09. Syria, Levant, North Africa

Index:

Abou Diwan, Georges

Title:

Un trésor monétaire de Beyrouth : à propos de la circulation des monnaies d’Anastase au VIe siècle / Georges Abou Diwan

Published:

[London : Royal Numismatic Society], 2008

Note

Offprint from: Numismatic Chronicle 168 (2008) p. 303-320, pl. 36-42

 

Index:

Ariel, Donald Tavi 1954-

Title:

The coins from the ‘Third Mile Estate’, Ashqelon / Donald T. Ariel

Source:

`Atiqot 74 (May 2013) p. 229–238

Abstract:

Fifty-eight coins were found during the excavations, all made of bronze; twelve were unidentifiable. The date of the coins conforms to the main settlement phase at the site, i.e., the Late Roman and Byzantine periods; five coins date to the Hellenistic period, and one coin is a solitary Abbasid fals. None of the coins from the Byzantine phase date later than the first half of the sixth century, which may suggest that the site was affected by the plagues that struck the region beginning in mid-542 CE.

 

Index:

Ariel, Donald Tavi 1954-

Title:

A hoard of Byzantine folles from Qazrin / Donald T. Ariel

Source:

`Atiqot 29 (1996) p. 69-76

 

Index

Arslan, Ermanno A. 1940-

Title:

The L812 trench deposit inside the synagogue an:d an isolated find of coins in Capharnaum, Israel : a comparison of the two groups / Ermanno A. Arslan

Source:

Israel Numismatic Research 6 (2011) p. 147-162

Abstract:

This article analyzes the methods and periods of formation of the monetary assemblage of  Trench L812 of the Capernaum synagogue. Comparison of the coin profiles of the synagogue with the recently published profile of the city fostered further investigation into the problems in relating hoards and urban assemblages.

 

Index:

Arslan, Ermanno A. 1940-

Title:

Problemi ponderali di V secolo : verso la riforma del Nummus : il deposito di Cafarnao / Ermanno A. Arslan

Published:

[S.l.] : Société Française de Numismatique, 2003

Note:

Offprint from: Revue Numismatique 159 (2003) p. 27-39

Abstract:

The deposit in the synagogue of Capharnaum and other finds of nummi in the city with the same terminus during the second reign of Zeno (476-491) provide precious information concerning the money supply and metrology of Galilee. The three large series with cross inside a garland and under Marcian and Leo have an average weight ca 0,93, i.e. well above the amount of copper fixed for the nummus in the 490 's

 

Index:

Baldasarri, Monica

Title:

Gruzzolo di monete d'argento di Eraclio / Monica Baldassarri

Source:

Uchi Maius. 3: I frantoi miscellanea / a cura di Cinzia Vismara ; con la collaborazione di Caterina M. Coletti, Liliana Guspini ; testi di Monica Baldassarri ... [et al.].. - Sassari : Ed. Democatica Sarda, 2007. - P. 164-181

 

Index:

Ben-Ami, Doron

Title:

New archaeological and numismatic evidence for the Persian destruction of Jerusalem in 614 CE / Doron Ben-Ami, Yana Tchekhanovets, Gabriela Bijovsky

Source:

Israel Exploration Journal 60 (2011) 2 p. 204-221

Abstract:

The recent discoveries related to the late Byzantine period in the northern part of the City of David contribute crucial evidence and shed new light on Jerusalem at the close of the Byzantine period. The location of a gold hoard found buried under the destruction debris of a large impressive building exposed in the excavations at the Giv’ati parking lot seems to imply that it was imperial money in the hands of an official authority, intended for public needs. This could have been the result of an emergency coinage—an extraordinary limited issue struck in Jerusalem under hasty conditions. Evaluation of the archeological and numismatic evidence strongly suggests that the destruction of this large Byzantine architectural complex should be associated with the outcome of the Persian invasion of Jerusalem in 614 CE.

 

Index:

Bendall, Simon

Title:

The Byzantine coinage of the mint of Jerusalem / Simon Bendall

Source:

Revue Numismatique 159 (2003) p. 307-322, pl. 40-42

Abstract:

Considered here are four issues, one of copper folles and three of gold solidi which have been tentatively attributed to a mint in Jerusalem for the last 25 years. The copper folles can definitely be attributed to Jerusalem since one variety bears the city's name as a mint- mark. In order to attribute the solidi it has been necessary to consider the detailed history of the eastern mediterranean for the first thirty years of the seventh century, inadequate though the facts are. This study occupies the first part of the article. The result of the historical study indicates that two groups of solidi, one of Phocas and one of Heracius' sole reign, were probably struck in Jerusalem but that the type struck in the early years of the joint reign of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine cannot have been struck there. While the writer is unable to suggest any certain mint, this last group of solidi was possibly struck over a period of a couple of years between ca. 613 and 617 in considerable quantity at a temporary mint in south eastern Anatolia.

 

Index:

Bijovsky, Gabriela 1962-

Title:

A Byzantine gold hoard from Rehob (H. Parwa) / Gabriela Bijovsky

Source:

Israel Numismatic Research 7 (1012) p. 147-158, pl. 12   

Abstract:

A hoard of 28 seventh-century solidi was accidentally discovered in 1968 a few meters south of the synagogue of Rehob (H. Parwa). The hoard was first published by Paltiel in 1968–1969; only ten of the coins are registered at the IAA Coin Department. Although a stray find, this hoard cannot be disconnected from a hoard of copper Arab-Byzantine coins discovered during excavations in the synagogue itself. The two hoards are contemporaneous and their deposition dates should therefore be related to the same historical context.

 

Index:

Bijovsky, Gabriela Ingrid 1962-

Title:

Coins from Ashqelon, Semadar Hotel / Gabriela Bijovsky

Source:

'Atiqot 48 (June 2004) p. 111-121

 

Index:

Bijovksky, Gabriela Ingrid 1962-

Title:

Gold coin and small change : monetary circulation in fifth-seventh century Byzantine Palestine / Gabriela I. Bijovsky

Series:

Polymnia ; 2

Published:

Trieste : Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2012

Abstract:

This book presents scholars a comprehensive analysis of the local coinage that circulated in Palestine from the death of Arcadius until the time of the Arab conquest in the 640.

 

Index:

Bijovsky, Gabriela Ingrid 1962-

Title:

A hoard of Byzantine solidi from Bet She'an in the Umayyad Period / Gabriela Bijovsky 

Source:

Revue Nuismatique 158 (2002) p. 161-227, pl. 13-32

Abstract:

This hoard was found in an Umayyad building in Bet She'an, Israel. It includes 75 1 solidi dated to Phocas, Heraclius, Constans II and Constantine IV The hoard was most probably buried for fear of confiscation, after the early 80's of the seventh century, during the unstable decade preceding Abd el-Malik's monetary reform in 696/697 CE. 

 

Index:

Bijovksky, Gabriela Ingrid 1962-

Title:

A single die solidi hoard of Heraclius from Jerusalem / by Gabriela Bijovsky

Source:

Mélanges Cécile Morrisson. - Paris : Association des Amis du Centre d'Histoire et Civilisation de Byzance, 2010. - (Travaux et mémoires / Collège de France, Centre de Recherche d'Histoire et Civilisation de Byzance ; 16). - P. 55-92, pl. 1-14

 

Index:

Callegher, Bruno

Title:

Un ripostiglio di monete d’oro bizantine dalla sinagoga di Cafarnao / B. Callegher

Source:

Liber Annuus 47 (1997) p. 329-338, pl. 11-12

 

Index:

Farhi, Yoav 1974-

Title:

Note on two types of lead currency from Late Roman/Early Byzantine Palestine (fifth century CE) / Yoav Farhi

Source:

Israel Numismatic Research 8 (2013) p. 135-141

Abstract:

The author discusses two types of local lead currency, recently excavated in Khirbet Qeiyafa, and dated to the fifth century CE. One type, which is cast and derives from cut up pieces of mirror frames, was previously published but was not identified as a currency of the fifth century CE. The second type discussed here is a hitherto unknown struck issue.

 

Index:

Füeg, Franz

Title:

Die Kulturgeschichtliche Bedeutung der Kupferausgaben unter Justin I. und Justinian I. von 527 in Antiochia / Franz Füeg

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 123 (August 1981) p. 57-61

 

Index:

Gitler, Haim 1962-

Title:

Coin finds from villages in Palestine during the late Roman and Byzantine periods (A.D. 383–696/7) : a quantitative examination of monetary distributions / Haim Gitler and David Weisburd

Source:

Les villages dans l'Empire byzantin : (IV.-XV. siècle) / éd. par Jacques Lefort, Cécile Morrisson et Jean-Pierre Sodini. - Paris : Lethielleux, 2005. - (Réalités byzantines ; 11). - P. 539-552

 

Index:

Goodwin, Tony 1945-

Title:

Some aspects of 7thC Egyptian Byzantine coinage / Tony Goodwin

Source:

Coinage and history in the seventh century near East 4 : proceedings of the 14th Seventh Century Syrian Numismatic Round Table held at The Hive, Worcester, on 28th and 29th September 2013 / ed. by Andrew Oddy, Ingrid Schulze and Wolfgang Schulze. - London : Archetype, 2015. - P. 27-35

Abstract:

This paper deals with four problem areas of Egyptian Byzantine coinage, three of which have implications for dating. It also discusses the probable first issue after the Arab conquest.

 

Index:

Guéry, Roger

Title:

Recherches archéologiques franco-tunisiennes à Rougga. III: Le trésor de monnaies d'or Byzantines / par Roger Guéry, Cécile Morrisson, Hédi Slim

Published:

[Rome] : École Française de Rome, 1982

 

Index:

Humphreys, Michael Thomas George

Title:

The 'war of images' revisited : Justinian II's coinage reform and the Caliphate / by Michael Humphreys

Published:

London : Royal Numismatic Society, 2013

Note:

Offprint from: Numismatic Chronicle 173 (2013) p. 229-244

 

Index:

Jonson, Trent

Title:

The Byzantine mint in Carthage and the Islamic mint in North Africa : new metallurgical findings / Trent Jonson, Maryse Blet-Lemarquand, Cécile Morrisson

Source:

Revue Numismatique 171 (2014) p. 655-699

Abstract:

This paper combines the results of the previous research on the gold coinage of the Byzantine mint in Carthage and the Islamic mint in North Africa, together with new LA-ICP-MS analyses of 25 coins in the BnF and 92 SG measurements conducted by T. Jonson in various collections. It includes a comparison of the various methods used. The changes in metallic composition observed before and after the Muslim takeover are outlined. A tentative interpretation of the process of debasement of the first Arab series in North Africa (ca. 79-84/698-703) is offered.

 

Index:

Kool, Robert

Title:

Coins from the late Byzantine remains near Shiqmona / Robert Kool

Source:

'Atiqot 63 (June 2010) p. 219-223

Abstract:

The coins from Shiqmona were uncovered in the remains of the monastery, the buildings, within the winepress and on the surface above the winepress. Out of the fifteen identified coins, fourteen date to one continuous period, from the early fourth century until the reign of the Byzantine emperor Justinian II; one is an Ayyubid copper fals. Comparison with the numismatic evidence from previous excavations at Shiqmona, in 1994 and 1998, shows similarities in periodization and types of coins in circulation.

 

Index:

Kruszyński, Mirosław

Title:

A group of Byzantine coins from Lebanon / Mirosław Kruszyński

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 3-4 (1999) p. 221-232

 

Index:

Morrisson, Cécile 1940-

Title:

La monétarisation en Égypte et en Syrie-Palestine du IVe à la fin du VIIe siècle : le témoignage de l'archéologie / Cécile Morrison

Source:

Antiquité Tardive 12 (2004) p. 405-413

Abstract:

This review article is based on H. C. Noeske’s monumental work on coin finds in the dioceses of Egypt and Oriens in the Late Antique and Early Byzantine period. The catalogue (vol. 2) publishes in the Francfort school format all hoards and site finds known to the author, either from his personal examination (notably the circa 12,000 coins from the Egyptian pilgrimage site of Abu Mina) or from publications. The corpus of some 100,000 specimens thus assembled and the (almost too numerous) figures and graphs derived therefrom (vol. 3) are commented upon in volume 1. In Egypt bronze coin finds (reflecting rather production than circulation) reach a maximum in the late 4th c. The great gap starting from the 430s to 498 is in fact observed also in the West (e.g. in Africa) and is compensated for (not only in Egypt or Palestine) by plentiful cast imitations. After the monetary reform of Anastasius I, the situation in the two dioceses largely differs : the new heavy bronze coin (follis) and its fractions penetrate in Oriens rather quickly if not dominantly but are very late and rare in Egypt which applies the reform along specific lines going back to Ptolemaic metrology. As regards bronze the diocese remains thus isolated down to the Arab conquest or even later ; the 12 nummi coin being imitated again in the late 7th c. In Syria and Palestine, Umayyad Arab-Byzantine imitations are much more plentiful, but this major phenomenon is hardly considered in the book. This article gives supplementary information on that topic and discusses some of the issues raised by the circulation of gold in the long run : the influence of military payments and the Valentinianic refining of gold on hoarding patterns, possible reasons for the lack of 5th c coins in hoards, longer hoarding periods in 6th c deposits, contrast between the contracted ones of the Persian war (610-616 ca) and the extended ones of the late 7th c which the Arab conquest did not influence, Byzantine solidi penetrating Umayyad territories down to the major break induced by Abd al-Malik’s reform. The present data on gold and bronze coin finds are clear evidence for the greater wealth of both dioceses as compared with Illyricum, Pontus and Asiana or even many parts of the West and their high degree of monetization, source of the later power and prosperity of the Umayyad Caliphate.

 

Index:

Morrisson, Cécile 1940-

Title:

Un trésor de solidi de Constantin IV de Carthage / Cécile Morrisson

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 22 (1980) p. 155-160

 

Index:

Morrisson, Cécile 1940-

Title:

Le trésor byzantine de Nikertai / Cécile Morrison

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 118 (1972) p. 30-91, pls. 2-8

Abstract:

Découvert par P. et M. Canivet sur le site improprement dit de "Nikertai" près d'Apamée-sur-l'Oronte (Qala'at Mudiq), ce trésor comprenant 534 monnaies d'or  (516 sol. + 18 sem.) (ca 592-681. Maurice - Constantin IV), enfoui vers 680, m'a permis d'analyser la métrologie du solidus des VIe-VIIe siècles, et l'affaiblissement de poids consécutif à la circulation prolongée de la pièce byzantine dans la Syrie omeyyade avant la création du monnayage califat. Les résultats de cette étude ont été confirmés par l'analyse du trésor contemporain découvert dans les fouilles de Beth Shean (Skythopolis) (G. Bijovsky, RN 2002).

 

Index:

Schindel, Nikolaus 1973-

Title:

Imitations of Sicilian folles of Constantine IV from Bilad al-Sham / Nikolaus Schindel and Wolfgang Hahn

Source:

Israel Numismatic Journal 17 (2009-2010) p. 213-232

 

Index:

Schulze, Wolfgang

Title:

The Byzantine 'eagle' countermark : re-attributed from Egypt to Palestine / Wolfgang Schulze

Source:

Israel Numismatic Research 4 (2009) p. 113-120, pl. 19

Abstract:

During the turbulent years of the Arab conquest of Syria in the 30s of the seventh century CE, a series of Byzantine countermarks was in use. One of them, the ‘eagle’ countermark, has been attributed for a long time to Egypt and may now be re-attributed to Palestine on the basis of new evidence. This countermark may have been applied on old and worn Byzantine coins in order to revalue them during the siege of Caesarea (637–640 CE).

 

Index:

Schulze, Wolfgang

Title:

Heraclian countermarks on Byzantine copper coins in seventh-century Syria / Wolfgang Schulze, Ingrid Schulze and Wolfgang Leimenstoll

Source:

Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 30 (2006) 1 p. 1–27

Abstract:

Countermarks with the monogram of the Emperor Heraclius (610–41) are found in Syria on Byzantine copper coins. After discussing the typology and the reading of the countermarks we reject the older proposals that the countermarks served as a kind of revaluation in connection with the Heraclian monetary reforms. Statistical analyses of 173 specimens and their provenances, as well as comparisons with contemporary finds, have led us to the conclusion that the countermarks were applied between c. 633 and 636 in Palestine I. They were presumably produced during the struggles with the invading Arabs. Circulating copper coins (old and new — folles, three-quarter and half folles) became revalued by countermarking because of the serious lack of cash at that time in Syria.

 

Index:

Stahl, Alan Michael(1947-

Title:

New archaeology from old coins : Antioch re-examined / Alan M. Stahl

Source:

European archaeology as anthropology : essays in memory of Bernard Wailes / ed. by Pam J. Crabtree and Peter Bogucki. - Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017. - P. 225-244

Abstract:

Coins from Princeton's excavations of the 1930s in Antioch-on-the-Orontes are re-interpreted for their input to archaeological and historical knowledge.

 

Index:

Trombley, Frank R.

Title:

Some Greek and bilingual Arab-Byzantine bronze coins of Damascus and Hims-Emesa: some new examples of iconography and palaeography, with reference to some Byzantine issues of the late 6th and 7th centuries / Frank R. Trombley

Source:

The 3rd Simone Assemani symposium on Islamic coins / ed. by Bruno Callegher and Arianna D'Ottone. - Trieste : EUT, 2012. - (Polymnia ; 3). - P. 58-76

Abstract:

There is practically nothing in the historical sources about his having shown an interest in minting bronze coins. (Walker 1956: p. xxv) There has been some discussion about the issuing authority and chronology of the bronze coinage of Mu‘$wiya’s forty years as governor and caliph. The first bronze issues of urban mints have a terminus ante quem in the last years of his governorship, that is, in the 650s CE, to judge from an apparent hoard edited by Phillips and Goodman. (Phillips-Goodman 1997) The earliest forms of this coinage have been called Type I, Pseudo- Byzantine or ‘imitative’ issues, which Tony Goodwin has divided into nine distinct series, Types A-I (Goodwin 2005: pp. 16-17) An important series of these, Type B, imitations – often crudely – the obverse of Herakeios’ coins of Cyprus bearing the triple imperial image of Herakleios, Herakleios Constantine and Martina (Hahn 1981: 198a-b. Foss 2008, nos. 3-4. Album-Goodwin 2002: nos. 505-506. Goodwin 2005: no. 2). A more extensive series, Goodwin’s Types I D-F, bears the obverse image of emperor Constans II copied from the standard bronze coinage of the mint of Constantinople in first eight years of his reign.

 

Index:

Walmsley, Alan 1952-

Title:

Coin frequencies in sixth and seventh century Palestine and Arabia : social and economic implications / by Alan Walmsley

Source:

Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 42 (1999) 3 p. 326-350

Abstract:

Large scale excavations at the ancient urban sites of Pella and Jarash (Gerasa) in Jordan have produced a statistically viable body of data on coin supply and circulation in Byzantine and early Islamic Palestine and Arabia. A comparison of the copper coins ('folles' and fractions) recovered at these sites reveals consistent trends, notably a major increase in supply during the reigns of Justin I and especially Justin II. After Justin II (d. 578) there is a marked decline in the supply and circulation of copper coins, even taking into account ßuctuating production levels and quality of folles in the later sixth and seventh centuries. The presence of a greater number of mints suggests no major consignments but only the local circulation of coins. A minor improvement in coinage levels at Pella in the late sixth to early seventh century may reßect the growing local strategic importance of the town. Support for this explanation can be seen in the expansion of PellaÕs Byzantine fort and, soon after, the important battle between the Islamic and Byzantine armies in 635.

 

Index:

Weiser, Wolfram

Title:

Ein neuer Fund spätbyzantinischer Folles mit islamischen Gegenstempeln / Wolfram Weiser

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 116 (November 1979) p. 86-89

 

Index:

Woods, David

Title:

Muʽāwiyah, Constans II and coins without crosses / David Woods

Source:

Israel Numismatic Research 10 (2015) p. 169-181

Abstract:

A newly published type of hexagram of Constans II with reverse depicting three standing figures rather than a cross-on-globe-on-steps, when taken together with the solidus of the same type, suggests that the author of the Maronite Chronicle may have been mistakenly referring to these coins when he claimed that the caliph Muʽāwiyah struck gold and silver coins without crosses upon his accession at Jerusalem in 661.