04. Monetary aspects, coin circulation

Index:

Collin, Edvard

Title:

Ueber Reichsmünze und Courant : zur Beleuchtung der Münzverhältnisse der dänischen Monarchie und zur Würdigung der angestrebten Münzordnung / von E. Collin

Published:

Kopenhagen : Jacob Lund, 1855

 

Index:

Dāboliņš, Viktors

Title:

The curious case of mint master of Riga city J. Haltermann (1660-1663) / Viktors Dāboliņš

Source:

Documents and studies on 19th c. monetary history. Mints, technology and coin production : proceedings of the Round Table of the 'Silver Monetary Depreciation and International Relations' program (ANR DAMIN, LabEx TransferS), Copenhagen, May 28-29, 2015 / Georges Depeyrot, Michael Märcher, eds.. - Wetteren : Moneta, 2015. - (Collection Moneta ; 191). - P. 39-56

 

Index:

Franzén, Bo

Title:

Folkungatidens monetära system : penningen mellan pest och patriarkat 1254-1370 / Bo Franzén

Series:

Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis. Stockholm studies in economic history ; 50

Published:

Stockholm : Almqvist & Wiksell, 2006

 

Index:

Graham-Campbell, James

Title:

Silver economies, monetisation and society in Scandinavia, AD 800-1100 / ed. by James Graham-Campbell, Søren M Sindbæk and Gareth Williams

Published:

Aarhuus : Aarhus University Press, cop. 2011

 

Index:

Gullbekk, Svein Harald 1967-

Title:

Medieval law and money in Norway / Svein H. Gullbekk

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 158 (1998) p. 173-184

 

Index:

Gullbekk, Svein Harald 1967-

Title:

Monetisation in medieval Scandinavia / Svein H. Gullbekk

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. II / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : [International Numismatic Council]. 2011. – P. 1458-1463

 

Index:

Gullbekk, Svein Harald 1967-

Title:

Money, borders and identity in the nineteenth century from a Norwegian perspective / Svein H. Gullbekk

Source:

Monetary boundaries in transition : a north European economic history and the Finnish War 1808-1809 / eds.: Tukka Talvio & Cecilia von Heijne. - Stockholm : Museum of National Antiquities 2010. - (Studies / Museum of national antiquities Stockholm ; 16). - P. 145-159

Abstract:

After having been in political unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1814 and Sweden from 1814, Norway became on a par with the Danish and Swedish monetary systems through a full membership in The Scandina¬vian Monetary Union in th1870s. A comparison with the Norwegian mon¬etary system at the beginning of the nineteenth century makes it clear that the monetary situation had been dramatically improved, having made what might be described as a ‘quantum leap’ by the end of the same century. It is right to say that the developments within the history of nineteenth-century coinage and money were more fundamental and had a greater impact than for any previous century. This was, of course, inextricably attached to developments within politics, economy and technology with the Industrial Revolution as an important driving force behind increased production, trade and urbanization. The French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars were major turning points in the history of Europe. When Napoleon Bonaparte lost the Battle of Waterloo in 1814 the triumphant parties came together in Vienna the following year and defined the borders of Europe. The era of aggression, isolation and fragmentation was no longer the accepted standard in the politi¬cal arena. Cooperation and standardization were important ingredients in the new world order, the modern society.

 

Index:

Gullbekk, Svein Harald 1967-

Title:

Myntretten som inntektskilde i middelalderen / Svein H. Gullbekk

Source:

Scandia 75 (2009) 2 p. 61-74

Abstract:

Medieval Scandinavian Kingdoms extracted income from different sources, among them coinage. The income from coinage is often considered to have been insignificant or at best limited. Several historical and numismatic sources from medieval Scandinavia  suggest minting being a profitable activity of significant importance. In certain years mint-profits would be among the largest sources of income for royal powers, if not the largest. This is suggested from a case-study of Norwegian coinage in the 1290s when the methods of debasement, decrease in weight standard and recoinage were applied simultanously. At the same time the value of the currency was upheld at a favourably rate for the government. The value was, however, reduced after a period of a couple of years from 1/3 to 1/5 the value of burnt silver. In European history coinage is in general considered a source of income for the governing body. In principle income from coinage was came from debasement of silver, reducing the weight standard or exchanges of foreign coins and recoinages where old coins were replaced with new issues. This article argues that all these methods were applied in medieval Scandinavia, but the ability to control the value of the currency was crucial for the income potential from minting.

 

Index:

Gullbekk, Svein Harald 1967-

Title:

Pengestrømmer i Nord-Europa på 1500-, 1600- og det tidlige 1700-tallet / Svein H. Gullbekk

Source:

Nordisk Numismatisk Årsskrift 2. ser. 1 (2014) p. 139-151

Abstract:

This paper is based on my lecture at the University of Oslo in connection with my defense and afterwards the award of the degree Doctor philosophiae, 14 February 2003. Apart from the Norwegian numismatic litterature by previous keepers of the Coin Departement at the University of Oslo, much of the material I use was found in the book by Stein Tveite about Engish-Norwegian timber 1640-1710 (ref. 4). Foreign currency came to Norway via English merchants, who bought timber, needed for the Navy and for the merchant fleet, especially from Western Norway. It is argued that not only English coins but also German and Dutch thalers, which took their way from i.a. Hamburg to England, ended – at least preliminaryly – in Norway. Finds of thalers are, however, not registered very often in the museums, as it was not until 1979 that finds from the period 1537-1650 were protected by legislation. The author argues that Norwegian thalers (after 1628) only to a limited degree were exported as they often were used for payment of taxes and customs.

 

Index:

Gullbekk, Svein Harald 1967-

Title:

Resirkulering av edelmetall i middelalderen / Svein H. Gullbekk

Source:

Nicolay 119 (2013) p. 43-51

 

Index:

Heijne, Cecilia von 1969-

Title:

Crusade and trade : Swedish-Livonian contacts in the fourteenth century / Cecilia von Heijne

Source:

Monetary history of the Baltics in the Middle-Ages (12-16th C.) : international symposium in Tallinn, 9-10 Dec. 2010 / [toim.koll. Tiina Kala ... et al.]. - Tallinn : Eesti Ajaloomuuseum, 2012. – (Varia historica ; 6). – P. 198-205

Abstract:

The contacts in the Baltic Sea area between Sweden and Livonia can, somewhat simplified, be divided into violent and non-violent relations. In trading relations the Gotlanders is a quite prominent group - as well in the written manuscripts as in the numismatic material. The more violent actions are associated with the Swedish kingdom. The Gotlanders considered themselves privileged and not obligated to take part in the Swedish king's warfare. Despite the geographical closeness between Sweden (through Finland) and Livonia and the fact that we know that the Swedish king and his troops actually stayed in Livonia for some time (1350-51), the Swedish coins were hardly used in Livonia. But the Gotlandic örtug that was produced from c. 1340 was well known in Livonia. It was used as an international currency and acknowledged by large groups of different political and economical actors.

 

Index:

Heijne, Cecilia von 1969-

Title:

Spatial analysis as a method for studying anonymous medieval coins : problems and possibilities / Cecilia von Heijne

Source:

Myntstudier : festskrift till Kenneth Jonsson / [ed.] Tuukka Talvio og Magnus Wijk. - Stockholm: Svenske Numismatiska Föreningen, 2015. - P. 181-188

Abstract:

The paper discusses spatial analysis as a method, in particular the problems and possibilities it holds for numismatic research. It is based on a study of anonymous medieval Swedish bracteates and two-sided coins from the fourteenth century. The material is rather roughly dated. A couple of mints are known through pieces of lead with impressions of dies that have been found during archaeological surveys, but the mints are largely unidentified. A comparison is made between the geographical distributions of types from identified mints with the distribution of types from unknown mints. The central question is: Can spatial analyses be used as a method for deciding unknown mints, and what are the pitfalls? The spatial analysis in the paper is carried out in two steps. The first part is based on cumulative church finds of the bracteate type LL XXVIII. Two variants of the type are known through archaeological finds to have been minted in Lödöse and Söderköping. The geographical distribution of the coin finds correlates roughly with the location of each mint – based on a western Sweden/eastern Sweden comparison with lake Vänern as a dividing line. But it is also evident that if we did not know of the archaeological remains from the manufacturing evidence, it would not have been possible to pinpoint the exact mints from the distribution pattern of the coin finds only. The second part of the spatial analysis is based on cumulative church finds of the two-sided type LL XXVII with unknown mints. The type’s motive on the reverse is a letter or a symbol surrounded by three crowns. The motive has provoked different explanations. The oldest interpretation is that the letters and symbols represent different kings. The main interpretation in modern research is that the letters and symbols stand for mints or emissions. The result of the analysis is that a similar distribution pattern can be identified when comparing western Sweden and eastern Sweden for three of the largest variants of type LL XXVII. A complimentary study of the compositions of hoards and find-spots is inconsistent with the result from the cumulative finds. It is argued that the cumulative church finds should be given more weight in interpretations than the hoards.

 

Index:

Herva, Vesa-Pekka

Title:

Engaging with money in a northern periphery of early modern Europe / Vesa-Pekka Herva, Risto Nurmi, James Symonds

Source:

Journal of Social Archaeology 12 (1012) 3 p. 287-309

Abstract:

While contextual and interpretive approaches to money have recently emerged in archaeology, coins have attracted little serious attention in the post-medieval archaeology of the western world. The relative neglect of coins as archaeological finds probably derives from an (implicit) assumption that the function and meaning of coins is readily apparent. A close study of coin finds, however, combined with various sources of contextual data, can provide new views on how people understood and engaged with coinage even in the comparatively recent past, as this article seeks to illustrate by considering money and coin finds from a northern periphery of early modern Sweden. Economic factors are important for appreciating the significance of coinage and the patterning of the studied coin finds, but this article proposes that non-monetary uses of coins were more important to the local understanding of money than has previously been recognized.

 

Index:

Holmboe, Christopher Andreas 1796-1882

Title:

De prisca re monetaria Norvegiae : et de numis aliquot et ornamentis, in Norvegia repertis / scripsit C.A. Holmboe

Edition:

Ed. nova recognita

Published:

Christianiae : Impensis Johannis Dahl, 1854

 

Index:

Leimus, Ivar 1953-

Title:

Das Darlehen des Ordensmeisters an die Stadt Tallinn (Reval) als Treibkraft des dortigen Münzwesens am Ende des 14. und zu Beginn des 15. Jahrhunderts / Ivar Leimus

Source:

Monetary history of the Baltics in the Middle-Ages (12-16th C.) : international symposium in Tallinn, 9-10 Dec. 2010. - Tallinn : Eesti Ajaloomuuseum, 2012. – (Varia historica ; 6). – P. 80-91

 

Index:

Leimus, Ivar 1953-

Title:

How did mintmaster Leinhart Pauwermann die? / Ivar Leimus

Source:

Suomen Museo 117 (2010) p. 84−85

 

Index:

Leimus, Ivar 1953-

Title:

International contacts of Tallinn mint masters in the 16-17th c. / Ivar Leimus

Source:

Documents and studies on 19th c. monetary history. Mints, technology and coin production : proceedings of the Round Table of the 'Silver Monetary Depreciation and International Relations' program (ANR DAMIN, LabEx TransferS), Copenhagen, May 28-29, 2015 / Georges Depeyrot, Michael Märcher, eds.. - Wetteren : Moneta, 2015. - (Collection Moneta ; 191). - P. 215-220

Abstract:

The paper deals with biographies of Tallinn (Reval) mint-masters. They mostly came from Germany or neighbour lands like Poland. Depending on circumstances and skills their destinies could be very different, sometimes even adventurous but sometimes miserable.

 

Index:

Leimus, Ivar 1953-

Title:

A land without silver and gold: what can theymake money from? / Ivar Leimus.

Source:

From underground to end-users : global monetary history in scientific context : meeting at the University of the Pacific, San Francisco, Stockton, 16-22 May 2016 / Georges Depeyrot & Dennis O. Flynn, eds.. - Wetteren : Moneta, 2016. - (Collection Moneta ; 194). - P. 109-118

Abstract:

The paper deals with a question how could a land without silver resources manage to continue coinage in different circumstances throughout the history.

 

Index:

Leimus, Ivar 1953-

Title:

Millennium breakthrough : North goes West / Ivar Leimus

Source:

Past : special issue on the history of Estonia. - Tartu-Talinn : National Archives, 2009. - P. 7-34

 

Index:

Leimus, Ivar 1953-

Title:

Mint master of Tallinn Urban Dene († 1560) and his social network / Ivar Leimus

Source:

Between Klaipeda and Turku : decennary volume of the Association of Baltic Numismatists / [ed. and design: Ivar Leimus]. - Tallinn : Association of Baltic Numismatists, 2016. - (Numismatica Baltica ; 1). - P. 129-138 

Abstract:

The paper deals with the carrier and familiarly and social relations of Urban Dene, the Tallinn (Reval) mint master who seems to have been the richest man in the city.

 

Index:

Leimus, Ivar 1953-

Title:

Monetary history of medieval Courland : some speculations / Ivar Leimus

Source:

Latvijas Vēstures Institūta Žurnāls (2013) 4 p. 37-59

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problems of coinage in medieval Courland. The aim of the study is to date the launch of minting, locate the mint(s) and reveal the monetary system and minting standard. Although the data available are extremely limited, a comparative study of written and numismatic sources has provided provisional results. Also, a new hypothesis about the origins of a local monetary unit known as the 'osering' is presented. Finally, the role of Westphalia merchants in the colonisation of and their route to Courland are discussed in the light of the coin finds.

 

Index:

Leimus, Ivar 1953-

Title:

The numismatic consequences of the Napoleonic wars / Ivar Leimus

Source:

Monetary boundaries in transition : a North European economic history and the Finnish war 1808-1809 / eds.: Tuuka Talvio & Cecilia von Heijne. - Stockholm : Statens Historiska Museum, 2010. - P. 161-174

 

Index:

Leimus, Ivar 1953-

Title:

Die spätmittelalterliche große Wirtschaftskrise in Europa : war auch Livland davon betroffen? / von Ivar Leimus

Source:

Forschungen zur baltischen Geschichte 1 (2006) p. 56-67

 

Index:

Leimus, Ivar 1953-

Title:

Vorläufige Bemerkungen zur Entwicklung einiger Löhne und Preise in Reval im 16. Jahrhundert / von Ivar Leimus

Source:

Forschungen zur baltischen Geschichte 9 (2014) p. 50-66

 

Index:

Märcher, Michael 1979-

Title:

Coins, metals, and reforms : a survey of Danish monetary history 1813-1873 / Michael Märcher

Source:

Moneys and economies during 19th century (from Europe to Asia) : proceedings of the Round Table of the ‘Silver Monetary Depreciation and International Relations’ Program (ANR DAMIN, LabEx TransferS), Paris, École Normale Supérieure, January 13-14, 2012 / G. Depeyrot, ed. - Wetteren : Moneta, 2012. - (Collection Moneta ; 139). - P. 77-95 

 

Index:

Märcher, Michael 1979-

Title:

Danish banking before and after the Napoleonic wars : a survey of Danish banking, 1736-1857 / Michael Märcher

Source:

Monetary boundaries in transition : a north European economic history and the Finnish War 1808-1809 / eds.: Tukka Talvio & Cecilia von Heijne. - Stockholm : Museum of National Antiquities 2010. - (Studies / Museum of national antiquities Stockholm ; 16). - P. 127-143

 

Index:

Märcher, Michael 1979-

Title:

Den Kgl. Mønt i Altonas produktion 1813-1848 / af Michael Märcher

Source:

Sønderjysk Månedsskrift (2013) 8 p. 303-311

 

Index:

Märcher, Michael 1979-

Title:

Fra møntmesterens skrivebord : møntmester G.W. Svendsens notater og studierejse i Tyskland 1836 : kilder til møntteknologi og møntproduktion i 1800-tallet / Michael Märcher

Source:

Nordisk Numismatisk Årsskrift 2. ser. 1 (2014). - P. 213-277

Abstract:

This article is a publication of three sources to coin production and minting technology in the 19th century. They are all related to the important Danish mint master Georg Wilhelm Svendsen (17921861), who served as a mint master in Copenhagen 18311861. This was a significant period with important changes in both monetary matters and minting tech nology with implementation of several new methods and machines. All three sources are notes or manuscripts kept at The National Museum of Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals.

The first one (p. 21427) is about G.W. Svendsen’s life. He worked in Berlin 18141822, where he knew, and later worked for, G.C. Freund. The latter worked as an engineer at the Berlin Mint until he founded the important company Freund & Co., which e.g. produced steam engines and rolling works. The second part (p. 228-53) is Svendsen’s notes from his study tour to Germany in 1836. He saw and wrote down many details about methods and machines related to coin production. During a three months travel in summer 1836, he was able to visit many mints, and his notes contain some information about each of them. His travel route is shown on fig. 5. He

visited the mints in Altona, Braunschweig, Clausthal, Darmstadt, Dresden, Hannover, Karlsruhe, Kassel, Munich, and Stuttgart, and he also saw the large works for (precious) metals in Freiburg, Hamburg and at Rammelsberg in the Harz. The third part (p. 253-77) is Svendsen’s notes about the coin production at the mint in Copenhagen in the 1830-40s. They reveal details about production volumes, organization, accounting, problems etc., and are especially important for two reasons. 1) They contain some information about the life  and processes within the mint, which are not found elsewhere in the mint’s archive. 2) The 183040s was an important period in Danish monetary history with several reforms and new developments. This was part of the Danish government’s monetary policy ca. 1813-1864, when it tried to create  a new, stable, common, homogeneous, and unifying monetary system in the entire realm (the kingdom of Denmark and the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein).

 

Index:

Nordmann, Claude J.

Title:

Monnaies et finances suédoises au XVIIe siècle / [Claude J. Nordmann]

Source:

Revue du Nord183 (octobre-décembre 1964) p. 469-488

 

Index:

Risvaag, Jon Anders

Title:

Pengesaneringen i Finnmark etter 2. verdenskrig / av Jon Anders Risvaag

Source:

Nordisk Numismatisk Unions Medlemsblad (1999) 2 (Marts) p. 23-26

 

Index:

Stensgård, Werner

Title:

Nödmynten och deras plakat / Werner Stensgård

Source:

Samlad glädje 2009 : Numismatiska Klubben Uppsala 1969-2009 / [red.: Curt Ekström, Kjell Holmberg och Magnus Wijk]. - Uppsala : Numismatiska Kubben, cop. 2009. - P. 187-200

Abstract:

Up until the middle of the 20th century the government had the right to have all its public announcements read aloud from the pulpits of all churches in the kingdom. The announcements were sent via the provincial government to every parish in Sweden and Finland to be read by the clergy immediately after the sermon. Everybody was expected to regularly attend church services during the early modern period and those who failed to do so could be sued. Consequently, this system of communication was a very effective medium. This article concerns the announcements regarding the credit coin-money issued during the reign of Karl XII. Different issues and categories of issues of the printed announcements are discussed. Why do different issues exist and how frequent are they? The author of the article distinguishes several different categories of prints of the announcements; parallel, errors and pirate issues. One of the conclusions is that pirate issues are quite rare in this category of announcements. The reason for this is the short period of validity for the credit coins. The article ends with a list of prints of announcements regarding the credit coins and different issues of these known to the author