09. Syria, Iran, Iraq, Arabia

Index:

Akopyan, Alexander

Title:

Billon coinage of Shams al-Dīn Eldigüz and his circle (531-571 H./1136-1176 CE.) / Alexander Akopyan and Farbod Mosanef

Source:

Studia Iranica 40 (2011) p. 63-92

Abstract:

This study deals with the billon coinage of Eldigüz, his vassals, and the Saljuqid of Iraq Sulān Muammad II, kept in several different collections. A catalogue and an analysis of these coins are given in this paper. In particular, two vassals of Eldigüz, namely his vizier Abū’l-Barakāt and his ātābek Ayāz, come to light due to the coins described here.

 

Index:

Album, Stephen

Title:

Notes on the coinage of Muhammad Ibn Al-Husayn Al-Rawwadi / Stephen Album

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 14 (1972) p. 99-104

 

Index:

Bacharach, Jere Lehman 1938-

Title:

Coinage of the Baridi / Jere L. Bacharach

Source:

Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Numismatics = Actes du 10ème Congrès international de numismatique / ed. by I.A. Carradice ; with P. Attwood ... [et al.]. - London : International Association of Professional Numismatists, cop. 1989. - (Special Publication / International Association of Professional Numismatists ; no. 11). - P. 391-400

 

Index:

Bacharach, Jere Lehman 1938-

Title:

A hoard of Ikhshidid dirhams / Jere L. Bacharach, Henri Amin Awad

Published:

Beirut : American University of Beirut, [1971]

Note:

Offprint from: al-Abhath 24 (1971) 1-4  p. 51-58

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

Deux trésors de monnaies d'or des Croisés / [Paul Balog; Jacques Yvon]

Source:

American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 11 (1964) p. 295-302, pl. 48

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

A dirhem of Al-Kāmil Shams Al-Dīn Sunqur, rebel sultān of Syria, hitherto unrecorded in numismatics (679 H. = 1280 A.D.) / Paul Balog

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 11 (1969) p. 296-299

 

Index:

Balog, Paul 1900-1982

Title:

Un fals d'Al-Kāmil Shams al-Dīn Sunqur, sultan mamelouk rebelle de Damas / Paul Balog

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 15 (1973) p. 177-179

 

Index:

Bates, Michael L. 1941-

Title:

The coinage of Syria under the Umayyads, 692-750 A.D / Michael L. Bates

Source:

Fourth international conference on the history of Bilād al-Shām during the Umayyad Period : proceedings of the third symposium. Vol. II / ed. by M. Adnan Bakhit, Robert Schick. - Amman : University of Jordan Press, Bilad al-Sham History Committee, 1989. - P. 195-228

 

Index:

Bates, Michael L. 1941-

Title:

History, geography and numismatics in the first century of islamic coinage / Michael L. Bates

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 65 (1986) p. 231-262, ps. 1

 

Index:

Bates, Michael L. 1941-

Title:

A hoard of dirhams found at Nippur / Michael L. Bates

Source:

Excavations at Nippur : twelfth season / by McGuire Gibson ... [et al.]. - Chicago ; : Oriental Institute, 1978. - (Oriental Institute communications ; no. 23). - P. 126-138

Abstract:

A hoard of 76 Umayyad and Abbasid dirhams found at Nippur. Every coin is illustrated in the figures. The coins were found in "stacks," actually wrapped in cloth in columns. The impress of the cloth can still be seen in an image of the coins as found. The latest date in the hoard is 177 (793-94). Most of the coins were from mints in Iraq, but one came from Walila (Volubilis) in Morocco, and others came from various places in the Middle East. Although I suggest in the article that the hoard was a "savings hoard," accumulated by the owner over the years whenever he had some extra dirhams to put away (and perhaps diminished whenever he had to draw on it), I no longer believe very strongly in "savings hoards." Rather, I suspect this was an accumulation of obsolete coins, pulled from circulation during the transition to the new-style coinage of al-Ma'mun, and put aside as a reserve. The outdated coins still had their silver value and could not be further reduced by demonetization. Moreover, as silver with an identifying stamp, they were doubtless fungible in bulk, with a better price in the marketplace than could be obtained by taking them to the mint where a charge was levied for refining and restriking. Since they had no surplus value, they were "good money" in relation to the new standard dirhams in circulation. Such hoards are rather common, mostly identifiable by terminal dates in the very early 3rd century. These dates do not indicate that they were buried in response to civil war conditions--often, the latest coins are slightly later than the conclusion of the war--but rather reflect the fact that the old silver coinage came to an end about 206 in Baghdad and elsewhere as the changeover was made. These hoards, often including silver coins from as far back as the sixth century, are to be considered reserve stores of "old money," not as emergency hoards drawn from current circulation.

 

Index:

Bernardi, Giulio

Title:

Contributi alla storia numismatica di Rayy / Giulio Bernardi

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 159 (August 1990) p. 63-66

 

Index:

Bernardi, Giulio

Title:

Il dinar di 'Abd Al-Malik coniato nell'anno 77H : un esame comparative dei coni di martello e d'incudine / Giulio Bernardi

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 80 (2001) p. 131-136

 

Index:

Callegher, Bruno

Title:

Nulla dies sine linea : among the dinars of 65-334H/684-946CE / Bruno Callegher

Source:

Arabic gold coins : the first essay of a corpus.  Vol. I: From the first issue to the beginning of the Buwayhid domination / Giulio Bernardi. - Trieste : EUT, 2010. - P. 409-418

 

Index:

Codrington, Oliver -1921

Title:

Some rare and unedited Arabic and Persian coins : some in the collection of Dr. J. Gerson da Cunha, and some in the writer's own cabinet / by O. Codrington

Published:

Hertford : Austin, 1880

 

Index:

DeShazo, A.S.

Title:

The Umayyad governors of al-`Iraq and the changing annulet patterns on their dirhams / A.S. DeShazo and Michael L. Bates

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 7th ser. 14 (1974) p. 110-118, pl. 2

 

Index:

D'Ottone Rambach, Arianna 1977-

Title:

The mint of Taʻizz in Rasulid times / by Arianna D'Ottone

Source:

Per Enzo : studi in memoria di Vincenzo Matera / a cura di Lidia Capo e Antonio Ciaralli. - Firenze : Firenze University Press 2015. - (Reti medievali. E-book ; 25). - P. 91-103

Abstract:

The paper focuses on the mint of Ta‘izz in Rasulid times (7th-9th c. AH/AD 13th-15th c.) and offers an updated review of the numismatic literature devoted to the activity of this mint. An anonymous Arabic source, not yet considered for the history of this mint, give hints on the process of cutting dies and striking new dirhams in connection with the accession to power of al-Ašraf (778-803 AH/AD 1363-1376). The parallel, made in some previous publications, between the mint of Tha‘bāt, where the Ta‘izz mint moved for some years, and Mabyan is questioned as well as the existence of moving mints in Rasulid Yemen.

 

Index:

Gyselen, Rika 1942-

Title:

La transition de l'Iran sassanide à l'Empire des califes d'après les monnaies / par Rika Gyselen

Source:

Comptes-rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 128 (1984) 4 p. 692-701

 

Index:

Haldon, John F.

Title:

Money, power and politics in early Islamic Syria : a review of current debates / ed. by John Haldon

Published:

Farnham : Ashgate, cop. 2010

Abstract:

This volume represents the fruits of a workshop held at Princeton University in May 2007 to discuss the ways in which recent work has affected our understanding of the nature of economic and exchange activity in particular, and the broader implications of these advances for the history of Islamic Syria. The transformation of the eastern provinces of the Roman empire from the middle of the seventh century CE under the impact of Islam has attracted a good deal of scholarly attention in recent years, and as more archaeological material becomes available, has been subject to revision and rethinking in ways that radically affect what we know or understand about the area, about state-building and the economy and society of the early Islamic world, and about issues such as urbanisation, town-country relations, the ways in which a different religious culture impacted on the built environment, and about politics. This volume represents the fruits of a workshop held at Princeton University in May 2007 to discuss the ways in which recent work has affected our understanding of the nature of economic and exchange activity in particular, and the broader implications of these advances for the history of the region.

 

Index:

Heidemann, Stefan 1961-

Title:

Die frühe Münzprägung von ar-Raqqa/ar-Rafiqa als Dokumente zur Geschichte der Stadt ; Der Kleingeldumlauf in der Ğazîra in früh-'abbasidischer Zeit und die Münzemissionen aus al-Kűfa ;  Der Münzumlauf und die Lokalgeschichte von ar-Raqqa/ar-Rafiqa ;  Katalog der Fundmünzen aus ar-Raqqa/ar-Rafiqa / Stefan Heidemann

Source:

Raqqa. II: Die islamische Stadt / hrsg. von Stefan Heidemann und Andrea becker ; Beitr. von Andrea Becker ... [et al.]. - Mainz am Rhein : von Zabern, 2003. - P. 115-196, pls. 45-60 

 

Index:

Heidemann, Stefan 1961-

Title:

Fundmünzen aus Assur und Lokalgeschichte in Islamischer Zeit / Stefan Heidemann und Peter A. Miglus

Source:

Das Wohngebiet von Assur : Stratigraphie und Architektur / von Peter A. Miglus ; mit einem Anh. von Stefan Heidemann und Peter A. Miglus. - Berlin : Mann, cop. 1996. - P. 353-376, pls. 72-81 

 

Index:

Heidemann, Stefan 1961-

Title:

Fundmünzen aus dem Hammâm Manğak / Stefan Heidemann

Source:

Bosra : islamische Architektur und Archäologie / Michael Meinecke [gest.], Flemming Aalund ; mit Beitr. von Stefan Heidemann ... [et al.] ; bearb. und hrsg. von Lorenz Korn. - Rahden : Leidorf, 2005. – P. 145-146, pl. 68

 

Index:

Heidemann, Stefan 1961-

Title:

Die Fundmünzen von Harāb Sayyār im Verhältnis zur lokalen Geschichte / Stefan Heidemann

Source:

Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin 135 (2003) p. 103-112

 

Index:

Heidemann, Stefan 1961-

Title:

Die Fundmünzen von Harran und ihr Verhältnis zur lokalen Geschichte / Stefan Heidemann

Source:

Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 65 (2002) p. 267-299

 

Index:

Heidemann, Stefan 1961-

Title:

Jemenitische Münzen in Jena : zur Erforschung der jemenitischen Münzprägung / Stefan Heidemann 

Source:

Jemen-Report 35 (2004) 2 p. 4-6

 

Index:

Heidemann, Stefan 1961-

Title:

The merger of two currency zones in early Islam : the Byzantine and Sasanian impact on the circulation in former Byzantine Syria and northern Mesopotamia / by Stefan Heidemann

Source:

Iran 36 (1998)

Abstract:

In the first decades after the Islamic conquest until Umayyad rule, the region of Syria and northern Mesopotamia remained in regard to its monetary organization mainly a dependent Byzantine province. Copper coins were provided from Constantinople until 655-658. On the basis of the gold hoards only a diminishing number of post-Heraclius solidi are observed. On logical reasons might be assumed that the treasury in Constantinople was able to draw (through unknown intermediaries) gold from the Arab-occupied, former Byzantine territories in exchange for imperial copper coins in order to balance the trade. Perhaps with the rise of Umayyad rule in Syria, imitation of Byzantine copper coins occurred. It can be regarded as an indicator of a shortage of copper coins. We do not know exactly the measures applied, but they led step by step to a monetary independence of Syria and northern Mesopotamia from the Byzantine money supply. The demand for small change was met by a multitude of mints. First they produced mere imitations but their iconography and their inscriptions more and more abandon the Byzantine models. Finally Abd al-Malik’s reforms - beginning with silver and gold around 72/691-2 - separated both currencies through the introduction of an indigenous Islamic coin type. The gold was struck only in one imperial mint, except for the far western parts of the empire. The organization of the gold and copper coinage in Syria did not follow the Byzantine pattern. Although the stock of Byzantine gold circulating in Syria was very efficiently reminted, there are thus far no traces of a continuous reminting of the coinage as in Byzantium. But it can be assumed that the reminting of the entire existing gold stock in Syria was somehow connected with the taxation system. In Byzantium the copper coinage was part of the central imperial fiscal system, but for the Islamic Empire that does not seem to have been the case. cAbd al-Malik tried to regulate the copper coinage at least in Syria and northern Mesopotamia. He introduced a fixed pattern - the standing caliph - but the details of the coins show, that the organization of the minting was on the level of the military district (jund). There are no hints in the literature that silver in Syria and northern Mesopotamia was part of the early Islamic fiscal system there. But the various silver hoards examined, reveal that there had been a massive influx of silver coinage in the region. It probably reached Damascus as tax payments in Sasanian drahms. These coins, which originally weighed 4.00g, were temporarily selected and clipped according to the prevailing weight standards, first to 3.90g then to the dirham weight of 2.90g. The standardization of the silver coinage in circulation was not enforced to the same degree as it was done in the case of the dinars.

 

Index:

Heidemann, Stefan 1961-

Title:

Münzfunde aus der Zitadelle von Masyaf/Syrien / Stefan Heidemann

Source:

Numismatisches Nachrichtenblatt 55 (2006) 2 p. 74-75

 

Index:

Heidemann, Stefan 1961-

Title:

A new ruler of the Marwanid emirate in 401/1010, and further considerations of the legitimising power of regicide / Stefan Heidemann

Source:

Aram 9-10 (1997-1998) p. 599-615

Abstract:

On the basis of a coin-document a new ruler of the Marwanid emirate, Sharwin ibn Muhammad, can be identified and thus added to the list of rulers given by C. E. Bosworth, New Islamic Dynasties. The circumstances of his accession to the throne shed some new light on the application and spread of regicide as a principle for legitimizing sovereign power of ruler, brought forward in an article by U. Haarmann in 1990.

 

Index:

Heidemann, Stefan 1961-

Title:

Ein Schatzfund aus dem Raqqa der Numairidenzeit : die 'Siedlungslücke' in Nordmesopotamien und eine Werkstatt in der Großen Moschee / Stefan Heidemann

Published:

Mainz : Von Zabern,  [1999]

Note:

Offprint from: Damaszener Mitteilungen 11 (1999) p. 227-242, pls. 34-35

 

Index:

Heidemann, Stefan 1961-

Title:

Settlement patterns, economic development and archaeological coin finds in Bilād aš-Šām : the case of the Diyār Mudar / Stefan Heidemann

Source:

Residences, castles, settlements : transformation processes from late antiquity to early Islam in Bilad al-Sham : proceedings of the international conference held at Damascus, 5-9 November 2006 / Karin Bartl; Abd al-Razzaq Moaz (eds.). - Rahden : Leidorf, 2008. – P. 493-516

Abstract:

The historian of early Islamic Bilād al-Shām has almost no primary source material; legal or political documents are lacking. Most historical information derived from later medieval but secondary sources such as chronicles, biographical dictionaries and poetry written from the perspective of a major capital, a ruler, a ruling house, or one of the different Islamic communities. Archaeology in general and legends on coins in particular, as well as coin finds from archaeological contexts can provide further independent information about the settlements. First, a brief overview is given about the current state of numismatic research in both the Syrian Arab Republic and adjacent regions historically connected to it. Secondly, this study examines the archaeology of the Diyār Mudar or Osrhoene on a regional level. Coins as texts and archaeological coin finds are presented as a parallel independent source for settlement patterns from the 6th to the 10th century AD.

 

Index:

Heidemann, Stefan 1961-

Title:

The standing caliph-type : the object on the reverse / Stefan Heidemann

Source:

Coinage and history in the seventh century near East 2 : proceedings of the 12th Seventh Century Syrian Numismatic Round Table held at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge on 4th and 5th April 2009 / ed. by Andrew Oddy. - London : Archetype, 2010. - P. 23-34

 

Index:

Heidemann, Stefan 1961-

Title:

Timur's campmint during the siege of Damascus in 803/1401 / Stefan Heidemann

Source:

Matériaux pour l'histoire économique du monde iranien / textes réunis par Rika Gyselen et Maria Szuppe. - Paris : Association pour l'avancement des études iraniennes, 1999. – (Studia iranica. Cahier ; 21). - P. 179-206

Abstract:

The conquest of Damascus by Timur in 803/1401 belongs to the best documented sieges of Timur and the Middle Islamic period as such. It may serve as a model for the extortion of a city by him. The siege is related to us by a number of contemporary sources. I focuss on the monetary aspects of the siege, the role of Timur’s campmint and finally provide some arguments about the reasons for the introduction of the tanka coinage in Timur’s realm. First: Damascus provides an example of a very efficient and sophisticated way of extorting money during a siege with the collaboration of the city’s financial administration. Their tools to spread the burden were a poll-tax, a real-estate-tax and contributions of religious endowments.

Secondly: The campmint had different functions. a) to refine the silver and convert the loot into a distributable form, b) to earn revenue for Timur’s treasury from the plunder through seignorage, c) to be used as a kind of propaganda tool by issuing donative-coins which spread the information of Tîmûr’s new conquest with proof of his rulership.Thirdly: The campmint with the name of Damascus contradicts several suppositions usually made by numismatists. The coins did not circulate in the region where the mint was located or were not intended to circulate in the region, where they were minted and struck. They were struck to be carried away to distant places. The campmint used the name of the conquered city. The products of the very same mobile mint can bear as many mint-names as many cities Tîmûr’s army approached.

 

Index:

Hochstrasser, Gerhardt

Title:

Zur Münztätigkeit in San'a/Jemen während der osmanischen Zeit / Gerhardt Hochstrasser

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 115 (August 1979) p. 72-73

 

Index:

Ilisch, Lutz 1950-

Title:

Die islamischen Fundmünzen / von Lutz Ilisch

Source:

Die Große Moschee von Resafa-Rus ?āfat Hišām / Dorothée Sack ; mit Beitr. von Lutz Ilisch, Barbara Kellner-Heinkele und Nusa Logar. - Mainz : von Zabern, cop. 1996. - (Resafa ; 4). - P. 113-132, pls. 49-50

 

Index:

Insoll, Timothy

Title:

Three gold dinars from Bahrain / Timothy Insoll

Published:

London : The Royal Numismatic Society, 2003

Note:

Offprint from: Numismatic Chronicle 163 (2003) p. 395-398, pl. 50

 

Index:

Jambu, Jérôme

Title:

Les monnaies créées par DAECH , soi-disant État islamique / Jambu (Jérôme)

Source:

Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique 70 (2015) 10 (décembre) p. 291-298

 

Index:

Jungfleisch, Marcel 1879-1958

Title:

Un fels curieux frappé â Tabriz / par Marcel Jungfleisch

Source:

Bulletin de l'Institut d'Égypte 34 (1951-1952) p. 97-103

 

Index:

Kovalev, Roman K.

Title:

Production of dirhams at the mint of Damascus (Dimashq) in the first four centuries of Islam and the question of Near Eastern metallic zones / Roman K. Kovalev

Source:

4th Simone Assemani symposium : Trieste, 26-27 September 2014 / ed. by Bruno Callegher and Arianna D'Ottone Rambach. - Trieste : EUT, 2015. - (Polymnia ; 9). - P. 297-336

Abstract:

All examination of 159 hoards with 1822 dirhams minted at Damascus during the first four centuries of Islam sheds much light on a number of important questions regarding the economic history of the Near East during the Umayyad, 'Abbasid, and Ikhshidid eras. Using the hoard-count method of estimating mint outputs, it has been determined that the Damascus mint was significantly active only during the Umayyad period, a time when the city was the capital of the caliphate. Having no local silver mines and lacking revenue transfers from the provinces after 127 H, Damascus was, at best, a marginal mint for the production of dirhams. However, because Syria and the eastern Mediterranean region in general fell into a gold-copper metallic zone during the period in question, it is surprising that Damascus was at all an important mint when the city was the capital of the Islamic world.

 

Index:

Kucur, Sadi S.

Title:

A study on the cons of Tughril Beg, the sultan of the great Seljuqs / Sadi S Kucur

Source:

XIII Congreso Internacional de Numismática, Madrid, 2003 : actas = proceedings = actes. II / ed. por Carmen Alfaro, Carmen Marcos y Paloma Otero. - Madrid : Ministerio de Cultura, Subdirección General de Publicaciones, Información y Documentación, 2005. - P. 1599-1608

 

Index:

Lane-Poole, Stanley 1854-1931

Title:

Catalogue of the collection of Oriental coins belonging to Col. C. Seton Guthrie. Fasc. I: Coins of the Amawī Khalīfehs / by Stanley Lane Poole

Published:

Hertford : Austin, 1874

 

Index:

Lane-Poole, Stanley 1854-1931

Title:

Coins of the Urtuki Turkumans (foes of the Crusaders) / by Stanley Lane Poole

Series:

International numismata orientaria ; pt. 2

Published:

London : Trübner & Co., 1875

 

Index:

Matthee, Rudolph 1953-

Title:

Mint consolidation and the worsening of the late Safavid coinage : the mint of Huwayza / by Rudi Matthee

Source:

Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 44 (2001) 4 p. 505-539

 

Index:

Matthee, Rudolph 1953-

Title:

The Safavid nint of Huwayza : the numismatic evidence / Rudi Matthee

Source:

Society and culture in the early modern Middle East : studies on Iran in the Safavid period / ed. by Andrew J. Newman. - Leiden [etc.] : Brill, 2003. – (Islamic history and civilization ; vol. 46). – P. 265-291

 

Index:

Miles, George Carpenter 1904-1975

Title:

The earliest Arab gold coinage / [George C. Miles]

Source:

American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 13 (1967) p. 205-229. pl. 45-47

 

Index:

Miles, George Carpenter 1904-1975

Title:

The numismatic history of Rayy / by George C. Miles

Series:

Numismatic studies ; no. 2

Published:

New York : American Numismatic Society, 1938

 

Index:

Miles, George Carpenter 1904-1975

Title:

A portrait of the Buyid prince Rukn al-Dawlah / [George C. Miles]

Source:

American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 11 (1964) p. 283-293, pl. 45-47

 

Index:

Miles, George Carpenter 1904-1975

Title:

Some early Arab dinars / George C. Miles

Source:

American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 3 (1948) p. 93-114, pl. 17-21

 

Index:

Nastich, Vladimir N.

Title:

Persian legend on Islamic coins : from traditional Arabic to the challenge of leadership / Vladimir N. Nastich

Source:

The 2nd Simone Assemani symposium on islamic coins / ed. by Bruno Callegher and Arianna D'Ottone. – (Polymnia ; 1). - Trieste : EUT, 2010. - P. 165-190

Abstract:

The tradition of placing Persian inscriptions on Islamic coins goes back to the middle of the 7th century AD, namely the time of the ‘righteous’ caliphs ‛Uthman and ‛Ali, when silver and copper coins struck in the eastern provinces of the recently established Arab caliphate copied the widespread Sasanian types provided with new legends in Pahlavi script.

 

Index:

Omrani, Abbas

Title:

Balkh : en islamisk myntort i det historiska Iran 698/9-1012/3 / av Abbas Omrani

Published:

[Stockholm] : Numismatiska forskningsgruppen, 2004

 

Index:

Phillips, Marcus

Title:

Islamic legends on pre-reform coins of Tabariya / Marcus Phillips

Source:

XIII Congreso Internacional de Numismática, Madrid, 2003 : actas = proceedings = actes. II / ed. por Carmen Alfaro, Carmen Marcos y Paloma Otero. - Madrid : Ministerio de Cultura, Subdirección General de Publicaciones, Información y Documentación, 2005. - P. 1631-1638

 

Index:          

Prideaux, William Francis 1840-1914

Title:

Coins of the Benee Rasool dynasty of South Arabia / by W.F. Prideaux

Published:

[S.l. : s.n., 1885]

Note:

Offprint from: Journal of the Bombay Branch of Royal Asiatic Society 16 (1884-1885) p. 192-203

 

Index:

Ramadan, Atef M.M.

Title:

Coinage of al-Ghuzzal-‘irāqiyya and its relation to the Seljuq conquest / Atef M.M. Ramadan

Source:

The 2nd Simone Assemani symposium on islamic coins / ed. by Bruno Callegher and Arianna D'Ottone. – (Polymnia ; 1). - Trieste : EUT, 2010. - P. 191-199

Abstract:

Al-Ghuzz al-ʿIrāqiyya a group of Turkuman (this group was from the Turks) dwelling in Khurāsān with Seljuq, who were brought by the Ghaznawid ruler Mamūd b. Sebüktigin (389-421H./998-1030AD).Turkuman were causing trouble, corruption, destruction and disturbance in all land they entered. When their corruption was too much, they were fight by Mamūd. They were ousted from his land in the year 420 H. al-Ghuzz al-ʿIrāqiyya went to zerbayjān under the Rawwādid ruler Wahsūdān (416-451H./1025- 1059AD), who received and treated them well and seek peace with them.Symbol of Turkuman appeared above Rev. field, it the first time that this symbol appear in Islamic coins, before it used again on the Artuqid coins for the first time on the coins of usām al-Dīn Timurtāsh in Mārdīn (516- 547H./1122-1152AD)18 . Turkuman used symbol different from the Seljuq symbol bow and arrow,its mentioned that Turkuman are a group different from the Seljuq. We conclude that Turkuman were working at service of Seljuq so when Mamūd b. Sebūktigin asked Seljuq for helping him, Turkuman moved with them to Khurāsān. When their corruption was too much, they were fight by Mamūd. They were ousted from his land in the year 420 H.

 

Index:

Rogers, Edward Thomas 1813-1886

Title:

Notice on the dinârs of the Abbasside dynasty / by Edward Thomas Rogers

Source:

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland n.s. 7 (1875) 2 p. 262-304, pl. 1-4

 

Index:

Rotter, Gernot

Title:

The Umayyad fulüs of Mosul / Gernot Rotter

Source:

American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 19 (1974) p. 165-198, pl. 25

 

Index:

Saulcy, Louis Félicien Joseph Caignart de 1807-1880

Title:

Lettres a M. Reinaud, membre de l'Institut Royal de France, sur quelques points de la numismatique arabe. Lettres I, II, III / par M. F. de Saulcy, ... 

Published:

Paris : Impr. Royale, 1839

 

Index:

Saulcy, Louis Félicien Joseph Caignart de 1807-1880

Title:

Lettres a M. Reinaud, membre de l'Institut Royal de France, sur quelques points de la numismatique arabe. Lettres IV, V et VI / par M. F. de Saulcy, ... 

Published:

Paris : Impr. Royale, 1841

 

Index:

Saulcy, Louis Félicien Joseph Caignart de 1807-1880

Title:

Lettres a M. Reinaud, membre de l'Institut Royal de France, sur quelques points de la numismatique orientale. Lettres VII, VIII, IX et X / par M. F. de Saulcy, ... 

Published:

Paris : Impr. Royale, 1842

 

Index:

Sawaszkiewicz, Leopold Leon

Title:

Le génie de l'Orient commenté par ses monuments monétaires : études historiques, numismatiques, politiques et critiques, sur le cabinet musulman de Ignace Pietraszewski ... / par L.-L. Sawaszkiewicz

Published:

Bruxelles : A. van Dale, 1846

 

Index:

Schindel, Nikolaus 1973-

Title:

Countermarks on Umayyad post–reform copper coins / Nikolaus Schindel

Source:

Israel Numismatic Research 7 (2012) p. 159–166, pl. 17

Abstract:

This article addresses a group of early Islamic countermarks mainly found on Umayyad post-reform copper coins. The basic form is the Greek letter A. While several minor variants exist, it is proposed here that they all mean the same, namely A, the Greek numeral for ‘one.’ Consequently, the countermarks were used to denote the value — as one fals — on the coins to which they were applied. A possible clue to distinguishing Dimashq and ims issues among the earliest, post-reform fulūs with no mint indication is also discussed.

 

Index:

Schindel, Nikolaus 1973-

Title:

The end of Umayyad coinage in southern Bilad al-Sham / Nikolaus Schindel

Source:

Israel Numismatic Research 1 (2006) p. 137-150

Abstract:

The article addresses the problem of when Umayyad copper coinage in southern Bilad al-Sham (roughly speaking present-day Israel and Jordan) ended. Most of these coins are undated, and no clear typological arguments exist for distinguishing late Umayyad from early Abbasid issues. This has led some authors to believe that continuity in copper coinage prevailed between these two dynasties. However, the archaeological material shows widespread destruction throughout southern Bilad al-Sham as the result of a severe earthquake in 749 CE. Since this natural disaster brought urban life to an end in many cities, it is most likely that, by and large, the issue of copper coins in the various mints of southern Bilad al-Sham also ceased.

 

Index:

Schindel, Nikolaus 1973-

Title:

Umayyad lead coins / Nikolaus Schindel

Source:

The 3rd Simone Assemani symposium on Islamic coins / ed. by Bruno Callegher and Arianna D'Ottone. - Trieste : EUT, 2012. - P. 262-279

Abstract:

This paper tries to provide a rough overview over lead coins roughly dating to the Umayyad period (ca. 700-750 AD). Lead coins can be either issued alongside copper coins like in Baalbek or Jurjan as part of the regular petty coinage, they can be a local currency like in the Persian Gulf region, or they can have been produced in unofficial local workshops as a remedy against a need for petty cash. Some examples for these three categories are presented and discussed.

 

Index:

Schulze, Ingrid

Title:

The 'al-wafā lillāh' coinage : a study of style (work in progress) / Ingrid Schulze

Source:

Coinage and history in the seventh century near East 2 : proceedings of the 12th Seventh Century Syrian Numismatic Round Table held at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge on 4th and 5th April 2009 / ed. by Andrew Oddy. - London : Archetype, 2010. - P. 111-121

 

Index:

Schulze, Ingrid

Title:

The standing caliph coins of al-Jazīra : some problems and suggestions / by Ingrid and Wolfgang Schulze

Published:

London : Royal Numismatic Society, 2010

Note:

Offprint from: Numismatic Chronicle 170 (2010) p. 331-353

Abstract:

Within the series of the Umayyad Standing Caliph coins minted in Syria at the end of the seventh century, the coins of al-Jazīra hold an extraordinary position. After a short introduction to the Standing Caliph coinage the authors focus on those of al-Jazīra and try to explain their unusual features. Stylistic comparisons lead to the surprising conclusion that there are strong links between the Standing Caliph coins of al-Jazīra in Mesopotamia and of Filas²§n, the former Byzantine province of Palaestina Prima, in spite of the 700 kilometres between the two areas.

 

Index:

Schulze, Wolfgang

Title:

Symbolism on the Syrian standing caliph copper coins / Wolfgang Schulze

Source:

Coinage and history in the seventh century near East 2 : proceedings of the 12th Seventh Century Syrian Numismatic Round Table held at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge on 4th and 5th April 2009 / ed. by Andrew Oddy. - London : Archetype, 2010. - P. 11-21

 

Index:

Schulze, Wolfgang

Title:

The Syrian ‘orans figure’ copper coins / Wolfgang Schulze

Source:

Arab-Byzantine coins and history / ed. by Tony Goodwin. - [London] : Archetype, 2012. - P. 131-144

 

Index:

Thomas, Edward 1813-1886

Title:

The Pehlví coins of the early Mohammedan Arabs / by Edward Thomas

Source:

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 12 (1850) p. 253-347

 

Index:

Treadwell, Luke

Title:

Abd al-Malik's coinage reforms : the role of the Damascus mint / Luke Treadwell

Source:

Revue Numismatique 165 (2009) p. 357-381

Abstract:

A review of the history and historiography of precious metal coins issued by the caliphal mint of Damascus (72-79 ah) suggests that the caliph's administrators abandoned figurai coinage in favour of epigraphic coinage at the end of the eighth century as the final stage of a series of monetary experiments which aimed to create a universal Islamic coinage type, that would be accepted in all regions of the Umayyad state, including Iran as well as Greater Syria.

 

Index:

Treadwell, Luke

Title:

The copper coinage of Umayyad Iran / Luke Treadwell

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 168 (2008) p. 331-381, pl. 44

 

Index:

Treadwell, Luke

Title:

The die-engraver of Balkh (290/902-302/914) / Luke Treadwell

Source:

Metalwork and material culture in the Islamic world : art, craft and text : essays presented to James W. Allan / ed. by Venetia Porter and Mariam Rosser-Owen. -  London ; New York : Tauris, 2012. - (Library of Middle East history ; [32]}. - P. 99-114

 

Index:

Treadwell, Luke

Title:

The 'Orans' drachms of Bishr ibn Marwan and the figural coinage of the early Marwanid period / Luke Treadwell

Source:

Studies in Islamic Art 9 (2001) 2 p. 223-269

 

Index:

Treadwell, Luke

Title:

Symbolism and meaning on the early Islamic copper coinage of Greater Syria / Luke Treadwell

Source:

Coinage and history in the seventh century near East 4 : proceedings of the 14th Seventh Century Syrian Numismatic Round Table held at The Hive, Worcester, on 28th and 29th September 2013 / ed. by Andrew Oddy, Ingrid Schulze and Wolfgang Schulze. - London : Archetype, 2015. - P. 73-95

 

Index:

Vardanyan, Aram R.

Title:

From sectarians to politicians : twelve years of Qarmatid military activity in Syria, Palestine and West Arabia (357-368/967-978) / Aram Vardanyan

Published:

[Paris] : Société Française de Numismatique, 2011

Note:

Offprint from: Revue Numismatique 167 (2011) p. 423-450

Abstract:

This article deals with certain aspects of political history of the Qarmatid movement, one of the most radical Ismā'īlī sects in the Near East. In the tenth century AD the Qarmatīs could not only maintain their control over the most important caravan routes throughout Arabia but also threatened the biggest cities of the 'Abbāsid Caliphate for many years. After having founded their own state in Bahrayn, the Qarmatīs soon spread their influence over the eastern Mediterranean too. In this respect, the evidence found in the works of both contemporary and later historians on the military activities of the Qarmatīs in that area is discussed here along with numismatic facts. The latter were brought together into one and so far the most comprehensive catalogue of Qarmatid coins struck at the mints of Filastīn, Dimashq, Tabariya and Mecca in the period of 358-368 Hijra. It includes around 100 coins issued in gold and silver corresponding nearly thirty different types. A comparative analysis of both narrative and numismatic evidence allowed us to make certain conclusions on the leadership in the Qarmatid sect and structure of the Qarmatid society of that time. At the same time the political history of the Qarmatīs in Palestine, Syria and West Arabia is reconsidered in the general context of Qarmatid struggle against their political rivals, the Fātimids.

 

Index:

Vardanyan, Aram R.

Title:

The history of Iranian Adharbayjan and Armenia in the Rawwadid period (tenth century AD) according to narrative sources and coins / Aram Vardanyan

Published:

[London : Royal Numismatic Society, 2009]

Note:

Offprint from: Numismatic Chronicle 169 (2009) p. 245-260, pl. 32-33

 

Index:

Vardanyan, Aram R.

Title:

Numismatic evidence for the presence of Zaydī 'Alids in the Northern Jibāl, Gīlān and Khurāsān from AH 250 to 350 (AD 864-961) / Aram Vardanyan

Published:

London : Royal Numismatic Society, 2010

Note:

Offprint from: Numismatic Chronicle 170 (2010) p. 355-374, pl. 22-23

Abstract:

The ‘Alid coinage and the light it can throw on the history of the lands south of the Caspian and adjacent regions during the early centuries AH has for long been of interest to scholars. The fi rst valuable study on the coinage was undertaken by Samuel Stern in 1967. He listed all the known ‘Alid coins struck at the mints of Āmul and Hawsam between 250 and 344. He did not attempt to discuss the coins of other ‘Alid mints (Qazwīn, Mu¢ammadiya and Nisābūr) which were then still uncommon. More coins are now known from these mints allowing us to supplement Stern’s article and also George Miles’s 1972 contribution to the early anonymous ‘Alid coins. This paper also presents a discussion on the political history of the ‘Alids in the regions of Jibāl, Khurāsān and Gīlān based on both narrative sources and coins.

 

Index:

Vardanyan, Aram R.

Title:

Seeking political compromise : the Dulafid governors of Jibāl and their coinage / Aram Vardanyan

Source:

American Journal of Numismatics 2nd ser. 27 (2016) p. 219-236, pl. 54-56

Abstract:

Although the coins of the Dulafid governors of Jibāl are rather well known to scholars thanks to scientific literature and auction catalogues, nevertheless a comprehensive catalogue of coins struck by that dynasty centered initially at Karaj and then Ibahān in the third century Hijra is still missing. Dulafid coins were never catalogued, nor were they properly discussed in the context of the political developments in the province in that period. In addition, there are few publications dealing with history of the dynasty. The article of S. A. al-Kharabsheh (2003), along with one written by E. Marin (Marin EI 2 : 623) and a brief account by R. Mottahedeh in the Cambridge History of Iran (Mot-tahedeh 1975: 58–90) complete the list of principal works on the topic. From the numismatic point of view one should mention the MA study of A. Disuqi, which includes a chapter on the Dulafid coins, but only with respect to the mint of Ibahān (Disuqi 2012: 141–154). In this article the main coin types representing the coinage of the Dulafids concentrated at the mints of Jibāl (Ibahān, Hamadhān, Māh al-Bara), Fārs and Khūzistān (Shīrāz and Arrajān) in ah 270–282 are catalogue. In addition, the remarkable features of Dulafid policy in the region are discussed on the basis of both literary and numismatic evidence.

 

Index:

Walker, John 1900-1964

Title:

A catalogue of the Arab-Byzantine and post-reform Umaiyad coins / by John Walker

Series:

Catalogue of the Muhammadan coins in the British Museum ; vol. 2

Published:

London : Trustees of the British Museum, 1956

 

Index:

Whitcomb, Donald S.

Title:

The Fārs hoard : a Buyid Hoard from Fārs province, Iran / Donald S. Whitcomb

Source:

American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 21 (1976) p. 161-250, pl. 14-17