-111, pl. 2

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

Études numismatiques de l'Égypte Musulmane. [I]: Périodes Fatimite et Ayoubite, nouvelles observations sur la technique de monnayage / par Paul Balog

Source:

Bulletin de l'Institut d'Égypte 33 (1950-1951) p. 1-42, pl. 1-8

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

Études numismatiques de l'Égypte Musulmane. II: La trouvaille du Fayoum : dirhems Ayoubites du premier roi mamelouk Aybek et d'imitation arabe des Croisés / par Paul Balog

Source:

Bulletin de l'Institut d'Égypte 34 (1951-1952) p. 17-55, pl. 1-15

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

Études numismatiques de l'Égypte Musulmane. III: Fatimites, Ayoubites, premier Mamelouks, leurs techniques monétaires / par Paul Balog

Source:

Bulletin de l'Institut d'Égypte 35 (1952-1953) p. 401-429, pl. 1-6

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

Un faux d'époque : dinar fourré de Barsbay, Sultan Mamelouk d'Egypte / par Paul Balog

Source:

Bulletin de l'Institut d'Égypte 32 (1949-1950) p. 253-254

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

History of the dirhem in Egypt from the Fimid conquest until the collapse of the Mamlk Empire : 358 H-922 H, 968 AD-1517 AD / Paul Balog

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 3 (1961) p. 109-146

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

New considerations on Mamluk heraldry / Paul Balog

Source:

American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 22 (1977) p. 183-211

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

Un quart de dinar du Sultan Naser Mohamed Ben Qalaoun / par Paul Balog

Source:

Bulletin de l'Institut d'Égypte 32 (1949-1950) p. 255-256

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

Quelques dinars du début de l'ére Mamelouke Bahrite / par Paul Balog

Source:

Bulletin de l'Institut d'Égypte 32 (1949-1950) p. 229-252, pl. 1-4

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

Tables de références des monnaies ikhchidites / [P. Balog]

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 103 (1957) p. 107-134

 

Index:

Bates, Michael L. 1941-

Title:

The coinage of the Mamlūk sultan Baybars I : additions and corrections / Michael L. Bates

Source:

American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 22 (1977) p. 161-181, pl. 23

 

Index:

Bates, Michael L. 1941-

Title:

Coins and money in the Arabic papyri / Michael L. Bates

Published:

Le Caire : Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 1991

Note:

Offprint from: Documents de l'Islam médiéval : nouvelles perspectives de recherche : actes de la table ronde, Paris, 3-5 mars 1988 / éd. par Yūsuf Rāġib. - Le Caire : Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 1991. - P. 43-64

 

Index:

Bates, Michael L. 1941-

Title:

The dirham of al-Basra dated 40 : a fantasy of the eight century anti-Umayyad revolution? / Michael L. Bates

Source:

Studia Iranica 11 (1982) p. 21-31

Abstract:

I thought this paper was one of my more brillant efforts, but it turned out to be completely wrong in its conclusion. Lutz Ilisch pointed out (Oriental Numismatic Society Newsletter 176 (2003), 5, that the dirham is more likely to be an 8th-century Moroccan imitation. The point had been discussed earlier in the Yahoo Islamic Coins Group website, 2001 and 2002, and was first corrected in a private communication to the author by Gert Rispling. I quite agree with Rispling, Ilisch, and others: the dirham was minted in Morocco in the 8th century.

 

Index:

Bates, Michael L. 1941-

Title:

The Ottoman coinage of Tilimsan / Michael L. Bates

Source:

American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 28 (1981) p. 203-214, pl. 32

Abstract:

This little note traces the coinage of Tilimsan (Tlemcen) from its takeover by the Ottomans in 1556 until the end of its coinage until sometime after 1612. Instead of issuing official-style coinage, the mint produced large gold coins with the inscriptions in a square, like those of the predecessor Ziyanids. This is no surprise, but, evidently without imperial Ottoman guidance, the local officials generated their own versions of Ottoman titulature, with several colloquial features and strange titles in rhymed prose. Since the article's publication, a few new varieties of the Tilimsan coinage have been published. Looking at the article again 30 years later, it also typifies an excellent mode of numismatic study: looking at the coinage of a place in chronological order instead of treating it as a part of the coinage of a sultan or dynasty. Anyone who dealt with these coins a few at a time with the names of a single sultan would have great difficulty making the evolutionary connections that enabled the understanding of these coins' inscriptions.

 

Index:

Bates, Michael L. 1941-

Title:

Roman and early Muslim coinage in North Africa / Michael L. Bates 

Source:

North Africa from antiquity to Islam : papers of a conference held at Bristol, October 1994 / ed. by Mark Horton and Thomas Wiedemann. - Bristol : University of Bristol, Centre for Mediterranean Studies, 1995. - P. 12-15

 

Index:

Canto Garciá, Alberto

Title:

Nuevas evidencias de cecas africanas en época del al-Hakam II : al-Mansurah/al-Mansuriyya y al-Basra / Alberto J. Canto García

Source:

Cuadernos de Madinat al-Zahra 7 (2010 p. 95-101

Abstract:

The presence of new mints, of omeya period in the Maghreb, has been ratified with the appearance of new samples in Spanish hoards in the last years. This confirmation has demostrated, in some cases, the suggestions done by some of the specialists of past century as A. Prieto y Vives, in unpublished documentation.

 

Index:

De Palmenaer, Els

Title:

Berberjuwelen uit Marokko / Els De Palmenaer & Frederik Tielens

Source:

Jaarboek van het Europees Genootschap voor Munt- en Penningkunde (2003-2004) p. 67-84

 

Index:

Dombay, Franz Lorenz von 1758-1810

Title:

Beschreibung der gangbaren marokkanischen Gold-Silber- und Kupfer-Münzen, nebst einem Anhange von einigen seltenen Münzen / von Franz von Dombay

Published:

Wien : in der Camesianische Buchhandlung, 1803

 

Index:

Dusgate, R.

Title:

Notice sur les poids, mesures et monnaies de Tunis, et sur leurs rapports avec ceux de France et d’Angleterre / R. Dusgate

Published:

Paris : Barrois l'aîné, 1832

 

Index:

Fenina, Abdelhamid

Title:

À propos de la fonction des disques légers en verre à inscriptions arabes d'époques fāimide et post-fāimide: sanaǧāt ou jetons fiduciaires ? / Abdelhamid Fenina

Source:

Der Islam 93 (2016) 1 (April) p. 101-138

Abstract

The function of small glass discs, some with inscriptions some without, made in Egypt between the Fātimid and Mamlūk period, have been the topic of a debate between two prominent numismatists. Michael-L. Bates maintains that the coin-like discs were used as coin weights (sanagāt), as it had been in the Early Islamic period. On the contrary, Paul Balog and other scholars consider that these objects were used as tokens with monetary function. They point to the absence of bronze coins in contemporary circulation, and the fact that quantities of them were sometimes found as a hoard. They regard them as fiduciary coinage for low value transactions. In an attempt to settle this controversy, the article suggest, by re-iterating the numismatic arguments, the silence of textual sources regarding the possible monetary function, and a rare passage in the work of al-Muqaddasī, a dual use of the glass discs as coin weights and as substitutes for monetary purposes.

 

Index:

Fenina, Abdelhamid

Title:

L’arabisation du monnayage d’Ifrīqiya : étapes et signification / Abdelhamid Fenina

Source:

Civilisations en transition. II: Sociétés multilingues à travers l'histoire du Proche-Orient : [actes du colloque scientifique international 3-4-5 septembre 2015] / Jean-Luc Fournet ; Jean-Michel Mouton et Jacques Paviot (dir.). - [Byblos] : [Centre International des Sciences de l'Homme], [2016]. - P. 115-168

 

Index:

Fenina, Abdelhamid

Title:

Observations sur la représentation d'un décor monétaire sur une céramique de l'Ifrîqiyâ du haut Moyen Âge : la numismatique date la céramique ! / Abdelhamid Fenina

Source:

Revue Numismatique 164 (2008) p. 437-455

Abstract:

In this contribution, the aim is to provide a comparative study, resulting from empirical observations of the similarities between a type of monetary décor and the one inscribed on an Ifrîqiyâ ceramic (broadly, current Tunisia) of the early Middle Ages. I will argue against its attribution to the Aghlabids era, by a new dating to the ceramic in question, which is the subject of this study.

 

Index:

Fenina, Abdelhamid

Title:

Réflexions sur la révolte des Berbères kharijites au Maghreb sous le gouvernement de cUmar b. Hafs (151-154/768-771) : une relecture des sources textuelles à la lumière des sources numismatiques / Abdelhamid Fenina

Source:

Revue Tunisienne de Sciences Sociales 46 (2009) p. 131-159

Abstract:

This article re-examines the Kharijite Berbers’ rebellion which happened under the rule of the cUmar b. Hafs (151-154/768-771). The latter is actually well-known and well-documented in the historiographic data of Ifrîqiya. Nevertheless, it is my contention that all these historical narratives, none of which is contemporaneous with the related events, often provide confused and contradictory information. Hence, the chronology of the revolt as well as other historical factors are often difficult to discern. My contribution aims at providing a better understanding of this particularly obscure period in the history of the Maghreb, by comparing the available textual data to more reliable, because contemporaneous, numismatic testimonials. This approach enables a new reading of the historical facts provided by the textual sources, as well as a more accurate chronological outline of the revolt.

 

Index:

Fenina, Abdelhamid

Title:

Sur une monnaie d'or hafside dénommée 'ushariyyat al-Sarf (monnaie à dix de change) : monnaie de compte ou monnaie réelle ? / Abdelhamid Fenina

Source:

Antiquités Africaines 38-39 (2002) p. 395-403

 

Index:

Fenina, Abdelhamid

Title:

La ville de Mağğāna sous Ziyādat Allāh I : un atelier monétaire peu connu et une principauté éphémère à l'époque aġlabide / Abdelhamid Fenina

Source:

Arabica 55 (2008) p. 204-226

 

Index:

Ghodhbane, Mohamed

Title:

Un 'fals' umayyade rare au nom d’'Atrabuls'/Tripoli : étude du type, de conjoncture et d’atelier / Mohamed Ghodhbane

Source:

The 3rd Simone Assemani symposium on Islamic coins / ed. by Bruno Callegher and Arianna D'Ottone. - Trieste : EUT, 2012. - (Polymnia ; 3). - P. 77-100

 

Index:

Gondonneau, Alexandra

Title:

La frappe de la monnaie d'or à l'époque de l'expansion musulmane et les mines d'or de l'ouest de l'Afrique : l’apport analytique / Alexandra Gondonneau … [et al.]

Source:

XII. Internationaler Numismatischer Kongress Berlin 1997 : Akten = proceedings = actes. I / hrsg. von Bernd Kluge und Bernhard Weisser. - Berlin : Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, 2000. – P. 1264-1274

 

Index:

Grabar, Oleg 1929-

Title:

The coinage of the Tulunids / by Oleg Grabar

Series:

Numismatic notes and monographs ; no. 139

Published:

New York : American Numismatic Society, 1957

 

Index:

Hazard, Harry Williams 1918-

Title:

The numismatic history of late medieval North Africa / by Harry W. Hazard

Series:

Numismatic studies ; no. 8

Published:

New York : American Numismatic Society, 1952

 

Index:

Ibrahim, Tawfiq B. Hafif

Title:

Coins of al-Khayr b. Muhammad b. Khazar of the Maghrawa / Tawfic Ibrahim

Published:

London : International Association of Professional Numismatists, cop. 1989

Note:

Offprint from: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Numismatics = Actes du 10ème Congrès international de numismatique / ed. by I.A. Carradice ; with P. Attwood ... [et al.]. - London : International Association of Professional Numismatists, cop. 1989. - (Special Publication / International Association of Professional Numismatists ; no. 11). – P. 417-421, pl. 44

 

Index:

Ibrahim, Tawfiq B. Hafif

Title:

The first evidence of a mint in Miknāsa : two unpublished Almoravid coins, a dirham and a dinar, of the year 494H/1100 / Tawfic Ibrahim

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. II / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : [International Numismatic Council]. 2011. – P. 1821-1825

 

Index:

Jonson, Trent

Title:

The earliest Islamic copper coinage of North Africa / Trent Jonson

Source:

Coinage and history in the seventh century near East. 4: Proceedings of the 14th Seventh Century Syrian Numismatic Round Table held at The Hive, Worcester, on 28th and 29th September 2013 / ed. by Andrew Oddy, Ingrid Schulze and Wolfgang Schulze. - London : Archetype, 2015. - P. 217-240

 

Index:

Jungfleisch, Marcel 1879-1958

Title:

'Conquêtes du Midi' sur une émission de monnaies turco-égyptiennes / par Marcel Jungfleisch

Source:

Bulletin de l'Institut d'Égypte 37 (1954-1955) 2 p. 1-8

 

Index:

Jungfleisch, Marcel 1879-1958

Title:

Un fels Sadjite du Mohtady Billah frappé A Rafikah en 255 H. / par Marcel Jungfleisch

Source:

Bulletin de l'Institut d'Égypte 35 (1952-1953) p. 113-116

 

Index:

Korn, Lorenz

Title:

A dirham hoard from the time of the Mintash revolt / Lorenz Korn

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 163 (2003) p. 287-312, pl. 39-40

 

Index:

Lane-Poole, Stanley 1854-1931

Title:

The coinage of Egypt (A.H. 358-922) under the Fátimee khaleefehs the Ayyoobees and the Memlook sultans : classes XIVa, XV, XVI / by Stanley Lane-Poole ; ed. by Reginald Stuart Poole

Series:

Catalogue of Oriental coins in the British Museum ; Vol. 4

Published:

London : Trustees of the British Museum, 1879

 

Index:

Lane-Poole, Stanley 1854-1931

Title:

On the coins of the Muwahhids in the British Museum / [Stanley E. Lane Poole] 

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle n.s. 13 (1873) p. 147-170, pl. 5

 

Index:

Lavoix, Michel Henri 1820-1892

Title:

Mémoire sur les monnaies frappées par les Beni-Hafss / [Henri Lavoix]

Source:

Revue Archéologique 9 (1852) 1 p. 257-275, pl. 191-192

 

Index:

Lowick, Nicholas M. 1940-1986

Title:

Monnaies des Sulaymnides de Sq Ibrhm et de Tanas (Ténès) / N.M. Lowick

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 25 (1983) p. 177-187, pl. 3

 

Index:

Miles, George Carpenter 1904-1975

Title:

A Mamlük hoard of Hamäh / [George C. Miles]

Source:

American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 11 (1964) p. 307-309, pl. 49

 

Index:

Nicol, Norman Douglas 1947-

Title:

A hoard of Mamluk copper coins ca. 770 A.H./1369 A.D. in the collection of the Egyptian National Library / Norman D. Nicol and Raafat el-Nabarawy

Source:

Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 21 (1984) p. 109-118

 

Index:

Nicol, Norman Douglas 1947-

Title:

The Post-Ottoman conquest coinage of Egypt / Norman D. Nicol

Source:

The 2nd Simone Assemani symposium on islamic coins / ed. by Bruno Callegher and Arianna D'Ottone. - Trieste : EUT, 2010. - (Polymnia ; 1). - P. 220-231

 

Index:

Nützel, Heinrich 1863-1934

Title:

Der Mahdi-Aufstand im Sudan und die daraus hervorgegangenen Münzen / von H. Nützel

Published:

Berlin : Weyl, 1894

Note:

Offprint from: Berliner Münzblätter 15 (1894)

 

Index:

Nützel, Heinrich 1863-1934

Title:

Münzen der Rasuliden : nebst einem Abriss der Geschichte dieser jemenischen Dynastie / von Heinrich Nützel

Published:

Berlin : Pormetter, 1891

 

Index:

Poole, Reginald Stuart 1832-1895

Title:

On the coinage of the dynasties called the Benee-Tooloon and the Ikhsheedeeyeh ruling in Egypt / [R. Stuart Poole]

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 17 (1855) p. 116-126

 

Index:

Rogers, Edward Thomas 1813-1886

Title:

The coins of the Tuluni dynasty / by Edward Thomas Rogers

Published:

London : Trübner, 1877

 

Index:

Sauvaire, Henri 1831-1896

Title:

The name of the twelfth imám on the coinage of Egypt / by H. Sauvaire and Stanley Lane Poole

Source:

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland n.s. 7 (1875) 1 (january) p. 140-151

 

Index:

Schultz, Warren C.

Title:

The silver coinage of the Mamluk caliph and sultan al-Musta'in bi'llah (815/1412) / Warren C. Schultz

Source:

The 2nd Simone Assemani symposium on islamic coins / ed. by Bruno Callegher and Arianna D'Ottone. - Trieste : EUT, 2010. - (Polymnia ; 1). - P. 210-219

 

Index:

Seupel, Rainer

Title:

Fünf unedierte bzw. seltene Mariniden-Münzen / Rainer Seupel

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 127 (August 1982) p. 70-72