08. Monetary aspects, coin circulation

Index:

Allen, Martin R. 1956-

Title:

The currency and the economy in late medieval England / Martin Allen

Source:

Yorkshire Numismatist, 4 (2012) p. 179–186

 

Index:

Allen, Martin R. 1956-

Title:

Documentary evidence for the Henry VI annulet coinage of York / Martin Allen

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 65 (1995) p. 120-134

 

Index:

Allen, Martin R. 1956-

Title:

The English currency and the commercialization of England before the Black Death / Martin Allen

Source:

Medieval money matters / ed. by Diana Wood. - Oxford : Oxbow, 2004. - P. 31-50

 

Index:

Allen, Martin R. 1956-

Title:

Medieval English die-output / Martin Allen

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 74 (2004) p. 39-49

 

Index:

Allen, Martin R. 1956-

Title:

Mints and money in Norman England / Martin Allen

Source:

Anglo-Norman Studies 34 (2013) p. 1-22

Abstract:

In 1066 England had a highly developed coinage, which was left almost untouched by the Norman Conquest, in the short term at least. The system documented by Domesday Book in 1086 is essentially that of Edward the Confessor in 1066, with large numbers of moneyers in dozens of urban centres minting silver pennies and making profits for the king and local magnates, lay and ecclesiastical. The moneyers paid fees to obtain their coin dies in London, and the designs on the dies were regularly changed to generate more income from the issue of coins to people who needed money of the latest type. This system survived in its essentials until Henry II's two major reforms of the English coinage in 1158 and 1180, but the apparent continuity between 1066 and 1158 masks a series of innovations and periods of instability. It is the purpose of this paper to provide a survey of the current state of knowledge on the coinage and currency of England between 1066 and 1158. Mark Blackburn reviewed the coinages of Henry I and Stephen in two magisterial papers published in the 1990s, but research and new discoveries of coins have continued since then at an unprecedented rate. There has been no general survey of the subject in the reigns of William I and William II since the appearance in 1916 of G. C. Brooke's British Museum Catalogue (BMC) of the coins of the Norman kings, although Michael Dolley published an important essay on the consequences of the Norman Conquest for the English coinage in 1966.

 

Index:

Allen, Martin R. 1956-

Title:

The proportions of the denominations in English mint outputs, 1351-1485 / Martin Allen

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 77 (2007) p. 190-209

 

Index:

Allen, Martin R. 1956-

Title:

The quantity of money in England 1180-1247 : new data / Martin Allen

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 75 (2005) p. 44-49

 

Index:

Allen, Martin R. 1956-

Title:

Revised estimates of the English silver currency, 1282-1351 / Martin Allen and Gary Oddie

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 85 (2015) p. 238-256

 

Index:

Allen, Martin R. 1956-

Title:

Silver production and the money supply in England and Wales, 1086–c.1500 / by Martin Allen.

Source:

Economic History Review, 64 (2011) 1 p. 114–131

Abstract:

The contribution of English and Welsh lead mines to the silver supplies of mints between Domesday Book and the end of the fifteenth century is assessed in this article, comparing evidence for the size of silver production with mint output data. Itis shown that the proposal that northern Pennine mines were the principal source of the silver in the late twelfth-century English currency is untenable. Welsh mines supplied limited amounts of silver to local mints around 1200. Devon silver made asignificant but not predominant contribution to mint output at times of bullion scarcity in the 1290s and the mid-fifteenth century. Imported silver was usually agreater source of the metal in the English currency than locally mined silver,and gold coins constituted most of England’s money supply from the mid-fourteenth century onwards.

 

Index:

Allen, Martin R. 1956-

Title:

Two fourteenth-century mint indentures and related documentary evidence / Martin Allen

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 70 (2000) p. 61-66, pl. 3-6

 

Index:

Allen, Martin R. 1956-

Title:

The volume and composition of the English silver currency, 1279-1351 / Martin Allen

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 70 (2000) p. 38-44

 

Index:

Allen, Martin R. 1956-

Title:

The volume of the English currency, 1158-1470 / by Martin Allen

Source:

Economic History Review 54 (2001) 4 p. 595-611

 

Index:

Allen, Martin R. 1956-

Title:

The weight standard of the English coinage 1158-1279 / Martin Allen

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 165 (2005) p. 227-333

 

Index:

Bolton, James Laurence 1937-

Title:

Was there a 'crisis of credit' in fifteenth-century England? / James L. Bolton

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 81 (2011) p. 144-164

 

Index:

Blunt, Christopher Evelyn 1904-1987

Title:

Mint output of Henry III / C.E. Blunt and J.D. Brand

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 39 (1970 p. 61-66

 

Index:      

Brand, John David 1931-1990

Title:

The emergency mint of Wilton in 1180 / by John D. Brand and F. Elmore Jones

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 35 (1966) p. 116-119

 

Index:

Brooke, George Cyril 1884-1934

Title:

The medieval moneyers / by G.C. Brooke

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 21 (1931-1933) p. 59-66

 

Index:

Cassidy, Richard

Title:

Adventus vicecomitum and the financial crisis of Henry III's reign, 1250-1272 / [Richard Cassidy]

Source:

English Historical Review 520 (June 2011) p. 614-627

Abstract:

Twice a year, sheriffs and other officials appeared at the Exchequer to pay in the cash they had collected for the government of Henry III. The amounts collected at this Adventus have not hitherto been published in full; the data used in previous publications covered only county revenues, but not the boroughs. The figures in this article show that revenues were maintained during the early years of the baronial reform movement, but collapsed from 1263 onwards. During the period of civil war and disorder, revenues fell, as might be expected, and on two occasions the Adventus did not take place. The Adventus figures are related to records of Treasury receipts, to show that the cash was received over a period of several weeks following the nominal date of the Adventus. Comparisons with further new data, for the cash revenues shown in the annual pipe rolls, demonstrate that in normal times the Adventus represented a significant proportion of government income, some 30 per cent of the cash recorded in the county accounts.

 

Index:

Cassidy, Richard

Title:

The exchanges, silver purchases and trade in the reign of Henry III / Richard Cassidy

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 81 (2011) p. 107-118

Abstract:

Except during recoinages, the royal mints at London and Canterbury could only produce silver pennies when they received foreign coins and silver in exchange. The activities of the exchanges were recorded in the rolls of silver purchases, a few of which survive from Henry III's reign. They show that activity was seasonal, and probably linked to the wool trade. Some customers of the exchanges were bringing very large sums of money, and the exchanges and mints could operate on a large scale: in one week in 1262, the London exchange handled over £3,000, more than one tonne of silver.

 

Index:

Cassidy, Richard

Title:

Richard of Cornwall and the royal mints and exchanges, 1247-59 / Richard Cassidy

Published:

London : Royal Numismatic Society, 2012

Note:

Offprint from: Numismatic Chronicle 172 (2012) p. 137-156

Abstract:

Earl Richard of Cornwall (1209–72), brother of King Henry III (1216–72), financed the recoinage of the entire English currency in 1247–50. In return he was granted control of the mints and exchanges, and half of all exchange revenues, for 12 years. These revenues included penalties for unauthorized exchanging, which were imposed by a special judicial inquiry. Unpublished Exchequer documents show how the earl, already a rich man, was made still richer by his control of the exchanges. Chronicles also show that he added to this wealth by taking bribes. The recoinage and the enforcement of the restrictions on exchanging were unpopular, and contributed to the discontent which emerged at the time of the baronial rebellion in 1258.

 

Index:

Cernuschi, Henri 1821-1896

Title:

Bi-metallism in England and abroad : an answer to a letter from Henry Hucks Gibbs, Esq. / by Henri Cernuschi

Published:

London : P.S. King, 1879

 

Index:

Challis, Christopher Edgar 1939-

Title:

A contemporary estimate of the production of silver and gold coinage in England, 1542-1556 / C.E. Challis, C.J. Harrison

Source:

English Historical Review 88 (1973) (october) p. 821-835

 

Index:

Challis, Christopher Edgar 1939-

Title:

The conversion of testoons : a restatement / C.E. Challis

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 50 (1980) p. 67-80

 

Index:

Challis, Christopher Edgar 1939-

Title:

Mint officials and moneyers of the Stuart period / C.E. Challis

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 59 (1989) p. 157-197

 

Index:

Challis, Christopher Edgar 1939-

Title:

Mint officials and moneyers of the Tudor period / C.E. Challis

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 45 (1975) p. 51-76

 

Index:

Crawford, Michael Hewson 1939-

Title:

William Sherard and the Prices Edict / Michael Crawford

Source:

Revue Numismatique 159 (2003) p. 83-107

 

Index:

Daubney, Adam

Title:

The circulation and prohibition of Venetian soldini in late medieval England / Adam Daubney         

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 79 (2009) p. 186-198

 

Index:

Davies, Glyn 1919-2003

Title:

The single currency in historical perspective / Glyn Davies

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 69 (1999) p. 187-195

 

Index:

Dowling, A.J.

Title:

Calculating Britain's requirement for decimal coins / A.J. Dowling

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 41 (1972) p. 168-178

 

Index:

Dyer, Christopher

Title:

Peasants and coins : the uses of money in the later Middle Ages / Christopher Dyer

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 67 (1997) p. 30-47

 

Index:

Dyer, Graham P.

Title:

The currency crisis of 1797 / G.P. Dyer

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 72 (2002) p. 135-142

 

Index:

Dyer, Graham P.

Title:

Edgar Boehm and the Jubilee coinage / G.P. Dyer and Mark Stocker

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 54 (1984) p. 274-288, pl. 1-3

 

Index:

Dyer, Graham P.

Title:

Gold and the Goschen pound note / G.P. Dyer

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 65 (1995) p. 185-193

 

Index:

Dyer, Graham P.

Title:

Gold, silver and the double-florin / G.P. Dyer

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 64 (1994) p. 114-125

 

Index:

Dyer, Graham P.

Title:

Richard Sainthill and the new bronze coinage / G.P. Dyer and P.P. Gaspar

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 54 (1984) p. 263-273, pl. 1

 

Index:

Dyer, Graham P.

Title:

Thomas Grayham's copper survey of 1857 / G.P. Dyer

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 66 (1996) p. 60-66

 

Index:

Freeman, Jessica

Title:

The mistery of coiners and the king's moneyers of the Tower of London / Jessica Freeman

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 70 (2000) p. 67-82

 

Index:

Freeman, Jessica

Title:

Officials and moneyers at the Tower of London in 1433 / Jessica Freeman

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 76 (2006) p. 303-311

 

Index:

Gasper, Giles Edward Murray 1975-

Title:

An intimate encounter with English coinage in the High Middle Ages : the case of Wulfric of Haselbury / Giles E.M. Gasper and Svein H. Gullbekk

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 83 (2013) p. 112-119

 

Index:

Gasper, Giles Edward Murray 1975-

Title:

Money and its use in the thought and experience of Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury (1093–1109) / Giles E.M. Gasper and Svein H. Gullbekk

Source:

Journal of Medieval History 38 (2012) 2 p. 155-182

Abstract:

This article explores aspects of a broader question: what money meant to the inhabitants of north-western Europe in the late eleventh and early twelfth century, evidence for its use, and how it was conceptualised and discussed. The existence of money is well attested in the archaeological record. A monestised economy, central to the working of royal and comital courts, as well as mercantile, urban and rural communities, is also well documented in the archival record, perhaps most famously for Anglo-Saxon England. However, for all of the tangible numismatic material and evidence of sophistication in the management of coin production, surprisingly little attention has been paid to investigating how money was actually used, and, specifically, how the use of money in this formative period was understood, articulated and expressed. This article adopts an explicitly inter-disciplinary approach to the subject to interrogate a range of source material not previously examined in this context. It focuses on the sources associated with Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury (1093–1109), some 475 letters and the contemporary Life and complementary historical work written by his close companion Eadmer of Canterbury. The discussion opens up further dimensions of Anselm’s life and thought, as well as offering a detailed insight into an individual’s experience with and thinking about money in the later eleventh and early twelfth century.

 

Index:       

Greenwood, J.W.

Title:

The closure of the Tudor mint at Bristol / J.W. Greenwood

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 51 (1981) p. 107-111

 

Index:

Grierson, Philip 1910-2006

Title:

Computational fractions of the grain : mites, droits, periods, and blanks / Philip Grierson

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 52 (1982) p. 181-186

 

Index:

Grierson, Philip 1910-2006

Title:

Domesday Book, the geld 'de moneta' and 'monetagium' : a forgotten minting reform / Philip Grierson

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 55 (1985) p. 84-94

 

Index:

Horsefield, J. Keith

Title:

Copper v. tin coins in seventeenth-century England / j. Keith Horsefield

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 52 (1982) p. 161-180

 

Index:

Kelleher, Richard

Title:

'Gold is the strength, the sinnewes of the world' : Continental gold and Tudor England / Richard Kelleher

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 77 (2007) p. 210-225

 

Index:

Leach, Peter E. 1946-

Title:

Coins, mints and moneyers / Peter E. Leach

Source:

Archaeology in Kent to AD 1500 / ed. by Peter E. Leach. - London : The Council for British Archaeology, 1982. – P. 96-98

 

Index:

Lyon, Colin Stewart Sinclair 1926-

Title:

Silver weight and minted weight in England c.1000-1320, with a discussion of Domesday terminology / Stewart Lyon

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 76 (2006) p. 227-241

 

Index:

Mate, Mavis E. 1933-

Title:

Monetary policies in England, 1272-1307 / Mavis Mate

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 41 (1972) p. 34-79

 

Index:

Mathias, Peter

Title:

Official and unofficial money in the eighteenth century ; the evolving use of coinage / Peter Mathias

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 74 (2004) p. 68-83

 

Index:

Mayhew, Nicholas J.

Title:

The mathematics of minting : the assaying of Sterling / Nicholas J. Mayhew

Source:

Revue Numismatique 167 (2011) p. 211-218

Abstract:

English medieval moneyers and goldsmiths struck sterling pennies to a specific weight and fineness, despite the failure to define the sterling standard accurately in writing before 1279. Before that date they relied instead on practical skills and local custom handed down from one generation to another. In this respect English practice was significantly less sophisticated than that found in continental Europe, especially Italy where indo-arabic numerals were employed earlier than in northern Europe. The relative lack of sophistication in England may well have allowed both government and mint officials to extract significant profits from the coinage at the expense of the public, particularly in 1247.

 

Index:

Mayhew, Nicholas J.

Title:

The monetary background to the Yorkist recoinage of 1464-1471 / N.J. Mayhew

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 44 (1974) p. 62-73

 

Index:

Mayhew, Nicholas J.

Title:

Population, money supply, and the velocity of circulation in England, 1300–1700 / by N.J. Mayhew

Source:

Economic History Review 48 (1995) 2 p. 238-257

 

Index:

Metcalf, David Michael 1933-

Title:

Continuity and change in English monetary history c. 973-1086. Pt. 1 / D.M. Melcalf

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 50 (1980) p. 20-49

 

Index:

Metcalf, David Michael 1933-

Title:

Continuity and change in English monetary history c. 973-1086. Pt. 2 / D.M. Melcalf

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 51 (1981) p. 52-90

 

Index:

Munro, John Henry Alexander 1938-

Title:

Before and after the Black Death : money, prices and wages in fourteenth-century England / John H. Munro

Source:

New approaches to the history of late medieval and early modern Europe : selected proceedings of two international conferences at the Royal Danish Academy of sciences and letters in Copenhagen 1997 and 1999 / ed. by Troels Dahlerup and Per Ingesman. - Copenhagen : Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab = The royal Danish Academy of sciences and letters, 2009. - (Historisk-filosofiske meddelelser ; 104 ). - P. 335-364

Abstract:

One of the most common myths in European economic history, and indeed in Economics itself, is that the Black Death of 1347-48, followed by other waves of bubonic plague, led to an abrupt rise in real wages, for both agricultural labourers and urban artisans – one that led to the so-called ‘Golden Age of the English Labourer’, lasting until the early 16th century. While there is no doubt that real-wages in mid- to late- 15th century England did reach a peak far higher than that ever achieved in past centuries, real wages in England did not, in fact, rise in the immediate aftermath of the Black Death. In southern England, real wages of building craftsmen (rural and urban), having plummeted with the natural disaster of the Great Famine (1315-21), thereafter rose to a new peak in 1336-40. But then their real wages fell during the 1340s, and continued their decline after the onslaught of the Black Death, indeed into the 1360s. Not until the later 1370s – almost thirty years after the Black Death – did real wages finally recover and then rapidly surpass the peak achieved in the late 1330s. Thereafter, the rise in real wages was more or less continuous, though at generally slower rates, during the 15th century, reaching a peak in 1476-80 – at a level not thereafter surpassed until 1886-90, by the usual methods of calculating real wages with index numbers: i.e., by NWI/CPI = RWI [nominal wage index divided by the consumer price index equals the real wage index]. Most of the textbooks that still perpetuate the myth about the role of the Black Death in raising real wages, as an almost immediate consequence, employ a demographic model based on Ricardian economics, which predicts (ceteris paribus) that depopulation will result in falling grain prices and thus in falling rents on grain-producing lands (on land in general) and in rising real wages. The fall in population – perhaps as much as 50 percent by the late 15th century (from the 1310 peak) – presumably altered the land:labour ratio sufficiently to increase the marginal productivity of labour and thus its real wage (though in economic theory the real wage is determined by the marginal revenue product of labour). The rise in real wages would also have been a product of the fall in the cost of living, chiefly determined by bread-grain prices, whose decline would have been the inevitable result of both the abandonment of high-cost marginal lands and the rise in the marginal productivity of agricultural labour. But the evidence produced in this study demonstrates that the Black Death was followed, in England, by almost thirty years of high grain prices – high in both nominal and real terms; and that was a principal reason for the post-Plague behaviour of real wages. This study differs from all traditional models by examining the role of monetary forces in producing deflation in the second and final quarters of the fourteenth century, but severe inflation in between those quarters (i.e., from the early 1340s to the mid 1370s). The analysis of the evidence on money, prices, and wages in this study concludes that monetary forces and the consequent behaviour of the price level – in terms of those deflations and intervening inflation – were the most powerful determinant of the level of real wages (i.e., in terms of the formula: NWI/CPI = RWI). Thus the undisputed rise in nominal or money wages following the Black Death was literally ‘swamped’ by the post-Plague inflation, so that real wages fell. Conversely, the rise of real wages in the second quarter of the fourteenth century was principally due to a deflation in which consumer prices fell much more than did nominal wages. In the final quarter of the century, the even stronger rise in real wages was principally due to another deflation in which consumer prices fell sharply, but one in which, for the first time in recorded English history, nominal wages did not fall: an era that inaugurated the predominance of wage-stickiness in English labour markets for the next six centuries. But that perplexing phenomenon of downward wage-stickiness must be left to other studies. The 14th century is the most violent one before the 20th; and violent disruptions from plague, war, and civil unrest undoubtedly produced severe supply shocks and high (relative) prices. Europe also experienced more severe oscillations in monetary changes and consequently in price levels – i.e., the aforesaid deflations and intervening inflation – during the 14th century than in any other before the 20th.

 

Index:

Munro, John Henry Alexander 1938-

Title:

The coinages and monetary policies of Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547) / John H. Munro

Source:

Collected works of Erasmus. Vol. 14: Correspondence of Erasmus. Letters 1926 to 2081, A.D. 1528 / transl. by Charles Fantazzi ; ed. by James Estes. - Toronto ; London : University of Toronto Press, 2011. - P. 423-476

 

Index:

Seaby, Peter John

Title:

King Stephen and the Interdict of 1148 / Peter Seaby

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 50 (1980) p. 50-60

 

Index:

Spufford, Peter 1934-

Title:

Burgundian double patards in late medieval England / Peter Spufford

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 33 (1964) p. 110-117

 

Index:

Spufford, Peter 1934-

Title:

Continental coins in late medieval England / Peter Spufford

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 32 (1963) p. 127-139

 

Index:

Stewart, Bernard Harold Ian Halley 1935-

Title:

King John's recoinage and the conference of moneyers in 1208 / Ian Stewart

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 59 (1989) p. 39-45

 

Index:

Stewart, Bernard Harold Ian Halley 1935-

Title:

Ministri and monetarii / Ian Stewart

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 30 (1988) p. 166-175

 

Index:

Stewart, Bernard Harold Ian Halley 1935-

Title:

Moneyers in the 1130 Pipe Roll / Ian Stewart

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 61 (1991) p. 1-8

 

Index:

Stride, H.G.

Title:

The gold coinage of Charles II / by H.G. Stride

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 28 (1955-1957) p. 386-393

 

Index:

Thompson, James David Anthony 1914-1970

Title:

The origin of Spanish dollars acquired by Britain, 1799-1805 / J.D.A. Thompson

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 38 (1969) p. 167-173

 

Index:

Whitton, C.A. -1950

Title:

Some aspects of English currency in the later Middle Ages / by C.A. Whitton

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 24 (1942-1944) p. 36-46