25. Barbaricum, Scandinavia, Poland, Baltics, Russia

Index:

Alföldy-Găzdac, Ágnes

Title:

Coins in funerary context / Ágnes Găzdac Alföldy, Cristian Găzdac

Source:

Ex officina ... : studia in honorem Dénes Gabler / Bíró Szilvia [Hrsg.]. - Győr : Mursella Régészeti Egyesület, 2009. - P. 161-174

 

Index:

Arslan, Ermanno A. 1940-

Title:

Uno statere d'oro dalla Georgia a Vercelli e un incidente di percorso / Ermanno A. Arslan

Source:

Annotazioni Numismatiche 27 (1997) p. 607-609

 

Index:

Beliën, Paulus Antonius Maria 1967-

Title:

Goud van Franken en Romeinen / Paul Beliën

Source:

De Beeldenaar 33 (2009) 1 (januari-februari) p. 13-19

 

Index:

Biborski, Marcin

Title:

Nietulisko Małe : hoard I rediscovered : preliminary information / Marcin Biborski, Jarosław Bodzek, Piotr Kaczanowski

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 5 (2004) p. 49-59, pl. 1-2

 

Index:

Bodzek, Jarosław Artur

Title:

The Ascalon coin found at Zarzecze, Przemyśl voivodship / Jarosław Bodzek, Renata Madyda-Legutko

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 3-4 (1999) p. 141-150, pl. 2

 

Index:

Bodzek, Jarosław Artur

Title:

Einige Bemerkungen über den Schatzfund von Laskowa, Woiw. Nowy Sącz / Jarosław Bodzek, Renata Madyda-Legutko

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 2 (1997) p. 108-118

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

The Battle of Abritus, the imperial treasury and aurei in Barbaricum / by Aleksander Bursche

Published:

London : Royal Numismatic Society, 2013

Note:

Offprint from: Numismatic Chronicle 173 (2013) p. 151-170, pl. pl. 32-37

Abstract:

From the region between the southern Baltic seaboard and Ukraine, territory of Gothic culture settlement, we have records of a great many aurei of Trajan Decius and his immediate predecessors. The early years of the 21st century have witnessed a considerable increase in these finds, the result of widespread amateur metal detector use. In contrast, elsewhere in Barbaricum the same issues are very seldom recorded. All the aurei are pierced above the head of the emperor and some were deliberately chopped into fragments prior to deposition. This treatment of gold coins is not noted elsewhere in Barbaricum or within the Roman Empire. The coins described here are quite certain to be the remains of plunder taken by Goths after their defeat of the Romans at Abritus in AD 251. It is very likely that the entire imperial treasury was captured by the Gothic troops. This is because the Augustus himself and his son, Herennius Etruscus, were killed in that battle. The capture of so many tonnes of gold by the barbarians may be the direct cause of the deterioration in the quality of the aureus under the successors of Trajan Decius. The chopping of the coins into fragments prior to their deposition, that is, a de facto destruction of the enemy’s portrait and annihilation of his power, shows that they must have been a part of the plunder. The destruction of booty  aken from defeated enemies is a typically Germanic custom, attested also by the bog deposits of northern Europe.

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Circulation of Roman coinage in Northern Europe in Late Antiquity / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Histoire & Mesure 17 (2002) 3-4 p. 121-144

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Coins / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Wealth and prestige : an analysis of rich graves from Late Roman Iron Age on eastern Zealand, Denmark / ed. by Linda Boye and Ulla Lund Hansen. - Taastrup : Kroppedal Museum, 2009. - P. 185-189

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Contacts between the Late Roman Empire and North-Central Europe / by Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Antiquaries Journal 76 (1996) p. 31-50

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Contacts between the Roman Empire and the Mid-European Barbaricum in the light of coin finds / Aleksander Bursche

Published:

Wetteren : Cultura, [1986]

Note:

Offprint from: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Numismatics = Actes du 10ème Congrès International de Numismatique, London, September 1986 / ed. by L.A. Carradice ; with P. Attwood … [et al.]. - Wetteren : Cultura, 1986. – P. 279-287

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Czy skarb z Połańca był łupem z bitwy w Lesie Teutoburskim? / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Nunc de suebis dicendum est : studia archaeologica et historica Georgii Kolendo ab amici et discipuli dicata : studia dedykowane profesorowi Jerzemu Kolendo w 60-lecie urodzin i 40-lecie pracy naukowej / [red. Aleksander Bursche, Mariusz Mielczare, Wojciech Nowakowski]. - Warszawa : Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 1995. – P. 85-91

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Directions of contacts of the Roman Empire with the Mid-European Barbaricum in the second part of the 3rd and 4th centuries in the light of coin finds / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Wiadomości Numizmatyczne 29 (1985) p. 33-44

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Emisje autonomiczne Mezji i Tracji oraz ich rozpowszechnienie w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Balcanica Posnaniensia : acta et studia. I: Mezja-Tracja-Bałkany / pod red. Stefana Parnickiego-Pudełko, Włodzimierza Paja akowskiego, Leszka Mrozewicza. - Poznan n : Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 1984. - P. 235-244

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Functions of Roman coins in Barbaricum of Later Antiquity : an antropological essay / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Roman coins outside the Empire : ways and phases, contexts and functions ; proceedings of the ESF/SCH exploratory workshop, Radziwiłł Palace, Nieborów (Poland), 3-6 September 2005 / [scientific ed.: Aleksander Bursche, Renata Ciolek, Reinhard Wolters]. - Wetteren : Moneta, 2008. – P. 395-416

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Gold barbarian imitations of Roman coins: the Ulów type / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Honoratissimum assensus genus est armis laudare : studia dedykowane Profesorowi Piotrowi Kaczanowskiemu z okazji siedemdziesiątej rocznicy urodzin / pod red. Renaty Madydy-Legutko i Judyty Rodzińskiej-Nowak. - Kraków : Towarzystwo Wydawnicze 'Historia Iagellonica', 2014. - P. 317-327

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Gold coins, Alexandria Troas and Goths / Aleksander Bursche and Kirill Myzgin

Source:

Studies in ancient coinage in honour of Andrew Burnett / ed. by Roger Bland and Dario Calomino. - London : Spink, 2015. - P. 232-258

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Groby z monetami rzymskimi na cmentarzysku kultury Wiebarskiej w Weklicach koło Elbląga / Aleksander Bursche, Jerzy Okulicz-Kozaryn

Source:

Comhlan : studia z archeologii okresu przedrzymskiego i rzymskiego w Europie Środkowej dedykowane Teresie Dąbrowskiej w 65. rocznicę urodzin / [redaktor tomu: Jacek Andrzejowski]. - Warszawa : Fundacja Przyjaciół Instytutu Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 1999. - P. 141-163

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Inflation and influx of Roman coins into Barbaricum / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

I ritrovamenti monetali e i processi inflativi nel mondo antico e medievale : atti del IV congresso internazionale di numismatica e di storia monetaria, Padova, 12-13 ottobre 2007 / a cura di Michele Asolati, Giovanni Gorini. - Padova : Esedra, cop. 2008. - P. 53-62

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Kontakty Cesarstwa Rzymskiego z ludnością kultury wielbarskiej w III i IV w. w świetle źródeł numizmatycznych / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Kultura wielbarska w młodszym okresie rzymskim : (materiały z konferencji). T. 1 / pod red. Jana Gurby i Andrzeja Kokowskiego. -  Lublin : Wydawn. Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej. - P. 37-50

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Later Roman-Barbarian contacts in Central Europe : numismatic evidence = Spätrömische Münzfunde aus Mitteleuropa : eine Beitrag zur Geschichte der Beziehungen zwischen Rom und den Barbaricum im 3. und 4. Jh. n. Chr. / von Aleksander Bursche ; [transl. from the Polish by A. Zakrzewska]

Series:

SFMA Studien zu Fundmünzen der Antike ; Bd. 11

Published:

Berlin : Mann, 1996

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Die Markomannenkriege und der Zufluß römischer Münzen in das Barbaricum / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Markomannenkriege : Ursachen und Wirkungen / hrsg. Von Herwig Friesinger, Jaroslav Tejral, Alois Stuppner. -  Brno : Archeologický ústav, Akademie věd České republiky Brno, 1994. - P. 471-485

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Moneta i kruszec w kulturze wielbarskiej w okresie późnorzymskim = Coinage and currency of Wielbark culture in the late Roman period / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Przegląd Archeologiczny 31 (1984) p. 47-90

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Monety rzymskie z cmentarzyska kultury bogaczewskiej w Wyszemborku gm. Mrągowo / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Concordia : studia ofiarowane Jerzemu Okuliczowi-Kozarynowi w sześdziesiątą piątą rocznicę urodzin / [red.: Wojciech Nowakowski]. - Warszawa : Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 1996. - P. 37-39

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Monety rzymskie z Illerup Adal / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Terra Barbarica : studia ofiarowane Magdalenie Mączyńskiej w 65. rocznicę urodzin. -  Łódź-Warszawa : [s.n.], 2010. - (Monumenta Archaelogica Barbarica ; 2). – P. 197-209

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Monety rzymskie z Jakuszowic / Aleksander Bursche, Piotr Kaczanowskim, Judyta Rodzińską-Nowak

Source:

Superiores Barbari : ksiega ku czci Profesora Kazimierza Godłowskiego / [Red.: Renata Madyda-Legutko ... at al.]. - Krakow : Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Instytut Archeologii, 2000. - P. 101-130

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Münzen der römischen Kaiserzeit aus Flüssen : ein Beitrag zur Quellenkritik / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Wasserwege : Lebensadern - Trennungslinien : 15. Internationales Symposium Grundprobleme der frühgeschichtlichen Entwicklung im mittleren Donauraum, Schleswig 30. November-4. Dezember 2002 / hrsg. von Claus von Carnap-Bornheim und Herwig Friesinger. - Neumünster : Wachholtz, 2005. – P. 307-317

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Relations between the Late Roman World and Barbarian Europe in the light of the coin finds / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Bulletin du Cercle d'Études Numismatiques 43 (2006) 2 (mai-août) p. 221-227

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Roman ae coinage on the South Baltic Coast / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Contacts across the Baltic Sea during the Late Iron Age (5th-12th centuries) : Baltic Sea Conference, Lund October 25-27, 1991 / ed. by Birgitta Hårdh, Bozena Wyszomirska-Werbart. - Lund : University of Lund, 1992. – P. 1-14

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Roman coinage from Jakuszowice settlement in north Małopolska / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 2 (1997) p. 119-148, pls. 1-9

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Roman coinage in the Westbalt circle / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Barbaricum. Bd. 2 : Studien zur Archäologie der barbarischen Völker aus der Ostseeküste und aus dem Weichselgebiet / Red. J. Okuliez-Kozaryn and Wojciech Nowakowski. - Warschau : Universität Warschau, Institut für Archäologie, 1992. – P. 231-244

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Roman gold coins and medallions, perforated or looped, from the collections of the National Museum of Ukrainian History in Kyïv / Aleksander Bursche, Tomasz Więcek

Source:

Wiadomości Numizmatyczne 65 (2010) 2 p. 193-224

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Roman coins in Scandinavia : some remarks from the Continental perspective / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Drik-og du vil leve skønt : festskrift til Ulla Lund Hansen på 60-årsdagen 18. august 2002 / redigeret af John Pind ... [et al.]. - Copenhagen : National Museum, 2002. - P. 69-78

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Der Schatz von Polaniec, Kleinpolen : Münzen der römischen Republik und des Augustus nördlich der Karpaten / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Die Fundmünzen von Kalkriese und die frühkaiserzeitliche Münzprägung : Akten des wissenschaftlichen Symposions in Kalkriese, 15.-16. April 1999 / Rainer Wiegels (Hrsg.). - Möhnesee : Bibliopolis, 2000. - P. 191-204

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Solidi from the Zagórzyn hoard / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Wiadomości Numizmatyczne 47 (2003) p. 41-60

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Znane i nieznane znaleziska denarów z ziem polskich / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Wiadomości Numizmatyczne 43 (1999) p. 115-135

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Unique Roman gold coins and medallions in the collection of the National Museum of Ukrainian History in Kyïv / Aleksander Bursche

Source:

Wiadomości Numizmatyczne 52 (2008) p. 167-181

 

Index:

Bursche, Aleksander 1956-

Title:

Zlote medaliony rzymskie w Barbaricum : symbolika prestizu i wladzy spoleczenstw barbarzynskich u schylku starozytnosci / Aleksander Bursche

Published:

Warszawa : Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 1998

 

Index:

Dahmen, Karsten 1969-

Title:

Zur Geschichte des Schatzfundes von Klein-Tromp im früheren Ostpreussen (heute Trąbki Małe, Polen) / Karsten Dahmen

Source:

Wiadomości Numizmatyczne 59 (2015) 1-2 p. 35-46

Abstract:

In 1822 and 1838 two finds of late Roman solidi hoarded around AD 430/440 were unearthed at the Goldberg near Klein Tromp in former Eastern Prussia (now Trąbki Małe, Poland). With an approximate total of 141 gold coins confirmed (including one aureus of Gordian III) this hoard represents the largest hoard of Roman solidi in Poland and the Baltic region to date. Most of the coins entered the Royal Cabinet in Berlin, while smaller parts were given to the University at Königsberg and the landowner. This article provides an overview of the history of the hoard’s discovery and later fate.

 

Index:

Dymowski, Arkadiusz

Title:

Inflow and redistribution of Roman imperial denarii in the area of Przeworsk, Wielbark and Chernyakhiv cultures and in the Baltic islands in the light of chronological of coin hoards / Arkadiusz Dymowski, Kirill Myzgin

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 9 (2014) p. 39-69

Abstract:

The article is composed of three separate parts for which the common denominator is the use of the iconography of Bohemian deniers from the first half of the twelfth century. The images featured on the coins of Duke Svatopluk (1107–09), Vladislaus I (1110–25) and Soběslaus I (1125–40) constitute a point of departure for reflections on the essential components of the political culture of the Early and High Middle Ages. In contrast to existing Czech literature the author interpreted the scenes presented on the deniers of Svatopluk and Soběslaus I (Cach nos. 460, 570) as an illustration of a ritual toast raised by the duke in honour of St Wenceslaus. It probably constituted a heretofore-unknown element of an annual celebration of the martyrdom of the saint (28 September), which entailed a convention and a three-day feast attended by the ruler and the lay and ecclesiastical lords. Reflections in the second part focus on the depictions of Svatopluk, Vladislaus I and Soběslaus I (Cach nos. 460, 557, 573) in foundation scenes. The author examines the degree to which the application of a likeness of a ruler holding a model of a church reflected an actual religious foundation or the universal idea of the generosity towards the clergy. In the case of Vladislaus I and Soběslaus I the sources contain information about imposing ducal foundations, but in the case of Svatopulk there is no such correlation while the episode described by Cosmas and concerning the seizure of Church property by the duke for political reasons compels us to assume that the portrait of the ruler-founder on the coin was to obliterate the unfavourable impression produced by his conduct. The third fragment is a new interpretation of a scene featured on a denier of Soběslaus I, earlier associated with the inauguration of his reign in 1125 (Cach no. 571). In this case, the author noticed a reference to current political events from 1130–31 (chiefly the conflict involving Soběslaus and Meinhard, the bishop of Prague). The scene showing two men praying in front of a centrally located object is interpreted as an act of swearing an oath by both antagonists on the relics of St Wenceslaus, probably after the bishop was cleared of an accusation of treason during the celebrations of the day of St Wenceslaus on 28 September 1131.

 

Index:

Dymowski, Arkadiusz

Title:

More Roman coins found in Kuyavia : the coinage of the 'Imperium Galliarum' in Poland / Arkadiusz Dymowski

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 8 (2013) p. 157-170, pl. 1

Abstract:

Not later than in 2012, a few Roman coins, including a sestertius of Postumus, an imitative antoninianus of the Gallic Empire (the so-called 'radiate') and an antoninianus of Carausius, have been found near Inowrocław, in the Polish region of Kuyavia. In consideration of all coins of the Imperium Galliarum and of the 'Imperium Britanniarum' formerly and recently found in Poland it may be said that the antoniniani of the Gallic and British usurpers had reached the Polish territories most probably in the 270s-290s, or possibly beginning from the late 260s to the early years of the 4th century, certainly along with the coinage issued by the legitimate emperors. There are no grounds for delimiting this inflow to a brief time-span and linking it with one specific historical event. On the contrary, the existing indications appear to point to a continuous stream drawn out over a certain period of time. Since the territories along the Rhine limes had been going through a turbulent period in the late 3rd century, it may be assumed that the late antoniniani found their way into Barbarian possession in connection with some military activity. As for the sestertii of the 'Imperium Galliarum', the scantiness of the available material does not make it easy for us to interpret the Polish finds. As for the aurei there could have been uninterrupted flow of the aurei from Gaul to the territory of present-day Poland dated, like in the case of the antoniniani, to a period from the existence of the 'Imperium Galliarum' until the 290s. In that case, the antoniniani and aurei may have reached the Barbarians’ hands in connection with the same political developments along the Rhine 'limes'.

 

Index:

Dymowski, Arkadiusz

Title:

A Roman antoninianus of Egnatia Mariniana found in the Kuyavian region : the 3rd-century silver coinage in the territory of the Przeworsk culture / Arkadiusz Dymowski

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 7 (2012) p. 93-104

Abstract:

The article describes the discovery of an antoninianus of Mariniana, probably the wife of the Emperor Valerian (253–260), near Inowrocław, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, in March 2012. Dated to the years 253–257 (RIC 3 or 4 or 6), the coin is the first and, thus far, the only one bearing an image of Mariniana ever found in Poland. In this sense, it is unique. Nonetheless, coins from the reign of Valerian have been discovered, if only sporadically, in Poland. The discovery of this particular antoninianus of Mariniana can be also considered within a broader context of the 3rd-century silver Roman coinage, specifically from the years 211–260, found in the territory of Poland. Until the present time, the total number of 49 silver coins dating from the years 211–260 have been found in southern and central Poland (the territories dominated by the Przeworsk Culture in the later Roman period), including the newly discovered antoninianus of Mariniana and four denarii found as part of hoards. The structure of the numismatic evidence demonstrates that the number of the denarii is only slightly greater than that of the antoniniani. In the case of the antoniniani, there is clearly a greater amount of the coinage from the reigns of Gordian III and Philip the Arab (14 items) as well as a considerable number of coins dating from the reign of Valerian (8 items). There are no antoniniani attested for the years 249–253, i.e., from Decius to Emilian, except for one coin of Herenia Etruscillia. The value and chronology structures of the silver coinage dating from 211–260, from the territory of the Przeworsk Culture and the neighbouring areas, tend to vary so much that the inflow of this coinage into the Przeworsk Culture exclusively by way of inter-tribal redistribution is not very likely. With regard to the value and chronology range in question, the published finds from settlements of the Przeworsk Culture are all denarii, minted up to and including the reign of Gordian III. If we are to believe the reports available, the hoard of Alwernia, of which only a small portion was recovered and published, consisted solely of denarii, of which the latest published one was dated to the reign of Alexander Severus (222–235). It is possible that the deposit was of a comparatively late origin, dating from the early decades of the 3rd century. Considering all these circumstances, it is also possible that a fairly significant flow of the 3rd-century denarii, with some additions of later ones, reached the territory of the Przeworsk Culture in the late 230s – the early 240s, at the latest. It cannot be determined, however, whether the flow would have spanned a period of several decades or may have been linked to some specific political event that originated the flow of coinage from the Empire. As regards the antoniniani, there is a fairly large number of coins of Gordian III and Philip the Arab, with a single coin dating from the reign of Decius. In this case, it is either another mid-3rd century inflow of money, much smaller than the above-mentioned hypothetical flow of denarii or the denarii and antoniniani up to Decius’ reign should be treated as parts of the same continual flow. Those antoniniani, or at least some of them, may have arrived as part of the process of inter-tribal redistribution from the areas of the Luboszyce or Wielbark Culture. There have been absolutely no coin finds for the period between the reigns of Decius and Valerian. Further on, there is a relatively large number of antoniniani from Valerian’s reign. They had most probably reached the territory of the Przeworsk Culture from the West. It was either a part of the inflow of the late 250s, which is attested for the Luboszyce Culture, or the antoniniani of Valerian appeared in the 260s–270s alongside the fairly numerous, in central and northern Poland, antoniniani of the Imperium Galliarum, as an addition to the coins minted during Postumus’ reign and later on.

 

Index:

Dymowski, Arkadiusz

Title:

Roman denarii of Tiberius and Caligula discovered in the drainage basin of the Wisłoka River in southern Poland / Arkadiusz Dymowski

Source:

Acta Archaeologica Carpathica 48 (2013) p. 273-284

Abstract:

To date only four Roman denarii issued in the period between the coming to power of Tiberius in 14 AD and the monetary reform of Nero in 64 AD are known from Poland, all of them single finds. Three — two Tiberius and one Caligula — were discovered in a small area bordering the river Ropa, the left-hand tributary of the Wisłoka. Presumably these coins had found their way to the area north of the Carpathian range from the south. In seeking to identify possible causes of their influx we need to pinpoint, first, factors related to the functioning and decline of the Kingdom of Vannius, the client state of the Roman Empire, established presumably in the southwestern area of today’s Slovakia and in Moravia. An alternative interpretation is to link the coin finds in question with the impact from Dacian culture on the area to the north of the Carpathians. Irrespective of the causes of the coin influx, these coin finds, definitely not typical on the territory of Poland, point to the existence in the drainage basin of the Wisłoka around 50 AD of some special circumstances that we can hope to see illuminated by the results of future archaeological research in the region.

 

Index:

Dymowski, Arkadiusz

Title:

Roman Republican bronze coins from Polish finds / Arkadiusz Dymowski

Source:

Acta Archaeologica Carpathica 49 (2014) p. 249-269

Abstract:

The database of Roman Republican bronze coin finds from Poland comprises at present eleven 3rd–2nd century BC issues discovered at ten localities. Only four of these bronzes may be regarded as relatively certain. Due to their small number the interpretation of these finds would be extremely difficult if not for the interpretive key at our disposal — the rich material record from the territory of today’s Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. This material leads us to claim that finds of Roman Republican bronze coins from the region north of the Sudetes and the Carpathians need to examined, first, in a Celtic context, and second, jointly with finds of Celtic coins and 5th–2nd c. BC Greek bronzes. Republican bronzes presumably formed a minor segment in the monetary circulation within the framework of the political and economic activity of the federation of Boii tribes probably up to around 120 BC. The core of this circulation was formed by coinage issued locally (among others on the territory of today’s Moravia, Bohemia and southern Poland) and imported Celtic coins, complemented by less numerous coins brought in from outside the Celtic environment, primarily Greek issues. Roman Republican bronze coins most likely found their way to Central Europe with Greek bronzes, some of them from mints in Italy and Sicily, presumably independently of the influx of the 2nd–1st century BC Republican denarii.

 

Index:

Eremić, Dragana

Title:

Coin finds beyond the Danube : functions of fourth century gold coins within barbarian societies / Dragana Eremić

Source:

Embodying value : the transformation of objects in and from the Ancient world / ed. by Annabel Bokern, Clare Rowan. - Oxford : Archaeopress, 2014. - (BAR International series ; 2592). - P. 121-130

Abstract:

This paper seeks to examine the role of Roman gold coins from the fourth century AD found in barbarian territory beyond the Danube. The area under discussion is that of present day northern Serbia (Banat), Romania, and western Ukraine, which form part of the Carpathian basin. How were these coins perceived and used in Barbaricum? They most probably served special purposes in a prestige economy and they shared this function with a number of other media of exchange. They were often worn as jewellery, forming a status symbol for the owner, and this paper examines the possible transformation of the iconography these coins carried. What value did Roman coins and their associated iconography have for barbarian peoples? It has been argued that the imperial portrait must have been fascinating for the barbarian elite. But although the obverse of a coin, with its imperial portrait, obviously held a fascination for the barbarians, it is clear that the reverse iconography of these coins also had a value for their owner. Even if the obverse was most commonly displayed, there are still clear instances where the reverse was on display and was thus obviously also valued, and we need to begin asking ourselves why, and in what contexts this occurred.

 

Index:

Fredrich, Carl 1871-1930

Title:

Funde antiker Münzen in der Provinz Posen / von Carl Fredrich

Published:

Posen : Decker, 1909

 

Index:

Gullbekk, Svein Harald 1967-

Title:

Keiser Claudius i Gokstadhaugen / Svein H. Gullbekk

Source:

Viking 72 (2009) p. 169-182

Abstract:

In the Collection of Coins and Medals in the Museum of Cultural History in Oslo there is a sestertius issued by the Emperor Claudius (AD 41-54) that, according to a note in the find registry of 1878, was found in or nearby the Gokstad burial mount in Sandar in Vestfold county a few years earlier. The coin is undoubtfully genuin. However, there are not any conclusive evidence that connects it to the Gokstad mount. In a broader context the numbers of Roman coins found in Viking Age sites have increase substantially during the last decades. In this article the phenomenon of Roman coins in Viking Age contexts is examined together with the function of Roman coins in Viking society. The Roman coins left the Roman Empire some five to nine hundred years before they ended up being earthed in Viking society. Many of these coins were probably unearthed by Vikings and then put in use. The use of Roman coins in Viking Scandinavia was both economic and ritual, as is indicated by single finds, grave finds and foundation finds. In conclusion, it is not possible to establish a positive connection between the Claudius sestertius and the Gokstad burial. The existence of an increasing number of Roman coins in Viking contexts in Scandinavia, does, however, show that the use of Roman coins was adapted by Vikings, and thus, make it possible, and thus the question should remain open, with a reference to the note in the find registrary made in 1878.

 

Index:

Henriksen, Mogens Bo

Title:

Boltinggård Skov : a  hoard of Roman gold coins of Constantinian period from Funen, Denmark / Mogens Bo Henriksen & Helle W. Horsnæs

Source:

Revue Numismatique 158 (2002) 162 (2006) p. 259-271

Abstract:

Jewellery and coins have been recovered at several instances since the 19th century at Boltinggârd Skov in Central Funen, Denmark. The article presents and discusses the recent excavation on the site. The excavation produced evidence that all finds belong to a gold hoard that today consists of a necklace, a fragment of a Kolben bracelet with a Roman inscription, three aurei of the 3rd century and 12 Constantinian solidi. Two of the Roman coins are of very rare types.

 

Index:

Hill, Philip Victor 1917-

Title:

'Barbarous radiates' : imitations of third-century Roman coins / by Philip V. Hill

Series:

Numismatic notes and monographs ; no. 112

Published:

New York : American Numismatic Society, 1949

 

Index:

Horsnæs, Helle Winge

Title:

Et grænseoverskridende fund / Helle W. Horsnæs

Source:

Danefæ : skatte fra den danske muld : til Hendes Majestæt Dronning Margrethe 2. / [red.: Michael Andersen og Poul Otto Nielsen. - København : Nationalmuseet ; Gyldendal, 2010. - P. 105-110

 

Index:

Horsnæs, Helle Winge

Title:

Imitations in gold / Helle W. Horsnæs

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. I / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : [International Numismatic Council]. 2011. – P. 742-748

Abstract:

The paper has grown from the fascination of the gold imitations of Roman coins that I have encountered while working with the fi nds of Roman coins from Denmark.1 The presentation is based on a recent project, attempting to collect information on gold imitations from European Barbaricum based on prototypes ante-dating the division of the Empire in 394 AD and their contexts. The project revealed that two main groups can be distinguished. One is a quite heterogeneous group of imitations mainly found in ‘Outer Barbaricum’, i.e. areas from Southern Scandinavia to the Black Sea relatively far from the 'Limes'. The main theme of the present paper, however, is a smaller and more homogeneous group of imitations mainly, although not exclusively, found in present-day Hungary, and in particular hoards containing these imitations, and their importance for the understanding of long distance elite networks. 

 

Index:

Horsnæs, Helle Winge

Title:

Når mønter ikke er penge / Helle W. Horsnæs

Source:

META 3 (2005) p. 11-20

 

Index:

Horsnæs, Helle Winge

Title:

New gold hoards from Bornholm with rare types of Valentinian III solidi / Helle W. Horsnæs

Source:

Revue Numismatique 158 (2002) p. 131-138, pls. 9-10 

Abstract:

The article provides a preliminary publication of the important finds of two hoards of combined Late Roman solidi and bracteates in the central place settlement at Sorte Muld, Bornholm. One of the hoards contained one coin and five bracteates, while the other one contained five bracteates, eight gold foil beads and six solidi, among which four are die linked examples of the rare type RIC 2036.

 

Index:

Horsnæs, Helle Winge

Title:

Roman coins from 'Barbaricum' : evidence from surveys and excavation : the Ibsker settlement complex as a case study / [Helle W. Horsnæs]

Source:

Numismatica e archeologia : monete, stratigrafie e contesti, dati a confronto : preatti del I workshop internazionale di Numismatica : Roma, 28-30 settembre 2011 / a cura di Giacomo Pardini. - Roma : Fondazione Roma, Arte Musei, [2011]. - P. 237-240

 

Index:

Horsnæs, Helle Winge

Title:

Roman coins from Bornholm : a preliminary overview / Helle W. Horsnæs

Source:

Worlds apart? : contacts across the Baltic Sea in the Iron Age / ed. by Ulla Lund Hansen & Anna Bitner-Wróblewska. - København : Det Kongelige Nordiske Oldskriftselskab, 2010. – P. 433-447

 

Index:

Horsnæs, Helle Winge

Title:

Roman coins in a Barbarian context / Helle W. Horsnæs

Source:

XIII Congreso Internacional de Numismática, Madrid, 2003 : actas = proceedings = actes. I / ed. por Carmen Alfaro, Carmen Marcos y Paloma Otero. - Madrid : Ministerio de Cultura, Subdirección General de Publicaciones, Información y Documentación, 2005. - P. 561-566

 

Index:

Kaczanowski, Piotr

Title:

Antike Münzen von Kryspinów / Piotr Kaczanowski

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 2 (1997) p. 84-100, pl. 1

 

Index:

Kieferling, Grzegorz

Title:

A denarius of Trajan from a Przeworsk culture settlement on St. Nicolas Hill in Jarosław / Grzegorz Kieferling

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 5 (2004) p. 147-154

 

Index:

Lind, Lennart

Title:

The monetary reforms of the Romans and the finds of Roman 'denarii' in Eastern and Northern Europe / Lennart Lind

Source:

Current Swedish Archaeology 1 (1993) p. 135-144

Abstract:

Monetary measures undertaken inside the Roman Empire might be responsible for the composition of finds of Roman coins made ontside the Empire. A possible link between the composition of the denari«» finds in Barbarian Europe, on the one hand, and the monetary reforms of Nero (54—68) and Septimius Severus (193—2 I l ), on the other hand, has long been recogniaed. There is however a third Roman monetary reform which has put its imprint on the denorios finds in Central, Eastern and Northern Europe, the one of' Domitian (8 l—96).

 

Index:

Mihailescu-Bîrliba, Virgil

Title:

Roman coins at the free tribes outside province of Dacia / Virgil Mihailescu-Bîrliba

Source:

HPAKΛEOYΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ ΘAΣIΩN : studia in honorem Iliae Prokopov sexagenario ab amicis et discipulis dedicat / ed.: Evgeni Paunov and Svetosava Filipova. - Tirnovi : Faber, 2012. - P. 507-511

Abstract:

The main problems raised by the presence of the Roman coin (especially of the denarii hoards) in the territories of ‘free Dacians’ beyond the frontiers of the Roman Dacia are analyzed. The numismatic research has been influenced for a long time by the ‘ausal method’ which explained the burial of denarii deposits through a series of violent events such as attacks, wars, migrations etc. The hoards of denarii found beyond the frontiers of the Roman Empire were amassed after Septimius Severus’ monetary reform. The Roman coin reached the area inhabited by ‘the free Dacians’ in different ways: loots, captives’ ransoms, booty, sometimes trade and, especially, stipendia. The burial dates of these deposits cannot be precised, but it is supposed that it happened in the 3rd c. AD (until Trajan Decius’ reign).

 

Index:

Moisil, Delia

Title:

The Danube limes and the Barbaricum (294-498 A.D.) : a study in coin circulation / Delia Moisil

Source:

Histoire & Mesure 17 (2002) 3-4 p. 79-120

Abstract:

Étude de la circulation monétaire. Cette étude s’intéresse au territoire de l’actuelle Roumanie. Un certain nombre de travaux ont pu mettre en évidence les spécificités de la circulation monétaire, par exemple une préférence pour la thésaurisation des monnaies d’argent impériales au IVe siècle en Transylvanie et en Banat ; une abondance relative des découvertes de monnaies siliques d’argent dans la zone correspondant à la culture de Mures-Tchernjakov, en relation avec les tributs donnés aux Goths par les Romains ; une concentration des plus importants trésors de monnaies d’argent dans une petite zone d’Olténie. Le ve siècle est principalement représenté par les monnaies d’or de Théodose ii, sans doute offertes aux Huns. Les monnaies de bronze du ive siècle sont très courantes jusqu’en 378, mais rares pour le ve siècle (avec des exceptions dans les zones situées près du limes romain). Nous remarquons une persistance des monnaies du type Fel temp reparatio dans les trésors et les sites de la région du Banat, tout comme une pénurie de monnaies d’argent. Les imitations restent marginales et le phénomène reste principalement limité à l’Empire et à la fin du ive siècle ou au ve siècle. Les monnaies arrivaient en Transylvanie et dans le Banat par une voie occidentale et en Petite Valachie et en Moldavie par une route méridionale.

 

Index:

Myzgin, Kirill

Title:

Hoards of Roman Republican coins on the territory of Ukraine and [the] problem [of] their cultural context / Kirill Myzgin

Source:

Folia Numismatica 29 (2015) 2 p. 83-102

Abstract:

The focus of the article is analysis of five hoards of Roman Republican coins discovered recently in Ukraine. These deposits share a number of features, eg, a similar chronological position. Lacking in archaeological context the hoards cannot be attributed conclusively to any archaeological culture.

 

Index:

Myzgin, Kirill

Title:

New finds of Roman Republican coins from Ukraine and Belarus / Kyrylo Myzgin

Source:

Wiadomości Numizmatyczne 60 (2016) 1-2 p. 89-139, pl. 1-7

Abstract:

The article presents new finds of Roman Republican coins from the territories of Ukraine and Belarus. Before 2012 reports about finds of these coins were rare (22 confirmed single finds and one hoard). The last few years have dramatically changed the quantity of these coin finds: about 110 new Roman Republican coin finds from 35 sites in Ukraine and five in Belarus. It was possible as a result of active metal detector use by amateurs. Among single, cumulative finds and hoards (Chervone, Bonyshyn, Pochapy), the majority of coins are from the first half of the 1 st century BC. The geographical distribution of new finds is very interesting: coin finds cluster in two areas (along the upper and middle course of the Dnister in Ukraine and in the upper reaches of the Bug in Belarus). Influx of these coins in the territory of Eastern Europe occured in part during the Late La Tène Period, but mostly during the Early Roman Period. This thesis perfectly confirm with finds of imitation of Roman Republican coins and other artefacts, specially, from the Zolochev raion, L'viv oblast.

 

Index:

Rau, Andreas

Title:

Where did the late empire end? : Hacksilber and coins in continental and northern Barbaricum c AD 340-500 / Andreas Rau

Source:

Late Roman silver : the Traprain treasure in context / ed. by Fraser Hunter & Kenneth Painter. - Edinburgh : Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 2013. - P. 339-357

 

Index:

Romanowski, Andrzej

Title:

An extraordinary Barbarian imitation of the 2nd-century Roman denarius from Central Poland (Osiny, Baranów Commune, Grodzisk Mazowiecki district) / Andrzej Romanowski

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 10 (2015) p. 115-130

Abstract:

The group of 1st and 2nd-century Roman denarii recovered during an archaeological surface survey made in 2008 of a Przeworsk Culture site at Osiny in the Grodzisk Mazowiecki district (Central Poland) includes an eccentric barbarous imitation. An analysis of its obverse and reverse representations identified this specimen as a hybrid, a combination of types never seen on official Roman coins. The obverse representation is one of three empresses – Faustina II, Lucilla, Crispina – the reverse representation is of Mars standing. Since in Roman coinage the depiction of the god of war was reserved for the emperor, the combination on the denarius from Osiny would never have appeared on any regular Roman coin. The imitation denarius from Osiny is the only such hybrid discovered in Poland. Similar coins have been recorded in Ukraine and Moldova. This type of hybrid, albeit with a combination of other obverse and reverse types, has been noted in northern Europe. Some imitative issues of this kind, recorded on Gotland, have been die-linked to coins discovered in Ukraine and the Danube region. Taking his cue from findings of researchers concerning the place of manufacture and the pattern of dissemination of imitations of Roman denarii the author goes on to argue that the Osiny denarius was manufactured locally. Other Roman coins have been recovered in the same region, most notably in the Drzewicz Nowy hoard. The coins found in this deposit would have provided the model for the obverse and the reverse of the Osiny denarius, its maker would have been recruited from among local, skilled craftsmen who presumably were not in short supply in the Mazovian Centre of Metallurgy which operated in this area during the Roman Period. The possible function of the barbarous imitative denarius within the Barbarian community is examined, but without much success.

 

Index:

Romanowski, Andrzej

Title:

The inflow of Roman coins to the east-of-the-Vistula Mazovia ('Mazowsze') and Podlachia ('Podlasie') / Andrzej Romanowski

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. I / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : International Numismatic Council, 2011. – P. 973-882

 

Index:

Travaini, Lucia

Title:

Searching for Constantine the Great in the northern lands / Lucia Travaini

Source:

Scripta varia numismatico Tuukka Talvio sexagenario dedicata / [toimittaja: Outi Järvinen]. - Helsinki : Suomen numismaattinen yhdistys, 2008. – P. 31-35

 

Index:

Westermark, Ulla 1927-

Title:

En romersk aureus från Tetricus funnen i Östergötland Västanstång / av Ulla Westermark och Björn Ambrosiani

Source:

Fornvännen 78 (1983) p. 81-87

Abstract:

As a result of agricultural work a rare Roman gold coin was tbund in Sya parish not far from Mjölby. It dates from the period 271—274 A.D. and was struck for the Gallian usurper Tetricus. In contrast to the lower coin denominations ol this period lhe aurei are of very good quality both artistically and technically. They were mainly used as paymcnt to the soldiers who also included Germanic mercenaries. Swedish finds of Roman gold coins struck before A.D. 400 are very rare and the newly discovered aureus is the first to be found here in this century. No other coin from Tetricus has ever been found and recorded in Sweden. The lind calls for an analysis of the settlement history of western Östergötland. Some 250 sites with Early Iron Age ancient monuments and finds show that even il the archaeological remains of this area are seriously damaged by farming there is enough ev idence lo allow analysis of the extent settlement. This shows a full exploitation of the area with a mean distance of 2—4 km between the units. Several finds ol third century Roman imports, inter alia from the Rhine area, suggest close contact with this region, perhaps a participation in German activities on lhe Rhine börder.

 

Index:

Wichman, Tomasz

Title:

A new find of Roman denarii in Chmielów, Bodzechów community, Świętokrzyskie province / Tomasz Wichman

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 5 (2004) p. 137-146

 

Index:

Wielowiejski, Jerzy

Title:

Der Einfluss der Devaluation des Denars auf die Annahme römischer Münzen durch die hinter der Donau ansässigen Völker / Jerzy Wielowiejski  

Source:

Les 'dévaluations' à Rome : époque républicaine et impériale. 2: (Gdansk, 19-21 octobre 1980) / [éd. Georges Vallet]. - Rome : École française de Rome, 1980. – P. 155-166

 

Index:       

Zachrisson, Inger

Title:

Vittnesbörd om pälshandel? : ett arkeologiskt perspektiv på romerska bronsmynt funna i norra Sverige / av Inger Zachrisson

Source:

Fornvännen 105 (2010) p. 187-202

Abstract:

At least some 90 bronze coins from the Ptolemaic, Roman and Byzantine empires have been unearthed in northern Sweden, from Dalarna province up north to Västerbotten. Their dates span from the 3rd century BC to the 7th century AD. The explanation for these finds may be the Mediterranean world’s demand for furs of highest quality. This paper puts the coins into the regional context including the distribution of coeval ancient monuments. The coin finds may be related to contact between Saami and Germanic people. Both Swedes and Saami were wellknown groups throughout Europe in the 1st Millennium AD, probably because of the economic importance of their products.

 

Index:       

Zapolska, Anna

Title:

The coins of the Goldsmith hoard of Frombork reconcidered / Anna Zapolska

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 9 (2014) p. 71-92

Abstract:

It was during the Migration Period, at the time of the mostly untraceable transmigrations of the Germanic and Baltic tribes across the territory of the northern Barbaricum, that hoards of Roman coins along with various bronze artefacts, such as half-finished products and damaged pieces of jewellery or household objects, began to appear. In a large number of cases, chronological boundaries of the deposited objects are very broad: from the early phase of the period of Roman influence until as late as the mid-5th century AD. Moreover, the hoards in question tend to share the feature of the interregional character of the objects’ forms. This leads to a number of difficulties as to their interpretation, particularly in view of the absence of archaeological sources that would facilitate clear cultural attribution of the area under consideration. The article presents a new interpretation of the hoard of Frombork (formerly, Frauenburg), a town situated on the Vistula Lagoon of the Baltic Sea. It discusses the nature of cultural transformations in the Baltic region, the role of late Roman coinage in Late Antiquity and during the Migration Period over the territory of the northern Barbaricum, as well as the question of interregional relations between the Germanic and Baltic tribes.

 

Index:       

Zapolska, Anna

Title:

The influx of Roman coins to the West Balt culture environment / Anna Zapolska

Source:

Notae Numismaticae 8 (2013) p. 105-116

Abstract:

The influx of Roman coins to the territory of Barbaricum settlement started at the beginning of the Marcomannic Wars. From the 160s appeared here denarii and gold coins multitudinously. Roman coins – most notably, large bronzes (sestertii) – start to appear in the territory settled by West Balt communities and in the area of the Vistula delta in connection with the amber trade. The sestertii finds suggest, that they would have originated from the area of northern Italia, been carried through the provinces on the Rhine to the North Sea from where they were transported by sea. Because sailing around the Jutland Peninsula was too unsafe, the route continued down fjords, with a short stage overland, and then over the Baltic Sea all the way to the Vistula delta, the coast of the Sambian Peninsula or the Curonian Lagoon. The end of the influx of the bronze coins came in the 260s and may be attributed to the political and economic crisis of the latter half of the 3rd century, disruption of the trade routes and links between provinces and, at the same time, the discontinuation of issue of the bronze senatorial coinage.

 

Index:       

Zapolska, Anna

Title:

Roman coins from the western part of the West Balt territory / Anna Zapolska

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. I / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : International Numismatic Council, 2011. – P. 1115-1125

 

Index:       

Zapolska, Anna

Title:

Römische Münzen aus dem westen Teil des Westbaltischen Kulturkreis : Kontexte und Funktionen / Anna Zapolska

Source:

Numismatický Sborník 24 (2009) p. 77-93