33. Coin production, technical aspects

Index:

Alföldi, Maria Radnóti 1926-

Title:

Epigraphische Beiträge zur römischen Münztechnik bis auf Konstantin den Grossen / Maria R. Alföldi

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 39 (1958-1959) p. 35-48

 

Index:

Andreau, Jean 1939-

Title:

Recherches récentes sur les mines romaines. I: Propriété et mode d'exploitation / Jean Andreau

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 31 (1989) p. 86-112

 

Index:

Andreau, Jean 1939-

Title:

Recherches récentes sur les mines romaines. II: Nature de la main d’oeuvre : histoire des techniques et de la production / Jean Andreau

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 32 (1990) p. 85-108

 

Index:

Aubin, Gérard 1947-

Title:

Les moules monétaires en terre cuite du IIIe siècle : chronologie et géographie / Gérard Aubin

Source:

Revue Numismatique 159 (2003) p. 125-162

Abstract:

J.-P. Callu devoted several pages in his thesis (1969) to coin moulds in terra cotta of the Roman period. Since then many important discoveries have been published, though without any debate as to fraudulent use (counterfeit coinage) vs. tolerated use (coinage of necessity). In retrospect one perceives the poor quality of documentation over the past two centuries and the small proportion of discoveries which are of any real usefulness. Limiting itself to moulds of the third century before the tetrarchy, the article focuses on the problems of their dating: it examines in turn the tools, the product and the context of use and abandonment. A map showing ancient administrative divisions completes the study. A phenomenon limited in time (perhaps mostly after 260) and space (the western provinces), the moulding of coins, documented more by the tools than the products, may have been favoured by the dissidence of the Gallo- Roman empire. This article, intended to provoke reflection, concludes with a proposition for a European project for the establishment of a critical index of discoveries placed in their archeo- logical context.

 

Index:

Barrandon, Jean-Noël 1943-2008

Title:

Analyse de monnaies de bronze (318-340) par activation neutronique à l'aide

d'une source isotopique de Californium 252 / Jean-Noël Barrandon, Claude Brenot

Source:

Les 'dévaluations' à Rome : époque républicaine et impériale. 1: (Rome, 13-15 novembre 1975)  / [éd. Georges Vallet]. - Rome : École française de Rome, 1978. – P. 123-144

 

Index:

Bollard, Isabelle

Title:

Nouvelle contribution à l'étude du monnayage en bronze du IVe siècle après J.-C. / Isabelle Bollard et Jean-Noël Barrandon

Source:

Revue Numismatique 162 (2006 ) p. 277-310

Abstract:

Several studies have already been published on the development of silver-plated bronze coinage from the reform of Diocletian to the reign of Theodosius II, which stress mainly on the successive reforms effected during this period. It is clear that these monetary reforms resulted in changes of the weight system and the iconography ; but did they also occasion a change in the composition of the alloy ? These earlier studies do not give a complete picture : they are concerned only with the fineness of the metal and cover neither the whole period in question nor the question of mints. Thanks to a nondestructive method of analysis, through examination with fast neutrons in a cyclotron, we have studied the alloy in 257 Roman coins from mints in the Eastern and Western parts of the Empire. We note that these mints used the same alloy from 324 to 361. Furthermore, analysis of the gold and silver content of the coins reveals that the silver used came from the same source throughout the fourth century. This new information will help one day to answer questions concerning the supply of metals to the mints.

 

Index:

Blet-Lemarquand, Maryse

Title:

Augustus’ gold coinage : investigating mints and provenance through trace element concentrations / Maryse Blet-Lemarquand, Arnaud Suspène & Michel Amandry

Source:

Archaeometallurgy in Europe III : proceedings of the 3rd international conference : June 29-July 1, 2011 / ed.: Andreas Hauptmann. Diana Modarressi-Tehrani. - Bochum : [Deutsches Bergbau-Museum], 2015. - (Der Anschnitt. Beiheft ; 26). - P. 107-113

Abstract:

This paper presents an elemental analysis of more than  seventy gold coins minted by Augustus using mainly LA-ICP-MS and discuss the methodological aspects and  main results. The aurei are made of pure gold showing fineness ranging from 99.2 % to 99.9 %. Comparisons of the platinum and palladium contents are drawn with  published or unpublished results obtained for Hellenistic and Republican gold coins. The Hellenistic gold coins can unexpectedly be discarded as the source for Augustus’ minted gold. The different numismatic series of Augustan aurei present different ‘chemical patterns’. The gold struck before the ‘Spanish’ issues c. 19-18 can

always be linked with the gold minted at the end of the  Roman Republic and we suppose that the same gold supplies were still available for Augustus (the melting  down of older coins seems to be less likely). On the  contrary, the gold used in Lyon from 15 onwards appears  to be a real break in the supply of gold. We suggest that

the ‘Lyonnese gold’ came from the mines of Northwest  Hispania conquered by Augustus in 19 BC, first in the form of war spoils.

 

Index:

Butcher, Kevin Edward Templar

Title:

The denarius in the first century / K. Butcher & M. Ponting

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. I / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : [International Numismatic Council]. 2011. – P. 557-568

 

Index:

Butcher, Kevin Edward Templar

Title:

Rome and the East : production of Roman provincial coinage from Caesarea in Cappadocia under Vespasian, AD 69-79 / K. Butcher and M. J. Ponting

Source:

Oxford Journal of Archaeology 14 (1995) 1 p. 63-79

Abstract:

During the first three centuries AD several eastern provinces of the Roman empire produced silver coinages of specijically local denominations and types. It has been claimed that at certain periods the mint of Rome was employed to strike some of these coinages, rather than the provincial mints to which the coins are traditionally attributed. This claim is based mainly on stylistic observations, but because style is regarded as subjective, some other form of evidence to support these observations is desirable. In this paper three types of coin are submitted to metallurgical analysis: silver denarii struck at Rome; Roman-style provincial silver coinage; and ‘local’ style provincial silver coinage. The aim is to discover whether the Rome-style and ‘local’ style coins have different trace element projiles, and whether these might indicate different ore sources or reJining techniques. The results are then compared with Roman denarii to see whether there are any similarities between the denarii and the Rome-style provincial silver coins.

 

Index:

Butcher, Kevin Edward Templar

Title:

The Roman denarius under the Julio-Claudian emperors : mints, metallurgy and technology / K. Butcher and Matthew Ponting

Source:

Oxford Journal of Archaeology 24 (2005) 2 p. 163-194

Abstract:

The results of the chemical analysis of 78 silver denarii issued by the Julio-Claudian emperors are presented and interpreted against the available numismatic, archaeological and historical information. Earlier surface analyses are found to be incorrect, especially for the coinage of Nero, and the reasons for this are investigated. The new elemental data are augmented by a subset of coins being subjected to lead isotope analysis and the results of this are found to complement these data in unexpected ways.

 

Index:

Butcher, Kevin Edward Templar

Title:

The silver coinage of Roman Syria under the Julio-Claudian emperors / Kevin Butcher and Matthew Ponting

Source:

Levant 41 (2009) 1 p. 59-78

Abstract:

Analyses of 71 Roman provincial silver coins of the Julio-Claudian emperors (27 BC–AD 68) minted at Caesarea in Cappadocia and Antioch and Tyre in Syria are discussed in this paper. The finenesses of the alloys are presented and it is proposed that there was a logical relationship between the standards used for Caesarea and Antioch. Trace element profiles and selected lead isotope analyses help to characterize the products of the different mints, and also demonstrate that one particular issue of coinage, normally attributed to a mint in Syria, was probably produced at Caesarea in Cappadocia. During this period minting of silver at Tyre was discontinued and trace elements suggest that some of the later Antiochene coinage may have been produced from recycled Tyrian silver.

 

Index:

Butcher, Kevin Edward Templar

Title:

A study of the chemical composition of Roman silver coinage, AD 196-197 / Kevin Butcher and Matthew Ponting ; with a contrib. by  Graham Chandler

Source:

American Journal of Numismatics 2nd ser. 9 (1997) p. 17-36

 

Index:

Caley, Earle Radcliffe 1900-1984

Title:

Chemical composition of Antoniniani of Trajan Decius, Trebonianus Gallus, and Valerian / Earle R. Caley and Harold D. McBride

Source:

Ohio Journal of Science 56 (1956) 5 (September) p. 285-289

 

Index:

Caley, Earle Radcliffe 1900-1984

Title:

Orichalcum and related ancient alloys : origin, composition and manufacture : with special reference to the coinage of the Roman Empire / by Earle R. Caley

Series:

Numismatic notes and monographs ; no. 151

Published:

New York : American Numismatic Society, 1964

 

Index:

Caley, Earle Radcliffe 1900-1984

Title:

Sulfur in Roman brass / Earle R. Caley

Source:

Ohio Journal of Science 61 (1961) 3 (may) p. 151-154

 

Index:

Callataÿ, François Philippe Edouard Léon de 1961-

Title:

Le poids exceptionnel de certaines émissions de deniers romains républicains ou comment résister à la tentation de construire une grande hypothèse historique / François de Callataÿ

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 150 (2004) p. 1-13

 

Index:

Carter, Giles F.

Title:

Chemical compositions of copper-based Roman coins. V: Imitations of Caligula, Claudius and Nero / G. F. Carter … [et al.]

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 20 (1978) p. 69-88

 

Index:

Condamin, Jeanne

Title:

Etude de quelques problèmes analytiques propres aux monnaies antiques (argent, cuivre) / Jeanne Condamin et Maurice Picon

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 6 (1964) p. 69-89

 

Index:

Condamin, Jeanne

Title:

Techniques romaines. I: Exemplaires cisaillés avant la frappe exemplaires frappés froid / Jeanne Condamin, Julien Guey, Maurice Picon

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 7 (1965) p. 123-133

 

Index:

Depeyrot, Georges 1953-

Title:

Les 'aes' 4 rognés du 5e siècle: mythe ou réalité ? : question de technologie monétaire / Georges Depeyrot

Source:

Bulletin du Cercle d'Études Numismatiques 42 (2010) 1 (janivier-april) p. 211-216

 

Index:

Deraisme, Aurélie

Title:

A study of the silvering process of the Gallo-Roman coins forged during the third century AD / A. Deraisme ... [et al.]

Source:

Archaeometry 48 (2006) 3 p. 469-480

Abstract:

We have observed by fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA) that the global composition of the official silver coins of the Gallic emperor Postumus is not the same as those from the contemporary unofficial mints. In order to explain this phenomenon, we have carried out a metallographic study of the artefacts. Then, we have re-created the silvering process of unofficial coins in order to better understand the manufacturing process of silvering. The different steps of the replication process are explained in this paper.

 

Index:

Esty, Warren W.

Title:

The alloy of the 'XI' coins of Tacitus / Warren Esty, Nancy Equall and Richard J. Smith

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 153 (1993) p. 201-204

Abstract:

The very rare radiates of Tacitus (AD 275-6) distinguished by XI or IA in the mint mark have more silver than other radiates.

 

Index:

Esty, Warren W.

Title:

The contribution of surface silvering to silver content / Warren Esty

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 151 (1991) p. 226-228

Abstract:

Low-silver Roman coins from the late third and early fourth centuries AD originally had a thin applied surface silvering. The contribution of that silver to the total silver content is discussed.

 

Index:

Găzdac, Cristian Anton 1970-

Title:

A counterfeiter's fingerprint on a forged denarius of Marcus Aurelius / by Cristian Găzdac and Călin Cosma

Published:

London : Royal Numismatic Society, 2014

Note:

Offprint from: Numismatic Chronicle 174 (2014). - P. 125-128, pl. 17-19

 

Index:

Gitler, Haim 1962-

Title:

An assemblage of ‘official’ cast Severan denarii from the Levant / Haim Gitler and Matthew Ponting

Source:

XII. Internationaler Numismatischer Kongress Berlin 1997 : Akten = proceedings = actes. I / hrsg. von Bernd Kluge und Bernhard Weisser. - Berlin : Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, 2000. – P. 531-539

Abstract:

The assemblage includes 21 cast ‘denarii’, whose moulds were made from official Roman denarii minted during the reign of Septimius Severus. This find includes 8 different types of coins of Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla and Geta. From four of these types we have silver-alloy coins, as well as the same coin in copper. From the other four coins there are only copper examples. In addition to the coins, the assemblage includes pieces of production refuse; a 'branch' with an attached coin, several other 'branches', two 'puddles' and a riser. This group is of interest from several stand-points.  There is a technical difference between the production method used for the coins in this assemblage and that used for the contemporary European finds. These coins were cast in 'tree-formed' moulds, whilst the European examples were cast in moulds which were arranged horizontally in 'stacks'. The silver-alloy coins in the assemblage are remarkable in that their silver content is 57% as opposed to that of the official issues, which has been recently shown to be only 46%.

 

Index:

Gitler, Haim 1962-

Title:

Rome and the East : a study of the chemical composition of Roman silver coinage during the reign of Septimius Severus, AD 193-211 / [Haim Gitler and Matthew Ponting]

Source:

Productions et échanges dans la Syrie grecque et romaine : actes du colloque de Tours, juin 2003 / textes réunis par M. Sartre. - Lyon : Maison de l'Orient Méditerranéen, 2007 - P. 375-397

 

Index:

Guey, Julien 1910-1993

Title:

Techniques romaines. II: Encore les bronzes cisaillés avant la frappe / Julien Guey

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 8 (1966) p. 33-60

 

Index:

Guey, Julien 1910-1993

Title:

L'aloi du denier romain de 177 à 211 après J.-C. : (étude descriptive) / Julien Guey

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 4 (1962) p. 73-140

 

Index:

Guey, Julien 1910-1993

Title:

Exploration spectrographique d'un antoninianus de Caracalla / Julien Guey et Jeanne Condamin

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 3 (1961) p. 51-73

 

Index:

Haeberlin, Ernst Justus 1847-1925

Title:

Die metrologischen Grundlagen der altesten mittelitalischen Munzsysteme / [E.J. Haeberlin]

Source:

Zeitschrift für Numismatik 27 (1909) p. 1-115

 

Index:

Hoyer, Daniel

Title:

Calculating the use-wear rates of Roman coins using regression analysis : a case study of bronze 'sestertii' from Imperial Gaul / Daniel Hoyer

Source:

American Journal of Numismatics 2nd ser. 25 (2013) p. 259-282

Abstract:

This article presents the results of a multiple linear regression analysis performed on a database of 6,653 bronze sestertii minted at Rome between 69 and 253 CE from hoards found in Roman Gaul, seeking to establish a reliable use-wear rate for the Roman sestertius. After describing the methodology used for this analysis, I offer a critique of Duncan-Jones’ 1994 attempt to calculate the use-wear rate of Roman coins then describe the results of my analyses, highlighting the benefits of employing multiple linear regression. I conclude by offering examples of how this type of analysis can be used to draw novel conclusions about important numismatic, fiscal, and economic issues.

 

Index:

Klein, Sabine

Title:

The early Roman Imperial ‘aes’ coinage : metal analysis and numismatic studies. Pt. 1 / Sabine Klein, Hans-Markus von Kaenel

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 79 (2000) p. 53-106

Summary:

241 copper coins of the Emperors Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula and Claudius from the Rome mint were analysed for bulk chemical composition by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The elemental pattern of the copper was used to identify developments in its chemical composition. The analysis illuminated many aspects of the coinage, and above all revealed that over the period the copper used became increasingly pure chemically. Dated and official coinage from the Rome mint was studied, and it was possible to relate undated coins of Tiberius (the DIWS AVGVSTVS PATER series) to dated Tiberian issues. The Agrippa asses were shown to be linked to Caligulan rather than to Tiberian asses. Some Claudian imitations may be recycled from late Tiberian 'asses'.

 

Index:

Kos, Peter 1950-

Title:

Interpretacija (antičnih) novčnih najdb : metodologija - njene možnosti in pasti / Peter Kos

Source:

Arheološki Vestnik 48 (1997) p. 97-115

 

Index:

Le Roy, Max

Title:

Métrologie des monnaies romaines d'airain : des origines au IIe siècle après J.-C. / Max Le Roy

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 1 (1958) p. 27-46

 

Index:

Pellé, Richard

Title:

Flans monétaires d’as de Nîmes / Richard Pellé, Maryse Blet-Lemarquand

Source:

Revue Numismatique 171 (2014) p. 341-352

Abstract:

This study focuses on two monetary blanks found during the excavation of the parking on Avenue Jean-Jaurès in Nimes. Several reasons, weight, dimensions, shaping and place of discovery, may related them to the mint of asses of Nimes struck under Augustus. The manufacture of these blanks is discussed. Analyses of the metal composition of these blanks complete this study by assigning a monetary series, serie II. A comparison between one of these blanks and the medal known as ‘foot boar’ is also established.

 

Index:

Pfisterer, Matthias

Title:

Die Herstellungstechnik Subferrater Kopien römischer Buntmetallmünzen : ein praktisches Experiment / Matthias Pfisterer, René Traum

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 84 (2005) p. 125-135, pls. 7-8

Abstract:

Along the Roman 'limes' in Austria and in the adjacent areas of Noricum and Pannonia there circulated, mainly in the Severan Period, considerable quantities of iron core copies of Roman aes change. The practical experiment which is described here explores the method of manufacturing these copies from the production of copper-coated blanks and the dies to the actual striking process. A specific role is played in this by the strange fact that some of the iron core coins seem to be struck with official dies, which can hardly be the case. In fact the dies for such coins were produced in a mechanical way by striking, using official coins as the punch. The experiment shows how well this method in fact works.

 

Index:

Pilon, Fabien

Title:

Un fait unique en Gaule romaine : la découverte de moules à flans monétaires en Pierre Calcaire / Fabien Pilon

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 82 (2003) p. 37-54, pls. 3-5

Abstract:

Two limestone moulds for casting blanks were recently found at Châteaubleau (France) during the excavations of an irregular but highly technical mint which was active in the course of the 3rd century AD. One was twofold and complete, and was evidently used, while the other, a matrice, was discarded before it was completed. The alveoles which were related by small channels were calibrated for casting blanks for imitations of double sestertii of Postumus which were produced in the years 266-270 in the principal inofficial mint, the «atelier II», which seems to be very similar to the officinae of Châteaubleau. This find is exceptional in several respects. Not only is it the first stone mould from the Gallo-Roman period, it is also the latest and the most western of them, at a big distance from those found on Cyprus or in the Middle East which date from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. It thus confirms that this type of mould for the mass production of blanks for bronze coins was widely used in antiquity.

 

Index:

Pilon, Fabien

Title:

Four coin production techniques used in three 'officinae' of Châteublau (ca 260-280 AD) / Fabien Pilon

Source:

XIII Congreso Internacional de Numismática, Madrid, 2003 : actas = proceedings = actes. I / ed. por Carmen Alfaro, Carmen Marcos y Paloma Otero. - Madrid : Ministerio de Cultura, Subdirección General de Publicaciones, Información y Documentación, 2005. - P. 793-802

 

Index:

Reece, Richard

Title:

The chemical analysis of Roman coins : past and future  / R. Reece

Source:

The archaeologist and the laboratory / ed. by Patricia Phillips. - London : The Council for British Archaeology, 1985

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

The adjustment al marco of the weight of Roman Republican denarii blanks by gouging / Clive Stannard

Source:

Metallurgy in numismatics. Vol. 3 / ed. by M.M. Archibald and M.R. Cowell. - London : Royal Numismatic Society, 1993. - P. 45-70

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

L'aggiustamento al marco : dei tondelli di denari della Repubblica Romana con l'uso di sgorbie / Clive Stannard

Source:

Quaderno di Studi [del Circolo numismatico 'Mario Rasile'] 25 (gennaio-febbraio 1998) p. 3-31

 

Index:

Suspène, Arnaud

Title:

Les monnaies d’or d’Auguste : l’apport des analyses élémentaires et le problème de l'atelier de Nîmes / Arnaud Suspène, Maryse Blet-Lemarquand, Michel Amandry

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. I / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : International Numismatic Council, 2011. - P. 1073-1080, pl. 1