11. Vikings

Index:

Archibald, Marion M. 1935-

Title:

Two ninth-century Viking weights found near Kingston, Dorset / Marion M. Archibald

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 68 (1998) p. 11-20, pl. 1

 

Index:

Audy, Florent

Title:

Pour une étude méthodique des pendentifs monétaires : le cas des sépultures de Birka (Suède) / Florent Audy

Source:

Revue Numismatique 169 (2012) p. 403-425

Abstract:

Very few studies devoted to coin pendants simultaneously take into account their  numismatic, technical and archaeological aspects. In the absence of written evidence, however, such an approach is necessary for understanding the role played by such artefacts, with an analysis of  the specimens found in Birka graves providing a good example. Indeed the methodical examination  of the coins, their suspensions and their find-contexts makes it possible to explain more precisely  why the Vikings wore medals around their neck or on their chest.

 

Index:

Audy, Florent

Title:

When was the loop added? : dating the transformation of coins in the Viking Age / Florent Audy

Source:

Myntstudier : festskrift till Kenneth Jonsson / [ed.] Tuukka Talvio og Magnus Wijk. - Stockholm: Svenske Numismatiska Föreningen, 2015. - P. 1-4

Abstract:

The present paper discusses a small group of Viking Age coin-pendants with loops made from coin fragments. The identification of these coin fragments has important chronological consequences. Usually, numismatists and archaeologists dealing with coins are left with two datable events: minting and deposition. In this case, however, we have the rare opportunity to put a date on an event occurring within the life of the coins. We can tell, with some precision, when – or more exactly the date after which – they were turned into ornaments. This temporal information is essential for understanding the meaning of the coins. It helps to contextualize their transformation and their subsequent use as ornaments.

 

Index:

Besteman, Jan C.

Title:

A second Viking silver hoard from Wieringen: Westerklief II / Jan Besteman ; with contrib. by Gert Rispling and Simon Coupland

Source:

Jaarboek voor Munt- en Penningkunde 93-94 (2006-2007) p. 5-80

Abstract:

From 812 to 1008, Viking raids scourged the Low Countries. Of these two centuries, the period between 850 and 885 was the most turbulent, when Danish Vikings acquired a position of power legitimized by the Carolingian rulers who granted Dorestad and West-Frisia in fi ef to their leaders Rorik and, later, Godfred. Our knowledge of this period was based on the historical data, until the recent discovery of two Scandinavian silver hoards near Westerklief on the former island of Wieringen. The first hoard, Westerklief I, comprised 1663 grams of silver, largely complete Scandinavian ornaments and ingots plus a handful of Carolingian coins, and was dated to after c. 850. The Westerklief II hoard, the subject of this publication, contained 557 grams of silver, mostly hacksilver from ingots, ornaments and Arabic coins, the youngest of which dates from 870/1 and two others possibly from 873/4. The provenance of the ingots and the ornament fragments is Scandinavian. This is also indicated by the fragmentation as well as by the Arabic coins which came from the Near East via Northern Europe. The 95 dirhems, most of which are also fragmented, date from between 711/2 and 870/4 and are consistent with those found in northern hoards. In addition, the Westerklief II hoard contains a coin brooch with an imitation solidus of Louis the Pious and a rather diverse collection of 38 unfragmented Carolingian coins. They cover a long period from 819 to 877 and include several anonymous, rare or unique specimens. The most recent coin dates from 875-7, proving that the hoard must have entered the soil after 875-7. Westerklief II can therefore be dated to the end of the period in which Danish Vikings ruled the roost in the Western Netherlands. The Westerklief I fi nd, dating to c. 850, is linked to Vikings who settled on Wieringen after Rorik’s enfeoffment, and who took their valuables with them from the north. Westerklief II (tpq 875-7) supports this conclusion in all respects. Wieringen offered the Danes a safe island position, a strategic base from which to control the navigation route from Central-Frisia across Lake Almere to Dorestad, and a good starting point for Viking activities elsewhere. The two Westerklief hoards therefore provide important archaeological arguments in the discussion on Danish settlement in West-Frisia. As a result of its tpq 875-7 date, Westerklief II is one of the oldest and rarest Scandinavian hoards containing both Arabic and Carolingian coins as well as hacksilver. Arabic coins and hacksilver are found in large quantities in Scandinavia from the late 9th and 10th centuries, when silver was increasingly used in transactions as weight money. The fragmentation of the Westerklief II silver also points to weight money. This hoard therefore shows that the traditional prestige aspect of silver in Scandinavia, as is visible in Westerklief I with its complete, heavy objects, made way for an economic function of silver as weight money and as a means of payment in transactions as early as the third quarter of the 9th century. In Western Europe, Arabic coins and hacksilver are rarely found outside the Scandinavian sphere of infl uence. Apart from the 95 coins in Westerklief II, there have been seven stray dirhem fi nds across Wieringen indicating that an exchange of silver also took place. The distribution of over 30 dirhem fi nds and other Scandinavian silver fi nds over the Northern Netherlands and Walcheren reveals the places where relations with the Vikings were the most intensive. The dates of these dirhems correspond to those of Westerklief II, so that these dirhems can also be linked to Viking activities in the third quarter of the 9th century. The same probably also applies to the striking distribution of mixed hoards containing coins and ornaments especially in Frisia in the second half of the 9th century. Of these, Westerklief I and II and probably also the Zuidbarge hoard can be attributed to Vikings, but even the remaining hoards can point to direct or indirect Viking infl uence. The unique silver hoards of Westerklief with their spectacular contents have not only provided new insights into Viking relations with Frisia in general, but also into the use of silver there and the changing role of silver in Scandinavia.

 

Index:

Blackburn, Mark Alistair Sinclair

Title:

Coin finds from Kaupang : A Viking emporium on the North Sea / Mark Blackburn

Source:

XIII Congreso Internacional de Numismática, Madrid, 2003 : actas = proceedings = actes. Vol. II / ed. por Carmen Alfaro, Carmen Marcos y Paloma Otero. - Madrid : Ministerio de Cultura, Subdirección General de Publicaciones, Información y Documentación, 2005. - P. 1143-1149

 

Index:

Blackburn, Mark Alistair Sinclair 1953-2011

Title:

Currency under the Vikings. Pt. 1: Guthrum and the earliest Danelaw coinages / Mark Blackburn

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 75 (2005) p. 18-43, pl. 1-3

 

Index:

Blackburn, Mark Alistair Sinclair 1953-2011

Title:

Currency under the Vikings. Pt. 2: The two Scandinavian kingdoms of the Danelaw, c.895-954 / Mark Blackburn

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 76 (2006) p. 204-226, pl. 28-30

 

Index:

Blackburn, Mark Alistair Sinclair 1953-2011

Title:

Currency under the Vikings. Pt. 3: Ireland, Wales, Isle of Man and Scotland in the ninth and tenth centuries / Mark Blackburn

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 77 (2007) p. 119-149

 

Index:

Blackburn, Mark Alistair Sinclair 1953-2011

Title:

Currency under the Vikings. Pt. 4: The Dublin coinage c.995-1050 / Mark Blackburn

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 78 (2008) p. 111-137, pl. 3

 

Index:

Blackburn, Mark Alistair Sinclair 1953-2011

Title:

Currency under the Vikings. Pt. 5: The Scandinavian achievment and legacy / Mark Blackburn

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 79 (2009) p. 43-71

 

Index:

Blackburn, Mark Alistair Sinclair 1953-2011

Title:

The Hiberno-Norse element of the List hoard from Sylt / Mark Blackburn and Michael Dolley

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 49 (1979) p. 17-25, pl. 1

 

Index:

Blackburn, Mark Alistair Sinclair 1953-2011

Title:

The St Edmund coinage in the light of a parcel from a hoard of St Edmund pennies / Mark Blackburn and Hugh Pagan

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 72 (2002) p. 1-14, pl. 1-2

 

Index:

Bogucki, Mateusz

Title:

Coin finds in the Viking Age emporium at Janów Pomorski (Truso) and the 'Prussian phenomenon' / Mateusz Bogucki

Source:

Money circulation in antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times : time, range, intensity : International Symposium of the 50th anniversary of Wiadomości Numizmatyczne, Warsaw, 13-14 October 2006 / ed.: Stanisław Suchodolski ; with the collab. of Mateusz Bogucki. - Warsaw : Institute of Archaeology and Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2007. - P. 79-108

 

Index:

Bogucki, Mateusz

Title:

Coin finds from Wolin and its hinterland / Mateusz Bogucki

Source:

Economies, monetisation and society in the West Slavic lands 800-1200 AD / ed. by Mateusz Bogucki and Rebkowski. - Szczecin : Wydawn. Instytutu Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, 2013. - (Wolińskie Spotkania Mediewistyczne ; 2). - P. 345-358

 

Index:

Bogucki, Mateusz

Title:

Reasons for hiding Viking Age hack silver hoards / Mateusz Bogucki

Source:

XIII Congreso Internacional de Numismática, Madrid, 2003 : actas = proceedings = actes. II / ed. por Carmen Alfaro, Carmen Marcos y Paloma Otero. - Madrid : Ministerio de Cultura, Subdirección General de Publicaciones, Información y Documentación, 2005. - P. 1151-1157

 

Index:

Bogucki, Mateusz

Title:

The use of money in the Slavic lands from the 9th to the 11th century : the archaeological-numismatic evidence / Mateusz Bogucki

Source:

Silver economies, monetisation and society in Scandinavia, AD 800-1100 / ed. by James Graham-Campbell, Søren M Sindbæk and Gareth Williams. - Aarhuus : Aarhus University Press, cop. 2011. – P. 133-151

 

Index:

Bondeson, Lennart

Title:

Gåtfull Ulf : en eftersläntrare till den vikingatidamyntskatten från Store Valby på Själland / av Lennart Bondeson, Tobias Bondesson & Michael Märcher

Source:

Fornvännen 108 (2013) p. 172-177

Abstract:

In May 2012, a coin of a previously unknown type was found by metal detectorists in a field at Store Valby in Denmark, where a hoard of Viking Period coins had been discovered in the 19th century. With an obverse identical to Hauberg type 39, attributed to Cnut the Great and Slagelse, Denmark, the reverse of the coin in question appears to be unprecedented. Instead of a Short Cross motif, as exhibited by all previously known examples of Hauberg 39, the reverse has a Long Cross design with an unparalleled legend reading A/VL/FN/OMI. An interpretation of this legend in Latin is A Ulf nomi[sma], meaning that the coin comes from Ulf. The authors discuss whether this refers to a moneyer or to Cnut’s brother-in-law and Danish viceroy Ulf Jarl, who allegedly plotted against the king in order to replace him on the throne of Denmark. The use of nomisma for “coin” in the reverse legend is commented on from a Biblical point of view, considering the religious message in the obverse inscription +INNOMIINEDEIPATRI (a slight corruption of In nomine Dei Patris – in the name of God the Father).

 

Index:

Callmer, Johan 1945-

Title:

Numismatics and archaeology : some problems of the Viking period / [Johan Calmer]

Source:

Fornvännen 75 (1980) p. 203-212

 

Index:

Callmer, Johan 1945-

Title:

Oriental coins and the beginning of the Viking period / [Johan Callmer]

Source:

Fornvännen 71 (1976) p. 175-185

 

Index:

Cardon, Thibault

Title:

Le premier trésor monétaire de type viking en France : denier inédit d'Eudes pour Beauvais / Thibault Cardon ... [et al.]

Source:

Revue Numismatique 164 (2008) p. 21-40

Abstract:

The hoard of saint-Pierre-des-Fleurs, buried c. 895, consist mainly in bent and pecked English Viking coins and fragmented silver ingots. These features makes it the irst Viking type hoard in France. it also contained a hitherto unknown penny struck in Beauvais in the name of eudes (888-898).

 

Index:

Dolley, Reginald Hugh Michael 1926-1983

Title:

The 1843 (?) find of Viking-Age silver coins from Co. Tipperary / by R.H.M. Dolley

Source:

Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society 67 (1962) p. 41-47, pl. 8

 

Index:

Dolley, Reginald Hugh Michael 1926-1983

Title:

The Anglo-Danish and Anglo-Norse coinages of York / Michael Dolley

Source:

Viking Age York and the North / ed. by R.A. Hall. - London : Council for British Archaeology, 1978. – (CBA Research Report ; no. 27). - P. 26-31

 

Index:

Dolley, Reginald Hugh Michael 1926-1983

Title:

The Anglo-Norman coins in the Uppsala University Cabinet / by Michael Dolley

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 37 (1968) p. 29-34

 

Index:

Dolley, Reginald Hugh Michael 1926-1983

Title:

Cnut's Quatrefoil type in English cabinets of the eighteenth century / by R.H.M. Dolley and D.M. Metcalf

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 29 (1958-1959) p. 69-81

 

Index:

Dolley, Reginald Hugh Michael 1926-1983

Title:

The coins from Beal Boru / by R.H.M. Dolley.

Source:

Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society 67 (1962) p. 18-27, pl. 7

 

Index:

Dolley, Reginald Hugh Michael 1926-1983

Title:

A fourth find of ninth-century coins from Ireland? / by Michael Dolley

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 36 (1967) p. 32-35

 

Index:

Dolley, Reginald Hugh Michael 1926-1983

Title:

A further die-link in the Scandinavian imitative series / [Michael Dolley]

Source:

Fornvännen (1968) 2 p. 116-119

 

Index:

Dolley, Reginald Hugh Michael 1926-1983

Title:

En gotländsk silverskatt med en grupp av pseudo-iriska mynt påträffad vid 1800-talets början / av Michael Dolley

Source:

Fornvännen (1974) p. 30-34

 

Index:

Dolley, Reginald Hugh Michael 1926-1983

Title:

The myth of a coinage of the Ostmen of Dublin in the name of Tymme Sjællandsfar / by R.H.M. Dolley

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 29 (1958-1959) p. 275-288, pl. 17

 

Index:

Dolley, Reginald Hugh Michael 1926-1983

Title:

A neglected but vital Yorkshire hoard / by R.H.M. Dolley

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 28 (1954-1957) p. 11-17

 

Index:

Dolley, Reginald Hugh Michael 1926-1983

Title:

A Viking-age coin of Norway discovered in Shetland / by Michael Dolley

Source:

Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 100 (1967-1968) p. 193-195, pl. 23

 

Index:

Eaglen, Robin J.

Title:

Gouged reverse dies in the Quatrefoil issue of Cnut / Robin J. Eaglen and Robert Grayburn

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 70 (2000) p. 12–37, pl. 1-2

 

Index:

Edberg, Rune 1946-

Title:

Exit Knut : ett apropå till de nya rönen om Sigtunamyntningen / Rune Edberg

Source:

Situne Dei (2011) p. 107-111

Abstract:

According to some scholars, the Danish-English king Canute (Cnut) ‘the Great’ was in power in Sigtuna, or at least held some sort of overlordship in the town and region, for a brief period in the 1020s. A small number of historical sources, among them the English Annals, report violent clashes between Canute and the contemporary Swedish and Norwegian kings, Anund Jakob and Olav Haraldsson, respectively, and according to one interpretation, Canute was victorious (the opposite interpretation is also possible, and is preferred by some scholars). Coins with Canute’s name, allegedly minted in Sigtuna, have led to strong argument in support of Canute’s victory. However, scholars of numismatics have recently shown that the coin legends in question are not reliable as they were usually quite confused. Moreover, the coin stamp in this case was most probably manufactured in Lund (Denmark). Thus, the notion of Canute’s lordship over Sigtuna can hardly be supported any longer. The success of the Swedish king Anund Jakob in resisting the imperialistic Canute is remarkable, as he had to cope with a large number of regional leaders on the home front who resisted the Christian kingship he represented. It is suggested that this group of nonbelievers rallied behind Anund Jakob in countering the threat from Canute. They did not seek or accept Danish support (as did their Norwegian counterparts, the earls of Lade). Their proto-national loyalty may explain the obvious patience shown by this Swedish king and his immediate successors to the Uppland non-Christians and their cult centre at Uppsala.

 

Index:

Elmore Jones, Francis 1898-1982

Title:

Hedon near Hull : a new Norman mint / by F. Elmore Jones

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 26 (1949-1951) p. 28-30

 

Index:

Elfver, Frédéric 1974-

Title:

The coinages at Lund c. 1035-1050 and some metal analyses / Frédéric Elfver

Source:

XIII Congreso Internacional de Numismática, Madrid, 2003 : actas = proceedings = actes. Vol. II / ed. por Carmen Alfaro, Carmen Marcos y Paloma Otero. - Madrid : Ministerio de Cultura, Subdirección General de Publicaciones, Información y Documentación, 2005. - P. 1173-1177

 

Index:

Elfver, Frédéric 1974-

Title:

Kungen, mynten och folket : en studie av myntningen i det. vikingatida Sigtuna och balansgången mellan vikt-, och penningekonomi / av Frédéric Elfver

Published:

Stockholm : Stockholms Universitet, Numismatiska forskningsgruppen, 1998

 

Index:

Galster, Georg 1889-1983

Title:

Vesterås-Hulpenningen fra Knut Eriksson og hans naermeste efterfølgere / af Georg Galster

Source:

Fornvännen (1917) p. 96-101

 

Index:

Gooch, Megan Laura

Title:

Money and power in the Viking kingdom of York, c. 895-954 / Megan Laura Gooch

Published:

[Durham] : Durham University, 2012

 

Index:

Graham-Campbell, James

Title:

The dual economy of the Danelaw / James Graham-Campbell

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 71 (2001) p. 49-59

 

Index:

Gullbekk, Svein Harald 1967-

Title:

Coinage and monetary economies / Svein H. Gullbekk

Source:

The Viking world / ed. by Stefan Brink in collab. with Neil Price. - London : Routledge, 2008. - P. 159-169

 

Index:

Gullbekk, Svein Harald 1967-

Title:

Money and its use in the Saga Society : silver, coins and commodity money / Svein H. Gullbekk

Source:

Viking settlements and Viking society : papers from the proceedings of the sixteenth Viking Congress, Reykjavík and Reykholt, 16-23 August 2009 / Svavar Sigmundsson ed. ; co-eds, Anton Holt ... [et al.]. - Reykjavík : Hið íslenzka fornleifafélag : University of Iceland Press, 2011. - P. 176-188

Abstract:

The history of money takes a remarkable turn in the Icelandic Saga society after c.1100, when silver is replaced by vaðmál as the main unit value of account. At the same time silver and coins more or less disappear from archaeological finds: Only three coins have been recorded in finds from c.1100 to c.1400. While Northern Europe embarked on the road towards monetary economies, the Saga society conserved and enhanced a commodity money system. The Icelandic laws define and regulate carefully the value relations between different commodities and how valuations of commodities should be undertaken when disputes arose. In the 11th century, however, the number of Icelandic stray finds of coins are not insignificant compared with either Scotland or Norway. All coins from the first half of 11th century in Icelandic finds are Anglo-Saxon, German, Danish and Swedish. In the second half of the century a shift in the composition of coins can be observed: Out of eight coins, seven are Norwegian. This is a parallel development to that which took place within Norway at that time. Harald Hardrade (1047–1066) established a national currency, and foreign coins in circulation were replaced by Norwegian coins. This suggests a strong Norwegian influence on the Icelandic economy in this period. If we compare the use of money in the saga society in the 11th century with the situation in the 12th, 13th and 14th century, it becomes clear that Iceland did not adopt anything resembling a money economy. In fact a shift from silver to vaðmál around the year 1100 and its continuation into the following centuries, makes it clear that the Icelandic economy was organized on the basis of a commodity money system Money and its Use in the Saga Society: Silver, Coins and Commodity Money rather than a money economy. This became increasingly more common in societies with which Iceland came into contact.

 

Index:

Gullbekk, Svein Harald 1967-

Title:

Vestfold: a monetary perspective on the Viking Age / Svein H. Gullbekk

Source:

Early medieval monetary history : studies in memory of Mark Blackburn / ed. by Rory Naismith, Martin Allen and Elina Screen. - Farnham : Ashgate, 2014. – (Studies in early medieval Britain and Ireland). – P. 331-347

 

Index:

Gunnarsson, Bo

Title:

Den gäckande kedja 105 : spåret av en vikingatida myntunion? / Bo Gunnarsson

Source:

Samlad glädje 2009 : Numismatiska Klubben Uppsala 1969-2009 / [red.: Curt Ekström, Kjell Holmberg och Magnus Wijk]. - Uppsala : Numismatiska Kubben, cop. 2009. - P. 71-89

Abstract:

Thanks to the generosity and great support given by Prof. Brita Malmer, the author of this article started to compile information about additional Scandinavian Imitations of Anglo- saxon coins based on the well known Comm. NS 4, The Sigtuna Coinage c. 995- 1005 and Comm. NS 9, The Anglo- Scandinavian Coinage c. 995- 1020 (Malmer 1989, 1997). The result is planned to be published as an appendix to her forthcoming volume 14 in the series Commentationes de Nummis Saeculorum IX- XI in Suecia Repertis, Nova series (Comm. NS) with the title Serpents and Crosses. Scandinavian Coinages from the time of Louis the Pious, Cnut the Great, Harthacnut and Anund Jacob. More than 600 new coins have until now been recorded by the author. Among them are several new interesting dies and die-links which gives new perspectives of the die- chains published in Comm. NS volume 4 and 9. This article has focused on the large chain 105 attributed to the mint in Lund. The article describes how chains 22, 112, 113, 119 and 134 will now be die-linked to the large chain 105 and together with some large Yorkchains form a cluster of more than 500 linked dies. Chain 105 was developed by B. Malmer based on chain studies presented by M. Blackburn (Blackburn 1981). Blackburn identified three chains whereof one was including a die with a typical Hiberno-Norse style obverse. Many thanks will be given to William Lean of Oxford. He has with great generosity made parts of his unpublished studies available to the author. This study together with some die combinations identified by the author will now show that all three chains identified by Blackburn will be dielinked to chain 105. Another York die-chain identified by Lean will also be connected to chain 105 via the central die 9.122. One of the important die-links in this part comprising an obverse die with a typical Hiberno-Norse style. The die is connected to a cluster with several other dies influenced by Hiberno- Norse style and among them also a new reverse in the name of the moneyer Færemin. The addition of chain 113 will solve some of the chronological problems between part A and B in chain 105, discussed by Malmer (Malmer 1997). A new homogenous group is formed by a part of 105:B and 113 and has been given the name “105:B1/113”. But even if it answers some questions it will ask new ones. The group has the remarkable high average weight of 1.79 g calculated on 104 round coins. The group also includes three coins struck on square flans. Chain 119, which is a Sigtuna chain with several of its typical style elements, is now also connected to chain 105 via the “old” chain 5 from Comm. NS 4. This new die- link comes from a coin sold at an auction 2009 but with provenience from Gotland. The die-link shows that the boundary between Sigtuna and Lund is floating and most likely there has been cooperation between the two mints. The obverses of two dies of Quatrefoil style in chain 105 and 134 respectively have been pointed out by Lean to look alike. A die-study performed at KMK by the author confirmed Leans assumption. Thereby chain 134 with its mixed style of dies is connected to the very similar part in chain 105. Also chain 22 is now connected to chain 105 by a Helmet style coin from a Norwegian hoard kindly informed by Elina Screen, Cambridge. A very large York chain from the Last Small Cross period is also connected to chain 105. From a preliminary study the chain comprises 107 dies. Even if this study has clarified some questions, a lot of new ones have been raised that need to be taken care of in forthcoming studies.

 

Index:

Heijne, Cecilia von 1969-

Title:

Särpräglat : Vikingatida och tidigmedeltida myntfynd från Danmark, Skåne, Blekinge och Halland (ca 800 - 1130) / Cecilia von Heijne

Series:

Stockholm studies in archaeology ; 31

Published:

[Stockholm] : Stockholms Universitet, cop. 2004

Abstract:

This thesis takes as its subject the Viking-Age and early medieval coin finds from South Scandinavia (i.e. Denmark and the provinces Scania, Blekinge and Halland in southern Sweden). The study consists of two parts. The first part is an analysis of regional variations in the distribution of coin finds from the investigation area. The second part is a catalogue of recorded coin finds from South Scandinavia from the period c.800-c.1130 (about 70,000 coins from 692 finds). The regional variations are mainly studied through hoard composition and the distribution of coins with diverse origins. The study is therefore based on a wide range of material, comprising coins of Islamic, Carolingian, German, Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian (Nordic, Anglo-Scandinavian and Danish) origin. Regional characteristics are visible from the outset and prove to be relatively consistent over time. Similarities are observed over a large territory, the ‘central area’, which includes south-western Scania, Zealand, Funen and Jutland. During the 9th century the earliest Nordic and Carolingian coins occur in this area. Many of them are found at ‘central places’ dating to the Iron Age. A shift is seen in the 10th century, when later Nordic coins appear to relate to ring-forts, which were in active use in the central area at that time. In the 990s a general increase in the importation of German and Anglo-Saxon coins is apparent. The city of Lund was established in Scania, and from c.995 Lund was a mint. The hoards in the central area contain a higher proportion of Anglo-Saxon coins than hoards from other parts of South Scandinavia. Mints were established in all regions of the central area, and a regional coin circulation was introduced c.1075. Bornholm differs in several ways from the central area. During the 9th century Carolingian and Nordic coins of the earliest types did not reach the island, but there are several finds of Islamic coins dating to this time. In the 10th century there are few Nordic coins of the later Cross-types. In the 990s, when the number of German and Anglo-Saxon coins being imported increased, many Anglo-Saxon coins also reached Bornholm. However, a shift occurred c.1000 and all subsequent hoards until the beginning of the 12th century were dominated by German coins. The number of Danish coins also decreased in Bornholm after c.1050-55, in direct contrast with the situation in the central area. Finally, a mint was never established in Bornholm. When a long term perspective is taken the other regions in South Scandinavia do not correspond with developments in the central area, or on Bornholm. These regions are instead characterised by their relative dearth of coin finds and the absence of mints. There are, however, significant connections at specific points in time. The context of hoards from Scania (c.990-c.1046) has also been examined. A major increase of hoards c.1000 has often been explained as a reflection of political aggression resulting from the incorporation of Scania into the Danish kingdom. This thesis argues that the increase of hoards is more likely to have been related to the activities of the mints in the different regions.

 

Index:

Heijne, Cecilia von 1969-

Title:

Viking-age coin finds from South Scandinavia / Cecilia von Heijne

Source:

Silver economies, monetisation and society in Scandinavia, AD 800-1100 / ed. by James Graham-Campbell, Søren M Sindbæk and Gareth Williams. - Aarhuus : Aarhus University Press, cop. 2011. – P. 185-202

Abstract:

This paper provides an outline of the structures for Viking-age coin finds from South Scandinavia, i.e. Denmark, Skåne, Blekinge and Halland (c. 8oo-1130), with emphasis on the early part of the period.

 

Index:

Herschend, Frands 1955-

Title:

Om vad silvermynt från Gotlands vikingatid kan vara uttryck för : en idéartikel / av Frands Herschend

Source:

Fornvännen 74 (1979) p. 217-227

Abstract:

The author argues that Anglo/Irish and Oriental silver coins played a large role in the silver economy of Gotland while especially the German coins constituted a relatively small part. The author attempts to illuminate and confirm the hypothesis that the Oriental and Anglo/Irish coins were imported by many small importers, while the German coins were mainly imported by a few larger importers.

 

Index:

Herschend, Frands 1955-

Title:

What Olof had in mind / by Frands Herschend

Source:

Fornvännen 87 (1992) p. 19-31

Abstract:

An investigation of the characteristics of the weight of the Sigtuna coinage as published by Malmer 1989. The firsl coins, although reflecting several norms, are considered to have been deniers defined as centred around the weight of 1/96 mark of about 208.5 g equal to 16 smaller units. The mark is the same as the one governing the Gotlandic bracelets of Stenberger's type 2, Herschend 1987. With the New Series the symmelrical ideal was abandoned and the average coin weighl dropped since the coins weighing between 12 and 14 small units came to dominate the material.

 

Index:

Hilberg, Volker

Title:

Silver economies of the ninth and tenth centuries AD in Hedeby / Volker Hilberg

Source:

Silver economies, monetisation and society in Scandinavia, AD 800-1100 / ed. by James Graham-Campbell, Søren M Sindbæk and Gareth Williams. - Aarhuus : Aarhus University Press, cop. 2011. – P. 203-224

 

Index:

Hilberg, Volker

Title:

Zwischen Innovation und Tradition : der karolingische Einfluss auf das Münzwesen in Skandinavien / Volker Hilberg

Source:

Die Wikinger und das Fränkische Reich : Identitäten zwischen Konfrontation und Annäherung / Kerstin P. Hofmann, Hermann Kamp, Matthias Wemhoff (Hg.) ; unter Mitarb. von Nicola Karthaus. - Paderborn : Fink, 2014. - (MittelalterStudien des Instituts zur Interdisziplinären Erforschung des Mittelalters und seines Nachwirkens ; Bd. 29). - P. 133-215

Abstract:

The article deals with the Carolingian influence on the coinage in Scandinavia with a focus on the developments in Denmark and its main emporium Hedeby. An own coinage starts supposedly here in the 820s AD, when already imitations of Charlemagne’s pre-reform type from Dorestad were copied.  It starts with a consideration of new aspects of the economy of the Carolingian period and an outline of Carolingian coinage until 840 with a further discussion on the minting of gold coins in the 9th century. Dorestad’s role as the leading Carolingian mint, toll station and harbour in the North Sea basin and the development of long-distance trade are further discussed. Due to its geostrategical position at the narrowest part of the Cimbric peninsula between the North Sea and the Baltic and between Scandinavia and the continent, Hedeby’s development from a supposed farmstead in the 7th and 8th centuries to an emporium in the course of the early 8th century is examined in more detail. Before the imitation of Carolingian coins is discussed, the article deals with the circulation and the use of Carolingian silver and gold coins in Scandinavia and contrasts the results with a comparison with the situation in the Anglo-Saxon realms on the western coast of the North Sea. The article sums up with a discussion of Hedeby’s economy and the coin circulation during the Carolingian period. At the end detailed lists of coin finds in Scandinavia, England and the coastal areas of Frisia and Flanders are presented.

 

Index:

Ingvardson, Gitte

Title:

100 Viking Age hoards of Bornholm : status, challenges and perspectives / Gitte Tarnow Ingvardson & Finn Ole Sonne Nielsen

Source:

Small things, wide horizons : studies in honour of Birgitta Hårdh / ed. by Lars Larsson ... [et al.]. - Oxford : Archaeopress, cop. 2015. - P. 27-34

Abstract:

The last 25 years of intensive detector archaeology has quadrupled the number of Viking Age hoards on Bornholm to amazing 100 hoards. The numerous hoards provide Museum of Bornholm with new and vital information on the history of Viking Age Bornholm, but the large number of hoards does also cause administrative challenges. This paper presents an update on the last 25 years of results and failures. Furthermore the paper discusses the perspectives of detector archaeology by introducing three new spectacular silver hoards: Skovsholm - the oldest Viking Age hoard of Bornholm, Åbo - located in a roof bearing post of a house and Ahlesminde – the first Danish Viking Age hoard containing gold coins.

 

Index:

Ingvardson, Gitte

Title:

Nørremølle : the largest Viking Age silver hoard of Bornholm (Denmark) / Gitte Ingvardson

Source:

Journal of Archaeological Numismatics 2 (2012) p. 281-346

Abstract:

The island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea has the largest concentration of Viking Age and early medieval hoards of Denmark. In 2006 the greatest hoard ever was found by metal detector. Archaeological investigations show that the hoard was deposited in a vessel of Baltic Sea ware only a few meters from the remains of a burnt down house from the Viking Age. The hoard consists of a heterogeneous group of coins and hacksilber buried around 1020/1030. Thee majority of the 1,194 coins are German, but there is also a large group of British coins, and a smaller group of Kufic, Scandinavian, and Bohemian coins. Thee hacksilber consists of 170 pieces of jewellery mainly from the Slavic area and 87 other objects such as ingots and melts. The composition of the coins reveals strong contact with Southern Scandinavia, whereas the jewellery shows a strong contact with the Slavic area. In comparison with similar investigations in other areas of the Baltic Sea, the weight and test marks analysis demonstrate that Bornholm was part of an exchange network with Scania and the Slavic area. ﬈e analysis of the main features of the hoard also shows that the coins were probably tested before they reached Bornholm. This indicates a low degree of silver circulation and that many of the coins were hoarded soon after their arrival on the island. Furthermore, the un-minted silver objects in the hoards of Bornholm reveal that the two islands of Bornholm and Gotland held on to bullion economy longer that their neighbours in the Baltic Sea. The circumstances of deposition on 29 excavated Viking Age hoard sites on Bornholm show that many of the hoards were deposited in ordinary settlement sites. Only one of these hoards is interpreted as raw material for the silver smith. In the case of the Nørremølle hoard, it is most likely that the silver coins and objects were gathered by means of trade. The characteristics of the coins and the high degree of fragmentation of the objects point to trade rather than raid or tribute.

 

Index:

Jonsson, Kenneth 1950-

Title:

Eastern contacts based on the coin finds / Kenneth Jonsson

Source:

Situne Dei (2009) p. 57-67

Abstract:

An import of mainly Islamic dirhams to Sweden began c. 800 and continued during the 9th and 10th centuries, but greatly reduced after the 950s. Coins from western Europe, mainly Germany and England, occur in great numbers from c. 990. On Gotland the import continued as late as c. 1140. Trading must have been the main reason behind the import. The vast majority of the imported Byzantine coins belong to the period c. 990–1010, with the exception of 112 coins from the mid-11th century in the Ocksarve hoard on Gotland. Polish and Russian coins were struck in small numbers in the 11th century and few coins have been found in Sweden. Thus, coins show intense contacts with the east up to the 950s, but other source materials have to be used to evaluate contacts in later periods.

 

Index:

Jonsson, Kenneth 1950-

Title:

The English monetary reform c. 973 and its implications for Viking studies / Kenneth Jonsson

Source:

Shetland and the Viking World : papers from the seventeenth Viking Congress, Lerwick / eds.: Val E. Turner, Olwyn A. Owen and Doreen J. Waugh. - Lerwick : Shetland Heritage Publications, 2016. - P. 293-300

Abstract:

A monetary reform was undertaken in England c. 973. It met with local opposition, which a generation later helped Cnut to become king of England. The reform also coincided with the start of an export of English coins, mainly via Germany, to Scandinavia, but the export was not connected to the reform itself.

 

Index:

Jonsson, Kenneth 1950-

Title:

Fynd med Sigtunamynt från Knut Erikssons tid / Kenneth Jonsson

Source:

Situne Dei (2010) p. 37-42

Abstract:

The earliest Swedish coinage was struck at Sigtuna c. 995-1030/5. After a long interval the coinage was renewed c. 1140 on Gotland, c. 1150 in western Sweden and c. 1180/5 in central Sweden. Each was struck according to a local

monetary accounting system. The latter coinage belongs to the reign of Knut Eriksson 1167–1196 and finds, which contain his coins as well as contemporary coins struck by the archbishop, are surveyed. The hoards and the stray finds suggest that these coins circulated as coins in central Sweden (Svealand). In other parts of Sweden they passed as silver bullion or had to be exchanged for the local currency.

 

Index:

Jonsson, Kenneth 1950-

Title:

The late German coin from Helgö / Kenneth Jonsson

Source:

Excavations at Helgö. XVIII: Conclusions and new aspects / Birgit Arrhenius, Uaininn O'Meadhra. - Stockholm : Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2011. - P. 155-159

Abstract:

A total of 64 coins have been found at Helgö in central Sweden. The paper discusses the context of the latest of the 61 Viking-Age coin from the site; German Empire, Marsal, Bishop Dietrich 1006-1047. It also gives a survey of Viking-Age coin finds in the provinces of Uppland and Södermanland.

 

Index:

Jonsson, Kenneth 1950-

Title:

The Gotland hoard project and the Stumle hoard : an insight into the affairs of a Gotlandic 'farman' / Kenneth Jonsson and Majvor Östergren

Source:

Sigtuna papers : proceedings of the Sigtuna symposium on viking-age coinage 1-4 June 1989 / red. Kenneth Jonsson, Brita Malmer. - Stockholm : Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 1990. - (Commentationes de nummis saeculorum IX-XI in Suecia repertis. Nova ser. ; 6). – P. 145-158

 

Index:

Jonsson, Kenneth 1950-

Title:

De vikingatida fynden med engelska mynt från Finland och några jämförelser med dem / av Kenneth Jonsson

Source:

Fornvännen 78 (1983) p. 29-34

 

Index:

Kershaw, Jane

Title:

Viking Age silver in North-West England : hoards and single finds / Jane Kershaw

Source:

In search of Vikings : interdisciplinary approaches to the Scandinavian heritage of North-West England / ed. by Stephen E. Harding, David Griffiths, Elizabeth Royle. - Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2014. – P. 149-164

Abstract:

Silver hoards of Scandinavian character are arguably the most important archaeological source for Viking activity in the North West. They give a clear impression of the vast pools of silver wealth acquired by the Vikings through plunder and exchange, but why were they concealed in the irst place? What do they reveal about the uses of silver in Viking society? And, what can they tell us about Scandinavian activity and settlement in north-west England more broadly? In this chapter, I aim to address such questions by examining the hoards’ contents and location, as well as their relationship with single inds from the region.

 

Index:

Kilger, Christoph 1967-

Title:

Hack-silver, weights and coinage : the Anglo-Scandinavian coinages and their use in late Viking-Age society / Christoph Kilger

Source:

Silver economies, monetisation and society in Scandinavia AD 800-1100 / ed. by James Graham-Campbell, Søren M Sindbaek and Gareth Williams. - Aarhus : Aarhus University Press, 2011. – P. 257-278

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to discuss the monetary use and function of the Anglo-Scandinavian coinages, especially the Sigtuna coinage. In the early days of numismatic research their status among other Viking-age and early medieval coinages was not clearly understood, nor was it clear how they should be classified. Today, their status as Scandinavian imitations of English coins – minted in Viking towns such as Sigtuna and Lund – has been recognized. Their numismatic classification has recently been accomplished by meticulous die-studies, but the question of how they were used as means of payment remains unresolved. It is suggested that the coinages did not necessarily have a nominal value, but an officially sanctioned exchange-value, which could only be reckoned and valued by weight and not by number. In such a monetary system, which had both elements of a coin-based and a bullion-based economy, weighing was probably the only way in which to settle the exchange-value. The archaeological evidence from the Sigtuna mint seems to suggest that the Sigtuna coins were weighed with oblate spheroid weights. These weights follow the Islamic mitqal standard. It is also argued that at some stage in the bullion economy, coined silver was preferred to hack-silver in transactions. Because of that there might have existed a similar situation in the transactional sphere in the Viking Age, as later during the Middle Ages, whereby different qualities of silver were recognized and valued according to different exchange-rates. This change in the transactional sphere had probably been prompted by the arrival of Western European silver coins to Scandinavia at the turn of the first millennium AD.Finally, the Anglo-Scandinavian coinages probably did not have any monetary value outside the strongholds in which they were minted. They were intended for use only by people visiting the town and using its market.

 

Index:

Kilger, Christoph 1967-

Title:

Wholeness and holiness: counting, weighing and valuing silver in the early Viking period / Christoph Kilger

Source:

Means of exchange : dealing with silver in the Viking Age / ed. by Dagfinn Skre ; [English transl. John Hines]. - Aarhus : Aarhus University Press, 2008. - (Norske oldfunn ; 23). - P. 253-325

Abstract:

This chapter examines the use of silver as a medium of payment in the Early Viking Period. Kaupang has yielded comprehensive evidence of craft activity and long-distance trade crossing economic, political and ethnic boundaries. The working hypothesis of this chapter is that exchange across such borders was undertaken outside a socially binding ‘sphere’, a situation that was made possible by the existence of different forms of market trade. It is argued that there had existed standardised media of value, or ‘cash/money’ in Kaupang, which made calculations and payment for goods possible. Such were the circumstances from when Kaupang was founded at the beginning of the 9th century to the abandonment of the town sometime in the middle of the 10th. The use of ‘money’ at Kaupang is approached from two angles. For “money” to be acceptable as an item of value depends on the one hand upon unshakable reference points that are rooted in an imaginary conceptual world. The value of “money” was guaranteed in terms of inalienable possessions which stabilized and at the same time initiated exchange relationships. On the other hand, money as a medium of exchange relates to a scale of calculation which legitimates and defines its exchange-value. This scale makes it possible to compare goods and put a price upon them. In this study, it is argued that in the Viking Period there were three different principles of value and payment that were materially embodied in the outer form and weight of the silver object. These were coins, rings/ingots, and fragmented silver respectively. Both coins and rings/ingots were used and valued as complete objects. The wholeness of the object was essential for the concepts of value to exist. The meaning of the coin as an object of value was rooted in a world of Antique-Christian concepts, and its status as a unit of reckoning was guaranteed through seedcorn calculation. The value of the rings and ingots was rooted in the concept of the god Odin’s eternal and stable gold ring, and their character as calculable objects guaranteed through aurar-calculation: i.e. a given number of coins per eyrir (Norw.: øre; ‘ounce’). Hacksilver, by contrast, has no body, and its meaning as a form of currency was indissolubly dependent upon the use of standardized weights which sanctioned the economic value of this amorphous silver. The status of hacksilver as a calculable substance of value was guaranteed through ertog calculation.

 

Index:

Kiudsoo, Mauri

Title:

The first late Viking Age sacrificial deposit from Estonia / Mauri Kiudsoo & Ivar Leimus

Source:

Tutkimusta ja keräilyä : Suomen Numismaattinen Yhdistys 1914-2014 / toimittaja: Tuukka Talvio. - Helsinki : Suomen Numismaattinen Yhdistys, 2014. - (Suomen Numismaattisen Yhdistyksen julkaisuja ; 7). - P. 28-36

 

Index:

Kyhlberg, Ola

Title:

Birka : problem kring stratigrafi och myntdatering / av Ola Kyhlberg

Source:

Fornvännen 68 (1973) p. 26-36

 

Index:

Kruse, Susan E.

Title:

XRF analysis of Viking Age silver ingots / Kruse, Susan E. & James Tate

Source:

Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 122 (1992) p. 295-328

 

Index:

Lagerqvist, Lars Olof 1929-

Title:

En vikt från vikingatiden / av Lars Lagerqvist och Ernst Nathorst-Böös

Source:

Fornvännen 76 (1981) p. 91-94

 

Index:

Lagerqvist, Lars Olof 1929-

Title:

The problem of the 'fleur-de-lis' sceptre on the Sigtuna coins of Cnut / by L.O. Lagerqvist and R.H.M. Dolley

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 30 (1960-1961) p. 252-261

 

Index:

Leimus, Ivar 1953-

Title:

Ett nytt Anund Jakob mynt i en estländsk skatt / Ivar Leimus och Mauri Kiudsoo

Source:

Myntstudier (2016) 1 p. 44-52

Abstract:

A number of late Viking-Age hoards were recently found in North-East Estonia, Varja. The paper discusses the reasons of hiding as well as the most interesting pieces from the hoards.

 

Index:

Leimus, Ivar 1953-

Title:

Haruldane viikingiaegne mündiaare Saaremaa Muuseumis / Ivar Leimus

Source:

Kuressaare / Saaremaa Muuseum (2003-2004) p. 260-270

 

Index:

Leimus, Ivar 1953-

Title:

The Viking-Age hoard of Linnakse : some observations / Ivar Leimus, Mauri Kiudsoo and Ülle Tamla

Source:

Early medieval monetary history : studies in memory of Mark Blackburn / ed. by Rory Naismith, Martin Allen and Elina Screen. - Farnham : Ashgate, 2014. - P. 571-621

Abstract:

On 17 August 2010 a Late Viking period hoard (tpq. 1059), consisting of silver coins, pieces of silver jewellery and fragments of hand-moulded ceramic vessel, was brought to the Institute of History, University of Tallinn (Figs 1; 2: 1–8). This remarkable discovery had been made a day earlier in a recently harvested field in the village of Linnakse (North-Estonia, county of Anija) using a metal detector. The finder of the hoard also handed over a number of bronze and iron artefacts from three different periods: the Roman, the Middle and the Late Iron Age. The artefacts, all of them with marks of intentional damage or fire deformation, had been found in the same field 20–50 m south of the find-spot of the hoard. The exact circumstances of the discovery remained unclear due to the urgent need to excavate the silver hoard. Therefore it was decided to proceed with archaeological investigation, including landscape survey and trial excavations, at the site.

 

Index:

Leimus, Ivar 1953-

Title:

Vikingetidsskatten fra Linnakse (Estland) og dateringen af de danske runemønter / af Ivar Leimus ; dansk bearb.: Jens Christian Moesgaard

Source:

Nordisk Numismatisk Unions Medlemsblad (2012) 2 (maj) p. 54-56

 

Index:

Linder Welin, Ulla S. 1909-1983

Title:

The first arrival of Oriental coins in Scandinavia and the inception of the Viking Age in Sweden / by Ulla S. Linder Welin

Source:

Fornvännen 69 (1974) p. 22-29

 

Index:

Linder Welin, Ulla S. 1909-1983

Title:

Reply [Oriental coins and the beginning of the Viking period] / [Ulla S. Linder Welin]

Source:

Fornvännen 71 (1976) p. 186-190

 

Index:

Lindqvist, Sune

Title:

Birkamynten / av Sune Lindqvist

Source:

Fornvännen (1926) p. 307-338

 

Index:

Lyon, Colin Stewart Sinclair 1926-

Title:

Some Scandinavian coins in the names of Æthelræd, Cnut, and Harthacnut attributed by Hildebrand to English mints / by C.S.S. Lyon, G. van der Meer, and R.H.M. Dolley

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 30 (1960-1961) p. 235-251, pls. 12-14

 

Index:

Mäkeler, Hendrik 1979-

Title:

Zum Schatzmotiv in der altnordischen Sagaliteratur / Hendrik Mäkeler

Source:

XIII Congreso Nacional de Numismática : Madrid 2003 : actas = proceedings = actes. II / ed. por Carmen Alfaro, Carmen Marcos y Paloma Otero. – Madrid : [s.n.], 2005. – P. 1359-1365  

 

Index:

Malmer, Brita 1925-

Title:

Karolinska och Nordiska mynt före år 800 : några reflexioner med anledning av H.H. Völckers' 'Karolingische Münzfunde der Frühzeit / av Brita Malmer

Source:

Fornvännen (1965) p. 97-111

 

Index:

Malmer, Brita 1925-

Title:

King Canute's coinage in the Northern countries : the Dorothea Coke Memorial Lecture in Northern Studies delivered at University College London, 30 May 1972 / by Brita Malmer

Published:

London : University College, 1974

 

Index:

Malmer, Brita 1925-

Title:

Numismatiken, Olof Skötkonung och slaget vid Svolder / Brita Malmer

Source:

Scandia 59 (1993) 1 p. 5-14

 

Index:

Malmer, Brita 1925-

Title:

Sveriges äldsta mynt / Brita Malmer

Source:

Fornvännen (1966) p. 208-218

 

Index:

Märcher, Michael 1979-

Title:

Fra Lund til Kirke Hyllinge i 1000-tallet / af Michael Märcher

Source:

Danefae : skatte fra den danske muld / redaktion: Michael Andersen og Poul Otto Nielsen. - København : Nationalmuseet ; Gyldendal, 2010. - P. 202-205

 

Index:

Moesgaard, Jens Christian

Title:

Hedeby og den danske kongemagt i 900-tallet : mønternes udsagn / af Jens Christian Moesgaard

Source:

Kuml 61 (2012) p. 111-134

Abstract:

In the 10th century, Haithabu and its environs constituted a numismatic enclave with its own coinage used by number rather than by weight. This is apparent both from hoards located in the town’s hinterland and single finds from the town itself. In these, local coins – imitations of Charlemagne’s coins from Dorestad – dominate in the form of intact speciments that are neither bent nor tested. At that time in Scandinavia and Baltic area it was the norm to use silver as payment by weight. Ornaments and coins from many different origins were used and these were cut up to give the required weight; the quality of the metal was tested by bending and nicking and pecking. Finds of Islamic dirhams and characteristic balance weights for weighing silver do, however, show that this latter usage of coins also took place in the Schlei area and Haithabu. Unfortunately, it is not possible to determine from the archaeological record whether these two ways of using coins and silver reflect two chronological phases or, alternatively, two coeval parallel spheres of coin usage – one internal with exclusive use of its own coinage and one external with acceptance of silver according to weight, when trading with foreign merchants. Over the past decade, excavations and metal-detector surveys in Haithabu have yielded several speciments of Danish king Harald Bluetooth’s characteristic cross-motif coin from AD 975/980-985/990, which was previously conspicuous by its absence. These new finds show that, in Haithabu, cross-motif coins fulfilled the function of local coinage used by number following cessation of minting of the earlier Carolus-Dorestad imitations. These cross-motif coins must, accordingly, have been struck in Haithabu itself. The distribution of records of cross-motif coins across the rest of Denmark suggests that Harald used this coinage as gifts to his nobles and, accordingly, it symbolises the king. It is not simply happenstance that Christian symbols occupy a prominent position on the coin motif. The coins were used to spread and promote the new religion. Consequently, the king himself must be presumed to have been the issuing power. In turn, this means that the place where the coins were minted – Haithabu – must have been under Danish control at that particular time. So the hypothesis of German rule in Haithabu during the period AD 974-983 is no longer tenable. It also means that the coinage which supplied Haithabu’s well-organised coin economy at that time was under the king’s control. As it is well documented for later periods, the king probably demanded a fee for exchange to this coinage and thereby generated an income. Two small hoards from Nonnebakken in Odense suggest that Harald also controlled coin production in Haithabu prior to AD 975/980. These consist largely of Carolus-Dorestad imitations minted in Haithabu, and their find circumstances suggest that they could represent royal payments in connection with construction of the ring fortress. However, this hypothesis builds on a flimsy foundation. Hopefully, new finds will allow it to be confirmed or refuted. At that time, the minting of Carolus-Dorestad imitations was in a lamentable state both technically and in terms of weight, and Harald’s introduction of the cross-motif coin can be perceived as a reform with the intention of re-establishing the good standard. The sources do not permit us to ascertain whether coinage in Haithabu prior to the 10th century was under the control of the king or the merchants. As mentioned above, the coins were used by Haithabu’s merchants in the town’s well-organised coin economy. There are historical parallels to both the town producing its own coins and to royal control, making it difficult to choose between the two possibilities. The coins found their way to other parts of Denmark but did not achieve a dominant status until around AD 975. The archaeological record also shows that they were simply used here in the same way as any other type of coin in the predominant metal-weight economy. Consequently, the Danish monarchy probably did not favour their overall distribution at this time.

 

Index:

Moesgaard, Jens Christian

Title:

Making new money: the Hedeby coin / J.C. Moesgaard

Source:

The world in the Viking Age / ed. by Søren M. Sindbæk & Athena Trakadas. - Roskilde : The Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde, 2014. - P. 104-105

 

Index:

Moesgaard, Jens Christian

Title:

Monnaies normandes dans les régions baltiques à l'époque viking / Jens Christian Moesgaard

Source:

Revue Numismatique 161 (2005) p. 123-144, pl. 11-12

Abstract:

Based on a check list of finds, the exportation of Norman ducal coins is analysed. The first wave of the 10th century went to Viking lands in Scandinavia and the British Isles. From the mid-11th century on, the flow is directed towards Italy and the Near East where Normans were active as mercenaries, conquerors and pilgrims. The trans-Channel trade is pursued. Around thirty die-identical coins found at various places in Scandinavia and the Baltic area may be an imitative issue.

 

Index:

Moesgaard, Jens Christian

Title:

Nyere fransk vikingeforskning / af Jens Christian Moesgaard

Source:

Kuml 60 (2011) p. 287-295

 

Index:

Müller-Wille, Michael

Title:

Wikingerzeitliche Münzfunde des südschwedischen Zentralplatzes von Uppåkra / Michael Müller-Wille

Source:

Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 41 (2011) 4 p. 587-600

Abstract:

Thanks to new analyses the currently known coin finds from the three early medieval trading centres at Ribe (DK), Hedeby/Haithabu (D) and Kaupang (N) as well as from the central place at Uppåkra (S) can be determined in view of number, origin and date. Coin finds from the 8th and 9th centuries are in the focus of attention; they represent both the ‘West’ (sceattas and Carolingian coinage) and the ‘East’ (Byzantine and Arabic coinage). In recent years site inspections with metal detectors have resulted in a considerable increase of finds.

 

Index:

Myrberg Burström, Nanouschka 1969-

Title:

The Hoarded Dead : Late Iron Age silver hoards as graves / Nanouschka Myrberg

Source:

Döda personers sällskap : gravmaterialens identiteter och kulturella uttryck = On the threshold : burial archaeology in the twenty-first century / (red.) Ing-Marie Back Danielsson ... [et al.]. - Stockholm : Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Stockholms universitet 2009. – (Stockholm studies in archaeology ; 47). – P. 131-145

 

Index:

Parsons, Harry Alexander 1890-1953

Title:

The Anglian coins of Cnut the Great / by H. Alexander Parsons

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 19 (1927-1928) p. 25-67

 

Index:

Parsons, Harry Alexander 1890-1953

Title:

The chronology of the Hiberno-Danish coinage / by H. Alexander Parsons

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 17 (1923-1924) p. 99-124, pl. 3-4

 

Index:

Rehnberg, Tommy

Title:

Ur numismatiskt perspektiv : vikingatida skandinaviska hamnar och gotländska silverskatter / Tommy Rehnberg

Published:

[Stockholm : Stockholms universitet], 2005

 

Index:

Rispling, Gert 1942-

Title:

Coins with crosses and bird heads : Christian imitations of Islamic coins? / by Gert Rispling

Source:

Fornvännen 82 (1987) p. 75-87

Abstract:

Four identical imitation coins from the Vårby hoard, province of Södermanland, are discussed as to origin and date of manufacture. A most remarkable attribute — a cross on each coin-side — indicates a Christian origin. Other imitations are added to the investigation on the basis of particular criteria. The most important are crosses, bird heads (of falcons?) and fixed die-positions. Die-linkage, generally the best grouping method, is, typically, not successful here. The question of the date, which is settled as A.D. 922—932, is given much space in the paper. The former attribution to the Volga Bulgars is rejected, although it was proved only recently that this Muslim people in the north is the source of most lOth-century imitations in the Nordic hoards. The location of the finds indicates a Swedish origin, but this evidence is probably illusory, due to faulty coin-publications abroad. Until the die-comparison method is applied systematically, many Islamic imitations will remain unrecognized. The Rus in Kiev, more exposed to Byzantine influence than other suggested imitative coin-centres (Volga Bulgars, Khazars, Khwarizmians), are tentatively suggested as the "Christian" source. Further suggestions would be welcome, esp. from another angle of approach than numismatics, e.g. heraldry, ethnology, art history or, even, zoology.

 

Index:

Runer, Johan

Title:

Den äldsta svenska myntningen : dess funktion och utveckling / Johan Runer

Source:

Situne Dei (2006) p. 81-94

Abstract:

The Sigtuna mintage, which began at the end of the 10th century, is the first known in Sweden. It continued until about 1030 AD. Very few of these coins have been discovered in Sigtuna itself, although contemporary foreign coins have been found there in great numbers. For this and other reasons it is concluded that the Sigtuna coins were not intended for circulation on a controlled market. Instead, the coins were used for merchants as receipts of toll paid. It is assumed that a merchant, in order to avoid having to pay toll twice, had his silver changed into Sigtuna silver only upon leaving the town. When the merchant returned, his Sigtuna coins would be toll-free. In order to mint at a profit, a large inflow of silver to the town was needed. When this de-creased around 1030 AD, no basis for minting was longer available. After having made various trade agreements with German areas in the 12th century, the silver inflow once again increased and Swedish minting was resumed and expanded. It is assumed that the coins were toll-free only in the town or area where minted. Another conclusion is that coins did not catch on as a generally used medium of exchange in Sweden until the late 1300’s, when a countrywide common weight with an inferior silver standard was introduced. Until then, the mintage served mainly as a means of external exploitation. Not until about 1300 AD did it become part of the internal, domestic, exploitation.

 

Index:

Skaare, Kolbjørn 1931-

Title:

Coins and coinage in Viking-Age Norway : the establishment of a national coinage in Norway in the XI century : with a survey of the preceding currency history / Kolbjørn Skaare

Published:

Oslo : Universitetsforrlaget, cop. 1976

 

Index:

Skre, Dagfinn 1954-

Title:

Commodity money : silver and coinage in Viking-Age Scandinavia / Gagfinn Skre

Source:

Silver economies, monetisation and society in Scandinavia, AD 800-1100 / ed. by James Graham-Campbell, Søren M. Sindbæk and Gareth Williams. - [Aarhus] : Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 2011. - P. 67-91 

 

Index:

Skre, Dagfinn 1954-

Title:

Markets, towns and currencies in Scandinavia ca. AD 200–1000 / Dagfinn Skre

Source:

From one sea to another : trading places in the European and Mediterranean early Middle Ages : proceedings of the International Conference Comacchio, 27th-29th March 2009 / ed. by Sauro Gelichi and Richard Hodges = Da un mare allʹaltro : luoghi di scambio nelʹAlto Medioevo europeo e mediterraneo : atti del Seminario Internazionale Commacchio, 27-29 marzo 2009 / a cura di Sauro Gelichi e Richard Hodges. - Turnhout : Brepols, 2012. - (Seminari del Centro Interuniversitario per la storie e lʹarcheologia dellʹalto medioevo ; 3). - P. 47-63

 

Index:

Skre, Dagfinn 1954-

Title:

Money and trade in Viking-Age Scandinavia / Dagfinn Skre

Source:

Economies, monetisation and society in the West Slavic lands 800-1200 AD / ed. by Mateusz Bogucki and Rebkowski. - Szczecin : Wydawn. Instytutu Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, 2013. - (Wolińskie Spotkania Mediewistyczne ; 2). - P. 75-87

 

Index:

Söderberg, Anders

Title:

Eyvind Skáldaspillir's silver : refining and standards in pre-monetary economies in the light of finds from Sigtuna and Gotland / Anders Söderberg

Source:

Situne Dei (2011) p. 5-34

Abstract:

The paper discusses finds of silver cupellation and assaying waste from Sigtuna and Gotland, in minting contexts as well as in jewellery workshop contexts, and the processes' links to the measuring of value and means of payment in the pre- and early monetary Scandinavian economies of the 10th to 12th centuries AD. It also discusses cold testing methods like pecking and bending, silver standards and the use of symbols borrowed from the monetary sphere in order to lend credibility to Gotlandic currency arm rings.

 

Index:

Söderberg, Anders

Title:

Från prestigevarugjutning till myntning : tidigmedeltida metallurgi i kvarteret Trädgårdsmästaren, Sigtuna / Anders Söderberg & Ny Björn Gustafsson

Source:

Situne Dei (2007) p. 17-40

Abstract:

Technical ceramics include a wide range of different refractory vessels and packages used in various metallurgical processes. The project 'Metallurgical ceramics 800–1200 AD' was initiated for two purposes: to study materials that have been misclassified as 'slag' or 'fired clay' at excavations; and to find out what these objects can tell us about production and organisation at Early Medieval workshop sites. One of the sites studied was the Trädgårdsmästaren block in Sigtuna, excavated 1988–90. Through the examination of 1.2 tonnes of slag and clay, it was possible to increase the registered finds of technical ceramics to c. 150%. As these finds of previously unrecognised types of vessels could be added to the crucibles and casting moulds from the site, a more complete picture of the craft activities could be drawn. Metal craftwork started very discreetly at the site. No large-scale production took part before the mid-11th century, when a casting workshop was founded on one of the plots. The manufacture was probably administered by petty aristocrats who owned plots in town. The production was geared toward prestigious objects used as gifts in alliances between noblemen. Eastern connections are seen in the occurrence of a

eastern Slavonic or Russian type of closed crucible. In the 12th century the craft assumed a more mercantile position, shown by activities concentrating toward the main street and by a tremendous increase of craft waste such as ceramics and slag. A slight ecclesiastic direction can be seen in moulds for Christian crosses. In the late 12th century vast amounts of precious-metal refining residue was deposited, probably in connection with the royal mint under King Knut Eriksson in the 1180s.

 

Index:

Steen Jensen, Jørgen 1938-

Title:

Hvor stor var udmøntningen i Danmark i 1000- og 1100-tallet? / af Jørgen Steen Jensen

Source:

Fortid og Nutid (1983) p. 19-26

 

Index:

Stewart, Bernard Harold Ian Halley 1935-

Title:

The anonymous Anglo-Viking issue with sword and hammer types and the coinage of Sitric I / Ian Stewart

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 52 (1982) p. 108-116

 

Index:

Varenius, Björn

Title:

The Hedeby coinage / Björn Varenius

Source:

Current Svvedish Archaeology 2 (1994) p. 185-193

 

Index:

Veen, Bouke Jan van der

Title:

Vikingen op het strand van Heemskerk? : een schatvondst van de Noorse koning Olaf Kyrre (1067-1093) / [Bouke Jan van der Veen]

Source:

Holland 33 (2001) p. 31-37

 

Index:

Williams, Gareth

Title:

Anglo-Saxon and Viking coin weights / Gareth Williams

Source:

British Numismatic Journal 69 (1999) p. 19-36