22. Austria, Slovenia, Pannonia

Index:

Dembski, Günther 1943-

Title:

Monetary supply in Noricum / Günther Dembski

Source:

XIII Congreso Internacional de Numismática, Madrid, 2003 : actas = proceedings = actes. I / ed. por Carmen Alfaro, Carmen Marcos y Paloma Otero. - Madrid : Ministerio de Cultura, Subdirección General de Publicaciones, Información y Documentación, 2005. - P. 1003-1004

 

Index:

Dimt, Heidelinde

Title:

Fundmünzen vom Georgenberg bei Micheldorf / von Heidelinde Dimt

Source:

Jahrbuch des Oö. Musealvereines Gesellschaft für Landeskunde 124 (1979) p. 27-32, pl. 3-4

 

Index:

Filipović, Slavica

Title:

Die spätantike Nekropole in Zmajevac (Kroatien) : Übersicht numismatischer Funde Beitrag über die Erforschung des Umlaufs von Münzen am Donau-Limes in Pannonien / Slavica Filipović, Tomislav Šeparović

Source:

Akten des 5. Österreichischen Numismatikertages, Enns, 21-22. Juni 2012 / hrsg. von Michael Alram, Hubert Emmerig und Reinhardt Harreither. - Linz : Gesellschaft für Landeskunde und Denkmalpflege Oberösterreich, 2014. - (Forschungen in Lauriacum ; Bd. 15). - P. 119-132

 

Index:

Găzdac, Cristian Anton 1970-

Title:

The coins of the archaeological excavations at Heidentor (1998-1999) / [Cristian Găzdac]

Source:

Carnuntum Jahrbuch 2000 (2001) p. 215-257

 

Index:

Găzdac, Cristian Anton 1970-

Title:

Did Charon read his obol? : the message of coin offering in. Roman graves from Pannonia / Cristian Găzdac

Source:

Dacia nouv. sér. 58 (2014) p. 95-140

Abstract:

The presence of monetary offering in Roman graves is a well-known fact and most frequently it has been associated with the myth of Charon – the ferryman to the underworld. This work goes beyond the simple presentation of new coin offerings. Following the study of the message on the coin reverse, the comparative analysis, and the place of coin within the archaeological, funerary and historic contents, the author demonstrates the existence of an individual behaviour connected to the meaning of Charon’s myth. Therefore, this study shows cases when the coin is placed in the grave as an automatic fact in order to follow the tradition, but also situations of a deep respect for the Styx crossing through the eschatological message the coin could bear on reverse. At the same time, this second aspect also reveals the fact that the message on the coin reverse could have been easily given a different interpretation that was intended officially by the issuing authority.The Pannonian necropolises from Carnuntum (Petronell-Carnuntum, Austria), Aquincum (Budapesta, Hungary) and Matrica (Százhalombatta-Dunafüred, Hungary) were taken into account for this study as they were well documented and published. The main conclusion of this study is the fact that the reverse of the coin placed in the grave does not count only as a simple respect for a long term tradition on the Charon’s obol but also a deliberate selection of those coin that could express a certain idea/perspective on the world across the Styx.

 

Index:

Găzdac, Cristian Anton 1970-

Title:

Monetary circulation in Pannonia Superior : the territories of Carnuntum and Vindobona : from Trajan to Constantine I (AD 98-337) / Cristian Găzdac

Source:

'Eine ganz normale Inschrift' ... und ähnliches zum Geburtstag von Ekkehard Weber : Festschrift zum 30. April 2005 / hrsg. von Franziska Beutler und Wolfgang Hameter ; unter Mitarb. von Robert Beutler ... [et al.]. - Wien : Eigenverlag der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Archäologie, 2005. - P. 489-506

 

Index:

Găzdac, Cristian Anton 1970-

Title:

Regalianvs and Dryantilla reloaded : the new evidence from Carnuntum / Cristian Găzdac

Source:

Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology 2 (2015) 2 p. 37-42

Abstract:

The present work deals with the new numismatic evidence coming from two excavations at the archaeological site of Carnuntum (nowadays, Petronell-Carnuntum, Asutria). Three more coins of the usurper couple of Regalianus and Dryantilla can throw a new light on the location of the mint that issued these coins.

 

Index:

Găzdac, Cristian Anton 1970-

Title:

'…Some of them crushed and perishing under the weight of the buildings pressing upon them' : the earthquake in Carnuntum, coin finds in archaeological context / Cristian Găzdac, Franz Humer, Andreas Konecny

Source:

Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology 2 (2015) 1 p. 72-80

Abstract:

The present study presents the connection between the earthquakes and the Roman coinage from iconography to relief funds from the state. The main part is dedicated to the case of the ‘civilian’ settlement of Carnuntum in Pannonia Superior (nowadays, Petronell-Carnuntum, Austria). The archaeological excavations and the coin finds related to the pre- and post-earthquake phases reveal the way the Romans have reconstruct/repair the edifices after this event at the mid-4th century AD.

 

Index:

Găzdac, Cristian Anton 1970-

Title:

Zivilstadt Carnuntum, Haus I : the numismatic approach of an archaeological site / Cristian Găzdac, Franz Humer

Published:

Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2004

Note:

Offprint from: Carnuntum Jahrbuch 2004 (2004) p. 179-240

 

Index:

Humer, Franz

Title:

The hoard from Haus I in the civilian town of Carnuntum : a daily life disaster / Franz Humer, Cristian Găzdac

Source:

Acta Musei Napocensis 41-42 (2004-2005) 1 p. 261-290

 

Index:

Kellner, Hans-Jörg 1920-

Title:

Römische Fundmünzen vom Martinsbühel und der Münzumlauf in Raetien im 4. Jahrhundert / Hans-Jörg Kellner

Source:

Veröffentlichungen des Tiroler Landesmuseums Ferdinandeum 78 (1998) p. 89-114

 

Index:

Kellner, Hans-Jörg 1920-

Title:

Ein römischer Münzschatz von Navis-Mühlen im Wipptal / von Hans-Jörg Kellner, Liselotte Zemmer-Plank und Elisabeth Kellner

Source:

Veröffentlichungen des Tiroler Landesmuseums Ferdinandeum 64 (1984) p. 57-236

 

Index:

Kos, Peter 1950-

Title:

Analiza novčnih najdb = The analysis of the coin finds / Peter Kos

Source:

Ekonomski forum = Emona forum / Ljudmila Plesničar Gec. - Koper : Založba Annales, 2006. - P. 71-84

 

Index:

Kos, Peter 1950-

Title:

The construction and abandonment of the 'Claustra Alpium Iuliarum' defence system in light of the numismatic material / Peter Kos

Source:

Arheološki Vestnik 63 (2012) p. 265-300

Abstract:

The article analyses all documented coin finds from the fortifications in the Claustra Alpium Iuliarum defence system. The author interprets fluctuations in the intensity of monetary circulation that would reflect life or activity at individual forts. Coin finds are also presented from archaeological contexts that can definitely be connected to building activities on walled defensive structures. Data are presented about the latest coins from individual fortifications, which indicate an interruption in the regular influx of money into circulation and thus also a break in the intensity of life at the fortifications. In this manner, it is established that the first construction activities in building the fort of Castra can be placed as early as the 280s, while otherwise rare coin finds in the towers of the defence system indicate building activities no earlier than the mid 4th century. Coin finds show an interruption in monetary circulation at the Lanišče and Martinj hrib forts at the end of the 380s, at Tarsatica at the end of the 4th century, while coins also from the beginning of the 5th century were found at the forts of Castra and Ad Pirum.

 

Index:

Kos, Peter 1950-

Title:

A hoard of Roman Republican and Norican coins from the vicinity of Kobarid / Peter Kos and Beatriče Žbona Trkman

Source:

Arheološki Vestnik 60 (2009) p. 271-282

 

Index:

Kos, Peter 1950-

Title:

Novčnih najdb = Coin finds / Peter Kos

Source:

Poznoantična utrjena naselbina Tonovcov grad pri Kobaridu. Najdbe = Late antique fortified settlement Tonovcov grad pri Kobaridu. Finds / Tina Milavec, Zvezdana Modrijan ; sodelavci: Peter Kos ... [et al.]. - Ljubjana : Založba ZRC, 2011. - (Opera Instituti Archaeologici Sloveniae ; 24). - P. 221-238

 

Index:

Kos, Peter 1950-

Title:

Ein pannonischer Gegenstempel der Ala II Arvacorum / von Peter Kos

Published:

[S.l. : s.n., 1984]

Note:

Offprint from: Germania 62 (1984) 1 p. 47-54

 

Index:

Kos, Peter 1950-

Title:

Ein Schatzfund konstantinischer Folles aus Celje / Peter Kos

Source:

Arheološki Vestnik 35 (1984) p. 325-336

 

Index:

Kos, Peter 1950-

Title:

Sub principe Gallieno ... amissa Raetia? : numismatische Quellen zum Datum 259/260 n. Chr. in Raetien / Peter Kos

Published:

[S.l. : s.n., 1995]

Note:

Offprint from: Germania 73 (1995) p. 131-144

 

Index:

Krmnicek, Stefan

Title:

Coins in odd context / Stefan Krmnicek

Source:

Lege artis : Festschrift für Hans-Markus von Kaenel / hrsg. von Fleur Kemmers, Thomas Maurer und Britta Rabe. - Bonn : Habelt, 2014. - (Frankfurter archäologische Schriften ; 25). - P. 173-183

 

Index:

Krmnicek, Stefan

Title:

Früher Münzgebrauch und Geldverkehr am Magdalensberg / Stefan Krmnicek

Source:

Der obere Donauraum 50 v. bis 50 n. Chr. / Ute Lohner-Urban, Peter Scherrer (Hg.) ; unter Mitarb. von Johanna Kraschitze. - Berlin : Frank & Timme, 2015. - (Region im Umbruch ; Bd. 10). - P. 227-238

 

Index:

Krmnicek, Stefan

Title:

Numismatische Oberflächenfunde aus dem Vicus und Tempelbezirk bei St. Michael am Zollfeld /

Source:

Rudolfinum (2003) p. 137-144

 

Index:

Markl, Andreas 1829-1913

Title:

Oberösterreichische Fundmünzen. A: Die antiken Fundmünzen des. Museums Museums Francisco Carolinum / fundstättenweise in alphabetischer beschrieben von Andreas Markl

Source:

Bericht über das Museum Francisco-Carolinum 56 (1898)

 

Index:

Miškec, Alenka

Title:

Analysis of the coin finds from the graves in the northern cemetery of Emona / Alenka Miškec

Source:

Emona : med Akvilejo in Panonijo = between Aquileia and Pannonia / zbrali in ured.: Irena Lazar & Bernarda Županek. - Koper : Univerza na Primorskem, Znanstveno-Raziskovalno Središče, Inštitut za Dediščino Sredozemlja, 2012. - P. 133-141

Abstract:

An analysis of Roman coins as grave goods in the northern cemetery of Emona revealed that these appear in only 15 % of graves, contesting the classical notion of placing coins in graves to cover Charon’s fare into the afterlife. Namely, Roman written sources convey the following: Charon only demanded a small amount for fare, one or two bronze coins, and the money had to be placed into the mouth. In cases where graves contained several coins, these cannot be considered as fare for Charon anymore, even less so if these were made from precious metals, i.e. silver or gold. These were placed in the graves due to their special significance to the deceased. When coins are part of jewellery, this is a secondary use of coins, functioning as any other jewellery in the grave context. We can conclude that the placing of coins in graves was not an obligatory part of the funerary ritual and people did not nurture this tradition en masse.

 

Index:

Miškec, Alenka

Title:

Augustan conquest of southeastern Alpine and western Pannonian areas : coins and hoards / Alenka Miškec

Source:

Arheološki Vestnik 60 (2009) p. 283–296

Abstract:

Final Roman control over the region of the southeastern Alps and western Pannonia was achieved in the Augustan period. Analysis of the monetary circulation in this region shows an increased quantity of coinage in circulation. Four types of bronze coins are important: the coins of the Divos Iulius type, coins of the provincial mint in Nemausus, bronze coins from the mints in Rome and Lugdunum. Coin finds from the Augustan period discovered in Slovenia – because of their highly varied contexts of discovery – represent an additional challenge in interpretation. They consist of the following: individual coin finds from the Augustan military camp at Obrežje, a small hoard from Povir near Sežana, and numerous individual finds of bronze and silver coins from two urban areas: Celeia (Celje) and Emona (Ljubljana). It may be concluded that the early Augustan emissions of bronze coinage, particularly the coins from the mint of Nemausus of series I and II, and the Altar I series of coins from the mint of Lugdunum, along with the silver coins of this mint, can be related to Roman military activities in 14–8 BC and also to important strategic points, such as Nauportus (Vrhnika) and Emona. The moneyers’ coins of the mint in Rome were for the most part in use throughout a lengthy period. The military camp at Obrežje must be dated to a later period, 6–9 AD, due to the absence of bronze coins from the mint of Nemausus and coins of the Altar I series from the mint of Lugdunum.

 

Index:

Miškec, Alenka

Title:

The early romanization of the southeastern Alpine Region in the light of numismatic finds / Alenka Miškec

Source:

Arheološki Vestnik 54 (2003) p. 369-379

Abstract:

'Victoriatii', which can be assigned with a great deal of certainty to the first half of the 2nd century BC, appear to a great extent in the southwestern part of Slovenia, in Notranjska region. Their appearance reflects the early phase of Romanization in this region. At the same time, a total lack of such coins can be traced in more northern areas, particularly that of the Norican kingdom, which undoubtedly indicates that the course of Roman penetration was first oriented toward the Balkans. This is further proven by other archaeological finds from this region and the scarce written sources.

 

Index:

Miškec, Alenka

Title:

Hoards of the Roman period in Slovenia from the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD / Alenka Miškec

Source:

Vjesnik Arheološkog Muzeja u Zagrebu 3. s. 45 (2012) p. 379-390

Abstract:

In the present article we discuss hoard finds from the territory of the Republic of Slovenia, and specifically from the period from the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD. The number of hoards approaches 80, which does not include four votive hoards and numerous hoards that were found in graves. The finds in the period under consideration are dominated by those that can be connected with military activities; these are certainly the finds from 150–146 BC, from the middle of the 1st century AD, from the Augustan period, from the period of the civil wars, and from the period of the Marcomannic Wars.

 

Index:

Nađ, Miroslav

Title:

Coin circulation AD 193-423 / Miroslav Nađ

Source:

The archaeology of Roman southern Pannonia : the state of research and selected problems in the Croatian part of the Roman province of Pannonia / ed. by Branka Migotti. - Oxford : Archaeopress, 2012. - (BAR international series ; 2393). - P. 385-394

 

Index:

Prokisch, Bernhard

Title:

Antike Fundmünzen aus Lauriacum : die Sammlung Spatt/Enns / von Bernhard Prokisch

Source:

Jahrbuch des Oberösterreichischen Musealvereines 134 (1989) p. 13-61

 

Index:

Ramskold, Lars

Title:

Methods for authenticating ancient bronze coins : a case study of Constantine's ‘Pannonian cap’ coin / Lars Ramskold, Ronald Bude, Zachary Beasley

Source:

Niš & Byzantium 14 (2016) p. 87-121

Abstract:

The most discussed and controversial of all ancient bronze coins is the so called Pannonian cap coin, discovered in 2003, showing Constantine I wearing a pillbox cap. We have examined every detail of this coin through stereoscopic wet and dry study, physical probing, iconographical analysis, die matching, and two types of radiological analyses: XEDS and micro-CT scanning. Each individual way of investigation indicates that the coin is ancient, and we are confident that it was produced in 318-319 CE. It shares the obverse die with a second Cap coin, discovered in 2012, which is thus also ancient. We identify the reverse die of the 2003 coin as engraved by an Imperial Mint engraver, and since the two coins share the same obverse die, it is likely but not certain that they were produced at the Imperial Mint of Siscia. Nor is it certain that they were officially sanctioned. We show that headgear seen on early 4th C art - including the porphyry tetrarchs in Venice and Niš; the Arch of Constantine; the great hunt mosaic in the Roman villa at Piazza Armerina; and on numerous palaeochristian sarcophagi - conventionally identified as the ‘Pannonian cap’ of Vegetius, is in fact the headgear of the lictors – the state-paid summoners - at the time. We accordingly identify the pillbox cap on the two coins as that of a lictor.

 

Index:

Schachinger, Ursula 1968-

Title:

Die Münzen aus der Brandschicht II/II+ der Insula XLI von Flavia Solva / (Ursula Schachinger)

Source:

Ein Brandhorizont aus der Zeit der Markomannenkriege im südostnorischen Munizipium Flavia Solva / Christoph Hinker ; mit Beitr. von Günter Christandl und Ursula Schachinger. - Wien : Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut, 2014. - (Zentraleuropaische Archaologie ; 4). - P. 121-127

 

Index:

Schachinger, Ursula 1968-

Title:

Das Münzspektrum aus Großen Thermen, Macellum und Schola im Zentrum der Zivilstadt Carnuntum / Ursula Schachinger

Source:

Große Thermen, Palästra, Macellum und Schola im Zentrum der Colonia Carnuntum / Helga Sedlmayer ; mit Beitr. von Stefan Groh ... [et al.]. - Wien : Österreichisches Archäologisches Institut, 2015. – (Zentraleuropaische Archaologie ; 5). – P. 271-318

 

Index:

Schachinger, Ursula 1968-

Title:

Die Sitte der Münzbeigabe in römerzeitlichen Gräbern am Beispiel der Gräberfelder von Lauriacum / Ursula Schachinger

Source:

Rituale - identitätsstiftende Handlungskomplexe : 2. Tagung des Zentrums Archäologie und Altertumswissenschaften an der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2./3. November 2009 / hrsg. von Georg Danek und Irmtraud Hellerschmid. - Wien : Verlag der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2012. - (Denkschriften / Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-historische Klasse ; Bd. 437). - P. 159-170