13. Monetary aspects, coin circulation

Index:

Asolati, Michele

Title:

Questioni di fiduciarietà : la tesaurizzazione del nummo e le riforme monetarie del bronzo da Anastasio a Giustiniano I / Michele Asolati

Source:

I ritrovamenti monetali e i processi storico-economici nel mondo antico / a cura di Michele Asolati, Giovanni Gorinii. - Padova : Esedra, cop. 2012. - (Numismatica Patavina ; 12). - P. 283-325

 

Index:

Audy, Florent

Title:

How were Byzantine coins used in Viking-Age Scandinavia? / Florent Audy

Source:

Byzantium and the Viking world / ed. by Fedir Androshchuk, Jonathan Shepard, Monica White. - Uppsala : Uppsala Universitet, [2016], - (Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Studia Byzantina Upsaliensia ; 16). - P. 141-168

Abstract:

When studying the contacts between Byzantium and the Viking world, the numismatic evidence is of particular importance. Coins form, in comparison with other remains of Byzantine material culture in the North, a very large group of artefacts, consisting of more than 700 specimens, plus several dozen imitations. They offer the possibility of undertaking both geographical and chronological analyses, while their interpretation may echo the Byzantine and Rus written sources, in which commercial and mercenary activities are described. This is probably the reason why coins are almost always included in studies of the relations between Byzantium and Scandinavia, even though the numismatic evidence is often used without paying much attention to the coins themselves. In general, what matters to those using the evidence is the importation and circulation of money, not the treatment and handling of objects.

 

Index:

Dagron, Gilbert

Title:

Le Kentènarion dans les sources byzantines / Gilbert Dagron et Cécile Morrisson

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 17 (1975) p. 145-162

 

Index:

Deschauer, Stefan 1951-

Title:

About numismatics and some problems of algebra from a Byzantine manuscript of 1436 (Cod. Vind. phil. gr. 65) / Stefan Deschauer

Source:

Revue Numismatique 167 (2011) p. 185-200

Abstract:

The Cod. Vind. phil. gr. 65 is a unique mathematical document in the late Byzantine period. The «second book» of the manuscript contains an algebraic theory in Italian style with many profound and hardly known problems in the history of mathematics and in the numismatics. Until today we don’t know other algebraic works in Byzantium. I present here some typical problems involving 15th century money.

 

Index:

Durliat, Jean

Title:

La valeur relative de l'or, de l'argent et du cuivre dans l'empire protobyzantin (IVe-VIIIe siècle) / Jean Durliat

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 22 (1980) p. 138-154

 

Index:

Entwistle, Christopher

Title:

Byzantine weights / Christopher Entwistle

Source:

The economic history of Byzantium : from the seventh through the fifteenth century. Vol. I / Angeliki E. Laiou, ed.-in-chief ; scholarly committee Charalambos Bouras ... [et al.]. - Washington : Dumbarton Oaks, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, cop. 2002

 

Index:

Gândilă, Andrei

Title:

Byzantine coin circulation in the eastern Provinces : a comparative statistical approach. [Text] / Andrei Gândilă

Source:

American Journal of Numismatics 2nd ser. 21 (2009) p. 151-204

Abstract:

This paper addresses two major issues in the study of early Byzantine coinage. First, the statistical validity of large public collections of Byzantine copper coins is established as a reliable indicator of coin production. Second, based on the rhythm of coin output inferred from the evidence of the public collections, a comparison is attempted between coin finds in the three major geographical areas of the Eastern Empire: the Balkans, Anatolia, and Syria-Palestine. This comparative analysis reveals a great deal of regional variation, but also common patterns in coin circulation.

 

Index:

Gândilă, Andrei

Title:

Byzantine coin circulation in the eastern Provinces : a comparative statistical approach. [Figures] / Andrei Gândilă

Source:

American Journal of Numismatics 2nd ser. 21 (2009) p. 205-225

Abstract:

This paper addresses two major issues in the study of early Byzantine coinage. First, the statistical validity of large public collections of Byzantine copper coins is established as a reliable indicator of coin production. Second, based on the rhythm of coin output inferred from the evidence of the public collections, a comparison is attempted between coin finds in the three major geographical areas of the Eastern Empire: the Balkans, Anatolia, and Syria-Palestine. This comparative analysis reveals a great deal of regional variation, but also common patterns in coin circulation.

 

Index:

Gândilă, Andrei

Title:

Going east : Western money in the Early Byzantine Balkans, Asia Minor and the Circumpontic Region (6th-7th c.) / Andrei Gandila

Source:

Rivista Italiana di Numismatica 117 (2016) p. 129-188

Abstract:

The long-distance circulation of western Byzantine coins is a good indicator for the movement of people and goods in the sixth-to-seventh-century Mediterranean world. Coins minted in Carthage, Rome, Ravenna and Sicily after Justinian’s wars of conquest were never meant to supply currency to the Eastern provinces. In addition, the coinage of Alexandria in Egypt greatly differed from the system established at Constantinople and seemed incompatible with the circulating medium of the Eastern provinces. Nevertheless, such coins are found as far east as the Black Sea coast in Georgia. The diffusion of Italian and North African coinage can be attributed to a combination of economic and military reasons. Frequent movement of troops between theaters of war was often recorded by sixth-century writers. This can explain the circulation of western Byzantine coins in the militarized frontier region of the Balkans and Transcaucasia. On the other hand, the monetary economy in major coastal cities of the Aegean and the Black Sea relied heavily on the daily use of minimi, most of which were issued by North African and Italian mints. They often arrived together with North African ceramics commonly found on every major site in Greece, Western Turkey and the North-eastern Balkans.

 

Index:

Gândilă, Andrei

Title:

Heavy money, weightier problems : the Justinianic reform of 538 and its economic consequences / Andrei Gândilă

Source:

Revue Numismatique 169 (2012) p. 363-402

Abstract:

In 538, at the peak of his imperial achievement, Justinian introduced an impressive coinage of unusual size and weight. Based on the evidence of hoards and single finds from the Balkans, Asia Minor and the Near East, the economic implications of Justinian’s heavy series (538-542) appear in a new light. Its prolonged circulation and important percentage among finds from the Balkans, in particular, changes our understanding of the role played by this coinage during the sixth century and adds new dimensions to the fiduciary nature of the early Byzantine bronze coinage.

 

Index:

Georganteli, Eurydice S.

Title:

Trapezuntine money in the Balkans, Anatolia and the Black Sea, 13th-15th centuries / E.S. Georganteli

Source:

Prosengiseis stēn istoria tu Pontu : praktika 2u diethnus synedriu pontiakōn ereunōn / Theodosios Ar. Kyriakidēs, Kyriakos St. Chatzēkyriakidēs (epimeleia). - Thessalonikē : Stamulēs, 2012. - P. 93-109

 

Index:

Grierson, Philip 1910-2006

Title:

The debasement of the Bezant in the eleventh century / Ph. Grierson

Source:

Byzantinische Zeitschrift 47 (1954) p. 379-394

 

Index:

Grierson, Philip 1910-2006

Title:

Nomisma, tetartèron et dinar : un plaidoyer pour Nicéphore Phocas / [Philip Grierson]

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 100 (1954) p. 75-84

 

Index:

Hahn, Wolfgang Reinhard Otto 1945-

Title:

Das Römerreich der Byzantiner aus numismatischer Sicht : west-östliche Währungspolitik im 5.-8. Jahrhundert / Wolfgang Hahn

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 65 (1986) p. 175-186, pl. 23-24

 

Index:

Hendy, Michael F. 1942-2008

Title:

Byzantium, 1081-1204 : an economic reappraisal / by M.F. Hendy

Source:

Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 5th ser. 20 (1970) p. 31-52

 

Index:

Hendy, Michael F. 1942-2008

Title:

Coinage and money in the Byzantine Empire, 1081-1261 / by Michael F. Hendy

Series:

Dumbarton Oaks studies ; 12

Published:

Washington, D.C. : Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, 1969

 

Index:

Hendy, Michael F. 1942-2008

Title:

Light weight solidi, tetartera, and the book of the prefect / M.F. Hendy

Source:

Byzantinische Zeitschrift (1972) 65 p. 57-80

 

Index:

Hendy, Michael F. 1942-2008

Title:

Studies in the Byzantine monetary economy : c. 300-1450 / Michael F. Hendy

Published:

Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1985

Abstract:

This book represents an attempt to depict the late Roman and Byzantine monetary economy in its fullest possible social, economic and administrative context, with the aim of establishing the basic dynamics behind the production of the coinage, the major mechanisms affecting its distribution, and the general characteristics of its behaviour once in circulation. The book consists of four main sections, on economy and society, on finance, and on the circulation and production of coinage, and has made an unrivalled contribution in the field of late classical, Byzantine and medieval economic history. The text is fully supported by the extensive quotation of translated sources, and by maps, tables and plates.

 

Index:

Kaplan, Michel 1946-

Title:

L'économie byzantine : perspectives historiographiques / Michel Kaplan, Cécile Morrisson

Source:

Revue Historique (2004) 2 p. 391-411

 

Index:

Koutava-Delivoria, Barabara

Title:

Les 'chichata', les 'protocharaga' et la réforme monétaire d'Alexis I Comnène / Barbara Koutava-Delivoria

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 141 (1995) p. 13-36

 

Index:

Lafaurie, Jean 1914-

Title:

La pénétration des monnaies byzantines en Gaule mérovingienne et visigotique du VIe au VIIIe siècle / Jean Lafaurie, Cécile Morrisson

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 29 (1987) p. 38-98, pl. 5-9

Abstract:

Cet article reprend la recherche amorcée dans BSFN 1972, p. 2, 206-209, complétée ici par de nouveaux dépouillements et une documentation en partie inédite sur les trouvailles de monnaies byzantines d'or et de cuivre sur le territoire de la Gaule et ses marges, dont l'inventaire figure en annexe. L'enquête révèle d'une part l'importance des relations avec l'Afrique byzantine jusqu'au milieu du vne siècle, tandis que la comparaison des trouvailles de monnaies d'or en Gaule — d'où les solidi byzantins disparaissent presqu totalement à partir de 580, absorbés par les ateliers monétaires de Provence — et dans les régions situées au-delà du Rhin, confirme le rôle de l'or byzantin refondu dans l'approvisionnement des ateliers mérovingiens.

 

Index:

Laiou, Angeliki E. 1941-2008

Title:

The Byzantine economy / Angeliki E. Laiou and Cécile Morrisson

Source:

Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2007

Abstract:

This is a concise survey of the economy of the Byzantine Empire from the fourth century AD to the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Organised chronologically, the book addresses key themes such as demography, agriculture, manufacturing and the urban economy, trade, monetary developments, and the role of the state and ideology. It provides a comprehensive overview of the economy with an emphasis on the economic actions of the state and the productive role of the city and non-economic actors, such as landlords, artisans and money-changers. The final chapter compares the Byzantine economy with the economies of western Europe and concludes that the Byzantine economy was one of the most successful examples of a mixed economy in the pre-industrial world.

 

Index:

Morrisson, Cécile 1940-

Title:

L’atelier monétaire du Grand Palais de Constantinople en 1201 / Morrisson (Cécile) et Papadopoulou (Pagona)

Source:

Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique 68 (2013) 10 (décembre) p. 320-323

 

Index:

Morrisson, Cécile 1940-

Title:

Byzantine money : its production and circulation / Cécile Morrisson

Source:

The economic history of Byzantium : from the seventh through the fifteenth century. Vol. 3 / Angeliki E. Laiou, editor-in-chief ; scholarly committee: Charalambos Bouras ... [et al.]. - Washington  : Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, cop. 2002. – P. 909-966

 

Index:

Morrisson, Cécile 1940-

Title:

Coinage and money in Byzantine typika / Cécile Morrisson

Source:

Dumbarton Oaks Papers 56 (2003) p. 263-275

 

Index:

Morrisson, Cécile 1940-

Title:

Coin usage and exchange rates in Badoer's Libro dei Conti / Cécile Morrisson

Source:

Dumbarton Oaks Papers 55 (2002) p. 217-244

   

Index:

Morrisson, Cécile 1940-

Title:

‘L'économie monétaire byzantine’ : à propos d'un ouvrage récent / Cécile Morrisson

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 29 (1987) p. 245-256

 

Index:

Morrisson, Cécile 1940-

Title:

L’empereur et le calife (690-695) : réflexions à propos des monnayages de Justinien II et d’Abd al-Malik / [Cécile Morrisson, Vivien Prigent]

Source:

Villes et campagnes aux rives de la Méditerranée ancienne : hommages à Georges Tate / textes réunis par G. Charpentier et V. Puech. - Lyon : Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée, 2014. - (Topoi. Suppl. ; 12). - P. 571-592

 

Index:

Morrisson, Cécile 1940-

Title:

L'hinterland monétaire de Constantinople / par Cécile Morrisson

Source:

Mélanges de l'Ecole française de Rome. Moyen-Age, Temps modernes 108 (1996) p. 359-363

 

Index:

Morrisson, Cécile 1940-

Title:

'Lingots de Thessalonique', 'stravati de conto' et 'sommi' de Trébizonde : opérations monétaires dans le monde byzantin tardif d’après des documents vénitiens inédits / Cécile Morrisson, Thierry Ganchou

Source:

Revue Numismatique 165 (2009) p. 163-185

Abstract:

This article adds two unpublished documents from the Archivio di Stato in Venice to the large corpus of texts concerning the complex trade and monetary system of the Later Middle ages. They include an unknown monetary denomination (stravati de conto) and a detailed description of the transportation and transformation of coins in the Black Sea trade. The first document (1408) deals with a contest going back to 1384 between the heirs of a Venetian merchant from Coron and his agent in Constantinople who, in order to settle the 'account of wine, cotton and oil' he had been entrusted with, had bought 'two pieces – peciae, i.e. silver ingots – of Thessalonica' together with 111 stravati de conto [stavrata, silver hyperpyra]. Like in the accounts of Giacomo Badoer (1436-1440), the use of uncoined silver, similar to Western marks, goes together with that of the silver hyperpyra struck in Constantinople since 1367. The other document (1409) dismisses the claim of Pietro Pisani and his sons against Michele Surian, ancient bailo of Venice in Trebizond. The role played by coined and uncoined money in business operations is followed in detail: coins are sent to Trebizond in sacks containing both Venetian soldi and friesachenses, in order to be invested into purchases of goods, whose dearth prevent full investment of the coins which had been converted in sommi in the mint (zecha) of Trebizond. In the melting process, part of the friesachenses were condemned as defective by the magistri summorum and were sent back to the consigner together with the false 'copper' friesachenses and the sommi which could not be invested in silk.

 

Index:

Morrisson, Cécile 1940-

Title:

Prices and wages in the Byzantine world / Cécile Morrisson and Jean-Claude Cheynet

Published

Washington : Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2002

Note:

Offprint from: The economic history of Byzantium : from the seventh through the fifteenth century. Vol. 4 / Angeliki E. Laiou, ed.-in-chief ; scholarly committee Charalambos Bouras ... [et al.]. - Washington : Dumbarton Oaks, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, cop. 2002

 

Index:

Morrisson, Cécile 1940-

Title:

Survivance de l'économie monétaire à Byzance (VIIe-IXe s.) / Cécile Morrisson

Source:

The Dark centuries of Byzantium (7th-9th c.) = Hoi skoteinoi aiōnes tou Vyzantiou (7os - 9os ai.) / ed. Eleonora Kountoura-Galake. - Athens : National Hellenic Research Foundation, Institute for Byzantine Research 2001. - (International symposium / Institute for Byzantine Research ; 9). - P. 377-399

 

Index:

Morrisson, Cécile 1940-

Title:

Les traités d’arithmétique byzantins des XIIIe-XVe siècles : source d’histoire monétaire / Cécile Morrisson

Source:

Revue Numismatique 167 (2011) p. 171-183

Abstract:

The growth of Mediterranean trade from the late 12th century onward, was a great stimulus to the development of accounting techniques. Simultaneously the cross-cultural interchanges between East and West spread new methods of calculations fit to increasingly complex trade transactions and responding to the merchants’ demand. This paper surveys the extant Byzantine mathematical treatises of the 13th to 15th c. and the evolution of their monetary data. A comparison of these with data from other sources is possible for well dated treatises and allow to test the validity of their information. Conversely, for undated treatises (e. g. the two preserved in Vindobonensis gr. 65), it is the monetary data which can contribute to their dating by relating their information on coins and their values with what is known of coin production and use at a given period.

 

Index:

Morrisson, Cécile 1940-

Title:

Weighing, measuring, paying : exchanges in the market and the marketplace / Cécile Morrisson

Source:

Trade and markets in Byzantium / ed. by Cecile Morrisson. - Washington, D.C. : Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, cop. 2012. - (Dumbarton Oaks Byzantine symposia and colloquia). - P. 379-398

Abstract:

Based on texts, inscriptions and archaeological material this paper nalyses tradition and practice from the fourth through the fifteenth c. of the control of market transactions by the Byzantine State.

 

Index:

Papadopoulou, Pagona

Title:

The big problem of small change / Pagona Papadopoulou

Source:

On ikinci ve on üçüncü yüzyıllarda Bizans dünyasında değişim : 1. Uluslararası Sevgi Gönül Bizans Araştırmaları Sempozyumu, İstanbul, 25-28 Haziran 2007 : bildiriler = Change in the Byzantine world in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries : First International Sevgi Gönül Byzantine Studies Symposium, İstanbul, 25-28 June 2007 : proceedings / ed. Ayla Ödeken, Engin Akyürek, Nevra Necipoğlu. - Istanbul : Vehbi Koç Vafki, 2010. - P. 206-210

 

Index:

Papadopoulou, Pagona

Title:

Coinage and economy at the end of the twelfth century : an assessment / Pagona Papadopoulou

Source:

Byzantium, 1180-1204 : 'the sad quarter of a century'? / ed. by Alicia Simpson. - Athens : National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2015. - (Diethnē symposia ; 22). - P. 179-194

 

Index:

Papadopoulou, Pagona

Title:

The numismatic evidence from the southern Adriatic (5th-11th centuries) : some preliminary observations and thoughts / Pagona Papadopoulou

Source:

From one sea to another : trading places in the European and Mediterranean early Middle Ages : proceedings of the International Conference Comacchio, 27th-29th March 2009 = Da un mare allʹaltro ; luoghi di scambio nelʹAlto Medioevo europeo e mediterraneo : atti del Seminario Internazionale Commacchio, 27-29 marzo 2009 / ed. by Sauro Gelichi and Richard Hodges. - Turnhout : Brepols, 2012. - 576 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. - (Seminari del Centro Interuniversitario per la storie e lʹarcheologia dellʹalto medioevo ; 3). - P. 297-320

 

Index:

Pottier, Henri 1933-

Title:

Nouvelle approche de la livre byzantine du Ve au VIIe siècle / Henri Pottier

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 150 (2004) p. 51-133, pl. 1-5

 

Index:

Prigent, Vincent 1971-

Title:

The mobilisation of fiscal resources in the Byzantine Empire (eighth to eleventh centuries) / Vivien Prigent

Source:

Diverging paths? : the shapes of power and institutions in medieval Christendom and Islam / ed. by John Hudson and Ana Rodríguez. - Leiden : Brill, 2014. - (The medieval Mediterranean ; vol. 101). - P. 182-229

 

Index:

Prigent, Vincent 1971-

Title:

Nouvelle hypothèse à propos des monnaies de bronze à double marque de valeur de l'empereur Constantin IV / Vivien Prigent

Source:

Puer apuliae : mélanges offerts à Jean-Marie Martin. Vol. 2 / éd. par Errico Cuozzo ... [et al.]. - Paris : ACHCByz, 2008. - (Monographies / Centre de Recherche d'Histoire et Civilisation de Byzance ; 30). - P. 567-579

 

Index:

Tekin, Oğuz 1958-

Title:

Early Byzantine weights in the Silifke Museum / Oğuz Tekin

Source:

Vir doctus Anatolicus : studies in memory of Sencer Şahin / ed. by Burak Takmer, Ebru N. Akdoğu Arca, Nuray Gökalp Özdil İstanbul : Kabalcı Yayınevi, cop. 2016. - (Philia supplemets ; vol. 1 ). - P. 857-862

Abstract:

The article deals with the early Byzantine weights in the Silifke Museum. In the catalogue there are twenty weights which were placed under four groups. First group consists of the discoid commercial weights while the second group consists of square commercial weights. The third and fourth groups consist of the coin weights. The commercial weights range from three-'unciae' to one-'uncia' while the coin weights range from eighteen-'nomismata' to one-'nomisma'.

 

Index:

Yannopoulos, Panayotis A.

Title:

Le non respect de la monnaie étail-il répréhensible à Byzance? / Panayotis Yannopoulos

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 145 (1999) p. 231-237

 

Index:

Yannopoulos, Panayotis A.

Title:

La réforme de la monnaie de bronze sous Constantin IV à la lumière d’un follis contremarqué de Constant II / P.A. Yannopoulos

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 133 (1987) p. 97-102, pl. 21