09. China & Korea

Index:

Belyaev, Vladimir A.

Title:

The meaning of the character BAO in the legends of Chinese cash coins / Vladimir A. Belyaev & Sergey V. Sidorovich

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. II / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : International Numismatic Council. 2011. – P. 1789-1795

 

Index:

Cao, Jin

Title:

Mints and minting in Late Imperial China : technology, organisation and problems / Cao Jin

Source:

Documents and studies on 19th c. monetary history. Mints, technology and coin production : proceedings of the Round Table of the 'Silver Monetary Depreciation and International Relations' program (ANR DAMIN, LabEx TransferS), Copenhagen, May 28-29, 2015 / Georges Depeyrot, Michael Märcher, eds.. - Wetteren : Moneta, 2015. - (Collection Moneta ; 191). - P. 17-38

Abstract:

One very basic difference between Chinese and Western ways of minting has persisted with only very few exceptions until the end of the 19th century: While coins in Europe and West Asia were hammer-struck, Chinese coins were cast. This technological difference was far from being marginal and being only limited to the look of the coins: It brought about completely different working processes, requirements of labour, and other aspects of mint organisation. A relatively low productivity, high costs, and an inferior protection against forgery were among the most important problems associated with the use of cast coins. Consequently, many of the monetary crises in Chinese history were caused or at least exacerbated by these problems. As a consequence of one very severe crisis in the late 19th century, western machinery began to be employed to produce Chinese coins and the difference was eventually abolished. This paper provides a detailed introduction into the development of Chinese minting technology as well as into relevant aspects of mint organisation. Against this background, decisive problems of late imperial China’s monetary system such as counterfeiting by commoners and mint personnel and the resulting cash depreciation are explained and discussed

 

Index:

Cao, Jin

Title:

Smoke on the mountain : the infamous counterfeiting case of Tongzi District, Guizhou province, 1794 / Cao Jin and Hans Ulrich Vogel

Source:

Money in Asia (1200-1900) : small currencies in social and political contexts / ed. by Jane Kate Leonard and Ulrich Theobald. - Leiden : Brill, [2015]. - (Monies, markets, and finance in East Asia, 1600-1900 ; vol. 6). - P. 188-219

 

Index:

Craig, Alan David 1930-

Title:

The coins of Korea and an outline of early Chinese coinages / Alan D. Craig

Published:

Berkeley : Craig, cop. 1955

 

Index:

Cribb, Joe 1947-

Title:

Chinese coin finds from Arabia and the Arabian Gulf / J. Cribb and D. Potts

Source:

Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 7 (1996) p. 108-118

Abstract:

Evidence and context of Chinese coin exports to Gulf in medieval period.

 

Index:

Gardner, Christopher Thomas 1842-

Title:

The coinage of Corea / by C.T. Gardner

Source:

Journal of the China branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 27 (1892-1893) p. 71-130

 

Index:

Hartill, David

Title:

Cast Chinese coins : a historical catalogue / David Hartill

Published:

Victoria : Trafford, cop. 2005

 

Index:

Jankowski, Lyce

Title:

L'âge d'or de la numismatique en Chine : l'exemple du ‘Catalogue des monnaies anciennes’ de Li Zuoxian / Lyce Jankowski

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. II / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : International Numismatic Council. 2011. – P. 1826-1831

 

Index:

Jen, David 1928-2002

Title:

Chinese cash : identification and price guide / David Jen

Published:

Iola : Krause, cop. 2000

 

Index:

Kann, Eduard 1880-1962

Title:

Illustrated catalog of Chinese coins (gold, silver, nickel and aluminum) / by E. Kann

Published:

Los Angeles : the author, 1954

 

Index:

Kottek, Alfred V.

Title:

Chinas Bronzeweg in die Geldwirtschaft : Sonderausstellung Jänner bis April 1996 / [Wissenschaftliche Bearb. der Texte: Alfred V. Kottek]

Published:

Wien : Österreichische Nationalbank, 1996

 

Index:

Kroha, Tyll 1929-

Title:

Chinesische Münzen aus drei Jahrtausenden / [Tyll Kroha]

Series:

Das Fenster ; Thema 90

Published:

[Köln : Kreissparkasse Köln, 1974]

 

Index:

Pfizmaier, August 1808-1887

Title:

Bericht über einige von Karl Ritter von Scherzer eingesandte chinesische und japanische Münzen / von August Pfizmaier

Published:

Wien : Gerold, 1861

 

Index:

Ramsden, Henry Alexander 1872-1915

Title:

Model-insect money of ancient China / by H.A. Ramsden

Published:

Yokohama : Kobayagawa, 1914

 

Index:

Seco Serra, Irene

Title:

Monedas chinas en el Museo Cerralbo = Chinese coins from the Cerralbo Museum (Madrid, Spain) / Irene Seco Serra

Source:

Documenta & Instrumenta 4 (2006) p. 151-167

 

Index:

Terrien de Lacouperie, Albert Étienne Jean Baptiste -1894

Title:

Catalogue of Chinese coins from the VIIth cent. B.C., to A.D. 621 : including the series in the British Museum / by Terrien de Lacouperie ; ed. by Reginald Stuart Poole

Published:

London : Trustees of the British Museum, 1892

 

Index:

Thierry, François 1950-

Title:

Archéologie et numismatique : les cinq découvertes qui ont bouleversé l’histoire monétaire du Qin / Francois Thierry

Source:

Toyto apech th xwpa : Festschrift für Wolfgang Hahn zum 70. Geburtstag / hrsg. von  Wolfgang Szaivert … [et al.]. - Wien : Österreichische Forschungsgesellschaft für Numismatik, 2015. - (Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Numismatik und Geldgeschichte ; Bd. 15). - P. 433-451

 

Index:

Thierry, François 1950-

Title:

La chronologie des wuzhu : étude, analyse et propositions / François Thierry

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e ser. 31 (1989) p. 223-247

Abstract:

La datation traditionnelle des différents types de wuzhu émis entre 118 av. J.-C. et 618 ap. J.-C, est en partie remise en cause par les découvertes archéologiques des vingt dernières années, découvertes qui nécessitent également une relecture des textes historiques qui fondent cette datation. Nous faisons le point des modifications et rectifications à apporter à la chronologie admise à ce jour.

 

Index:

Thierry, François 1950-

Title:

La division perdue : les émissions monétaires de la 36e Division de Ma Hushan à Khotan (1934-1937) / François Thierry

Published:

Paris : SÉNA, 2010

Note:

Offprint from: L'armée et la monnaie II : actes de la journée d'études du 25 avril 2009 à la Monnaie de Paris / présidée par le Prof. Yann Le Bohec ; textes éd. par Dominique Hollard. - Paris : SÉNA, 2010. - (Recherches et travaux de la Société d'études numismatiques et archéologiques ; no. 3). - P. 21-42, pl. 1-3

 

Index:

Thierry, François 1950-

Title:

Éléments pour l’étude des 'wuzhu' de Wudi des Han (junguo, chice et Sanguan, 118-113 av. J.-C.) / Francois Thierry

Published:

Louvain-la-Neuve : [s.n.], 1993

Note:

Offprint from: Actes du XIe Congrès International de Numismatique : organisé à l'occasion du 150e anniversaire de la Société Royale de Numismatique de Belgique, Bruxelles, 8-13 septembre 1991 = Proceedings of the XIth International Numismatic Congress : organized for the 150th anniversary of the Société Royale de Numismatique de Belgique, Brussels, September 8th-13th 1991. Vol. III: Monnaies byzantines, monnaies médiévales et orientales / éd. par le Séminaire de numismatique Marcel Hoc sous la dir. de Tony Hackens, Ghislaine Moucharte ; avec la collab. de Catherine Courtois ... [et al.]. - Louvain-la-Neuve : Association Professeur Marcel Hoc pour l'encouragement des recherches numismatiques, 1993. - P. 333-338

 

Index:

Thierry, François 1950-

Title:

Un ensemble de lingots chinois d'argent 'yuanbao' / François Thierry

Source:

Revue Numismatique 164 (2008) p. 457-483

Abstract:

A group of 11 Chinese silver yuanbao-type ingots of 50 liang (ca. 1 850 g) recently appeared on the numismatic market. The study of these ingots manufactured by the private workshops of the region of Shanghai and the province of Shanxi and by the metalworkers in the service of the governor of Xinjiang revealed the characteristics of the use of these monetary signs in China at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century : weight varying from one manufacturer to another, different alloys within the same province, heterogeneous manu-facturing and banking systems. This group, coming from a single source, shows moreover, particularly by the countermarks borne on these pieces, that a form of banking connection existed that linked the new indigenous Shanghai banks, the old traditional banks of Shanxi and the banks of Xinjiang.

 

Index:

Thierry, François 1950-

Title:

Fausses dates et vraies monnaies : rites, information, propagande et histoire dans la numismatique chinoise / François Thierry

Source:

Extrême-Orient, Extrême-Occident 32 (2010) p. 41-59

Abstract:

In the monetary history of ancient China, to put the question of the ‘true’ and the 'fake' is not only to question authenticity but questions the nature of the authenticity of the issuer, the metal, the inscription. This will engage our interest here: the relationship between an inscription that dates coins and the actual date on which they were issued. Several times indeed, in China, authorities casted coins with inscriptions that, deliberately or not, did not correspond to the real date of issuance. Possible reasons for this inexactitude are multiple : bad information, will to deceive about the weight of the metal, respect for ritual, or political propaganda. But what is true and genuine is that the coin remains authentic testimony of the casting process and of political and social practices in ancient China.

 

Index:

Thierry, François 1950-

Title:

La fiduciarité idéale à l'épreuve des coûts de production : quelques éléments sur la contradiction fondamentale de la monnaie en Chine / François Thierry

Source:

Revue Numismatique 157 (2001) p. 131-152

Abstract:

Although the Chinese currency was basically fiduciary, from the 3rd-4th centuries onwards, the upward trend of the price of copper, of mining development and of casting coins led the Chinese central or local authorities to find measures so that the value of the coinage would not be modified. Among these measures, the most popular was the change of the metal alloy to lower-cost metals : copper coins became bronze, and later brass. Other practices were also rapidly introduced, such as the clipping of circulating coins and the casting of coins in lead and iron, the substitution of wood, paper or bamboo currency.

 

Index:

Thierry, François 1950-

Title:

Liaison de moule sur des 'banliang' de Qin / François Thierry

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 151 (August 1988) p. 61-66

 

Index:

Thierry, François 1950-

Title:

La monnaie du Xinjiang dans deux ouvrages récents / François Thierry

Source:

Revue Numismatique 166 (2010) p. 537-552

 

Index:

Thierry, François 1950-

Title:

Le monnayage de la fin des Ming (1644-1660) d'après les collections du Cabinet des Médailles de la Bibliothèque nationale / François Thierry

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e ser. 27 (1985) p. 183-199, pl. 9-12

Abstract:

Entre 1644 et 1660, dans les provinces qui échappent encore aux conquérants mandchous, Rebelles et Princes Ming instaurent des contre-états qui émettent du numéraire, marqué dans un premier temps par la tradition et la continuité. A partir de 1648-50, repliés sur les seules provinces du Sud, les Ming entreprennent d'adapter le système monétaire fondé sur le cuivre, aux pratiques financières de la Chine du Sud, en particulier l'utilisation généralisée de l'argent-métal, cette période est par ailleurs marquée par un renouveau esthétique de la calligraphie monétaire.

 

Index:

Thierry, François 1950-

Title:

Münzen der Sieben Königreiche / [Franyois Thierry] ; Münzen aus den Gräbern der Sui- und Tang-Zeit / [Stefan Heidemann]

Published:

[S.l. : s.n., 2006]

Note:

Offprint from: Xi'an, Kaiserliche Macht im Jenseits : Grabfunde und Tempelscha ätze aus Chinas alter Hauptstadt : Ergebnisse der deutsch-chinesischen Zusammenarbeit im Kulturgu üterschutz : 21. April bis 23. Juli 2006, Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Bonn. - Mainz : Philipp von Zabern, cop. 2006. – . P. 142-144, 254-257

 

Index:

Thierry, François 1950-

Title:

Origine e sviluppo del sistema monetario cinese tradizionale / Francois Thierry

Source:

Rivista Italiana di Numismatica 112 (2011) p. 57-103, pl. 1-5

Abstract:

In Western monetary tradition, the value of currency is linked to the value of the quantity of precious metal contained in the coin(s), but in Chinese tradition, the currency is only a tool of exchange without intrinsic value. This fiduciary conception of currency has been the origin of the use of many types of objects (cowries, spades, knives, cash, plates, etc.) and materials (stone, bone, copper, lead, iron, paper, wood, bamboo, cloth, grains, etc.) as medium of exchange. After the irruption of Spanish Silver bullion from America from the late 16th century onwards, the traditional Chinese monetary system progressively collapsed.

 

Index:

Thierry, François 1950-

Title:

La politique monétaire des Zhou du Nord (557-581) : genèse idéologique et nécessités financières / François Thierry

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 137 (1991) p. 127-140, pl. 6-8

 

Index:

Thierry, François 1950-

Title:

Le trésor de la rue Guanfu (Canton) et la circulation monétaire sous les Han du Sud / François Thierry

Source:

Revue Numismatique 152 (1997) p. 379-408

 

Index:

Thierry, François 1950-

Title:

Typologie et chronologie des 'kai yuan tong bao' des Tang / François Thierry

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e ser. 33 (1991) p. 209-249, pl. 21

 

Index:

Vissering, Gerard 1865-1937

Title:

On Chinese currency : preliminary remarks about the monetary reform in China. [Vol. I: The monetary problem] / by G. Vissering ; with the co-op. of W.A. Roest

Published:

Amsterdam : De Bussy, 1912

 

Index:

Vissering, Gerard 1865-1937

Title:

On Chinese currency : preliminary remarks about the monetary reform in China. [Vol. II: The banking problem / by G. Vissering

Published:

Amsterdam : De Bussy, 1914

 

Index:

Vissering, Willem 1851-1931

Title:

On Chinese currency : coin and paper money / by W. Vissering

Published:

Leiden : Brill, 1877

 

Index:

Wang, Helen 1965-

Title:

Metallurgical analysis of Chinese coins at the British Museum / ed. by Helen Wang ... [et al.]

Published:

London : British Museum, cop. 2005

 

Index:

Wang, Helen 1965-

Title:

Transport of copper from Yunnan to Beijing, late eighteenth to early nineteenth century : the insider's guide / Helen Wang

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 152 (2006) p. 83-90

 

Index:

Wang, Helen 1965-

Title:

A short history of Chinese numismatics in European languages / Helen Wang

Source:

Early China 35-36 (2012-2013) p. 395-429

Abstract:

This paper is a preliminary attempt at a history of the western world's interest in Chinese currency and numismatics. It focuses on Western language publications of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and pays particular attention to the backgrounds of the authors of those publications on the grounds that they were the first people to shape the field in Europe and the USA.

 

Index:

Wang, Yü-ch'üan

Title:

Early Chinese coinage / by Wang Yü-ch'üan

Series:

Numismatic notes and monographs ; no. 122

Published:

New York : American Numismatic Society, 1951