11. Constantines

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Das Kreuzszepter Konstantins des Grossen / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 16 (August 1954) p. 81-86

 

Index:

Arslan, Ermanno A. 1940-

Title:

La moneta a Milano in età costantiniana : una città al centro dell'Impero e una zecca chiusa / Ermanno A. Arslan

Source:

L' editto di Milano e il tempo della tolleranza : Costantino 313 d.C. / mostra a cura di Paolo Biscottini e Gemma Sena Chiesa ; catalogo a cura di Gemma Sena Chiesa. - Milano : Electa, cop. 2012. - P. 8-13

 

Index:

Beckmann, Martin 1971-

Title:

The coinage of Diva Faustina I / Martin Beckmann

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. I / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : International Numismatic Council, 2011. – P. 509-513, pl. 1-2

 

Index:

Bendall, Simon

Title:

An anonymous Constantinian coinage / by S. Bendall

Source:

Numismatic Fine Arts Journal 32 (Fall 1986) p. 2-3

 

Index:

Bendall, Simon

Title:

A new anonymous Constantinian copper coin / Simon Bendall

Source:

Revue Numismatique 162 (2006) p. 273-275

Abstract:

In his article in the RN for 2002, the writer related some of the anonymous silver coins of the 4th-6th c. with similar bronze issues. The appearance of a second specimen of the unique Star/Wreath but of a heavier standard similar to that of the rare Star/O C S C type prompts a reflection on the sequence of this series probably issued in 330 before the more common one of Populus Romanus.

 

Index:

Bruun, Patrick Magnus 1920-2007

Title:

Studies in Constantinian chronology / by Patrick Bruun

Series:

Numismatic notes and monographs ; no. 146

Published:

New York : American Numismatic Society, 1961

 

Index:

Callu, Jean-Pierre 1929-

Title:

Succès et limites du solidus constantinien / Jean Pierre Callu

Source:

Moneta, mercanti, banchieri : i precedenti greci e romani dell'Euro : atti del convegno internazionale, Cividale del Friuli, 26-28 settembre 2002 / a cura di Gianpaolo Urso. - Pisa : Edizioni ETS, 2003

 

Index:

Carlà, Filippo 1980-

Title:

Le iconografie monetali / Filippo Carlà

Published:

Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana fondata da Giovanni Treccani, 2013

Note:

Offprint from: Costantino I : enciclopedia costantiniana sulla figura e l'immagine dell'imperatore del cosiddetto Editto di Milano 313-2013. Vol. 1. - Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana fondata da Giovanni Treccani, 2013. - P. 557-578

 

Index:

Cavedoni, Venanzio Celestino 1795-1865

Title:

Ricerche critiche intorno alle medaglie di Costantino Magno e de' suoi figliuoli insignite di tipi e di simboli cristiani

Published:

Modena : Eredi Soliani, 1858

 

Index:

Chastagnol, André 1920-1996

Title:

A propos des quinquennalia de Constantin / André Chastagnol

Source:

Revue Numismatique 6e sér. 22 (1980) p. 106-119, pl. 10

 

Index:

Chiappini, Alessia

Title:

I rinvenimenti dal Tevere: la monetazione della Diva Faustina / Alessia Chiappini

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. I / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : International Numismatic Council, 2011. – P. 592-594

 

Index:

Doyen, Jean-Marc 1954-

Title:

Deux monnaies constantiniennes exceptionnelles / Jean-Marc Doyen

Source:

Bulletin du Cercle d'Études Numismatiques 41 (2004) 1 (janvier-avril) p. 29-30

 

Index:

Gautier, Georges 1938-

Title:

Constantin Ier DOMINVS NOSTER et INVICTVS AVGVSTVS : deux nummi exceptionnels frappés à Aquilée en 312 ap. J.-C. / Georges Gautier

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 247 (September 2012) p. 63-68

 

Index:

González García, Alberto

Title:

Moneda y guerra en el reinado de Constancio II (337-361) / Alberto González García

Source:

ArqueoUCA 1 (2011) p. 115-128

Abstract:

This paper aims to emphazise the centrality of coinage as archaeological evidence of military activity and address the close link between them from a triple multi-disciplinary approach: economic, archaeological and iconographic. Having a sound economic basis is possible to establish a direct relationship between military conflict and three monetary aspects: 1) production, 2) geographic distribution, and 3) types and propaganda.

 

Index:

Hollard, Dominique 1957-

Title:

Les siliques à signature SMCS de Constant II (409-411) / Hollard (Dominique)

Source:

Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique 70 (2015) 1 (janvier) p. 18-20

 

Index:

Hollard, Dominique 1957-

Title:

Un rare multiple d'argent de Constantin Ier trouvé en Alsace / Hollard (Dominique)

Source:

Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique 66 (2011) 5 (mai) p. 93-97

 

Index:

López Sánchez, Fernando 1974-

Title:

Julian and his coinage : a very Constantinian prince / Fernando López Sánchez

Source:

Emperor and author : the writings of Julian the Apostate / eds.: Nicholas Baker-Brian and Shaun Tougher ; contrib.: Nicholas Baker-Brian ... [et al.]. - Swansea : Classical Press of Wales 2012. - P. 159-182

Abstract:

The main object of this paper is to approach Julian II as an emperor more than as an intellectual, i.e. the idea is to frame Julian into the coordinates belonging to Roman rulers of the fourth century. The main source used will be coinage, a written and iconographic record that has been considerably under-exploited. The writings of Julian the Apostate were not all captured on paper and scrolls. There is other writing, concise, but not less important, which spread throughout fifteen imperial mints in eight years (355-363). Jones observed in 1956 that the study of coin types lacked any interest and only led to over-interpretation, which sufficiently excused any serious historian from their study . This negative view on coin iconography and legends has been appropriately termed by Hedlund as ‘ultra-scepticism’  and was represented at the time by Buttrey , Wallace-Hadrill , and Crawford . However, the recurrence and disappearance of certain legends and coin representations throughout Roman imperial history, including Julian’s reign, allow for the piecing together of distinctive and coherent imperial narratives. Following is an attempt at uncovering Julian’s narrative and the way it was articulated in his coinage.

 

Index:

López Sánchez, Fernando 1974-

Title:

'Under this sign you shall be the ruler!’ : Eusebius, the 'Chi-Rho' letters and the 'arché' of Constantine / Fernando López Sánchez

Source:

Beginning and end : from Ammianus Marcellinus to Eusebius of Caesarea / Álvaro Sánchez-Ostiz (ed.). - Huelva, Universidad de Huelva, 2016. - (ExClass Anejo ; 7). - P. 137-158

Abstract:

According to the Christian Eusebius, Constantine saw a sign in the sky in the form of a cross shortly before the battle of the Milvian Bridge on October 28 of AD 312, and thanks to this he defeated his enemy Maxentius. According to Lactantius, also a Christian, what Constantine actually saw in the sky were the letters Chi-Rho, and not the form of a cross. This article aims to show that the Chi-Rho monogram should be understood as a contraction of the Greek words archē (“origin” and 'sovereignity') or archōn (‘chief’and 'commander'). Constantine’s vision of the Chi-Rho monogram in the sky may be related to earlier visions in both the Macedonian world and Rome, according to which Jupiter would recognise, after a number of solar interventions, the primacy of the favoured sovereigns over their competitors. The article also argues that the Bosphorus city of Constantinople, the favourite of Constantine as well as that of his legacy and his descendants, was also the city of the archē of Constantine. A study covering both the Hellenistic education of Eusebius and a number of Hellenistic and Roman coin series attempts to demonstrate that the vision at the Milvian Bridge recounted in the Vita Constantini was modelled on Hellenistic and Roman precedents well known to the author.

 

Index:

Martínez Chico, David

Title:

Une nouvelle variété de solidus au nom de Constance II avec le chrisme à l’intérieur du bouclier / David Martínez Chico,  Fernando López Sánchez

Source:

Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique 71 (2016) 4 (avril) p. 138-141

 

Index:

Maurice, Jules 1859-1939

Title:

Numismatique constantinienne. T. I: Iconographie et chronologie, description historique, des émissions monétaires / par Jules Maurice

Published:

Paris : Leroux, 1908

 

Index:

Maurice, Jules 1859-1939

Title:

Numismatique constantinienne. T. II: La dynastie héracléenne dans l'Empire des Gaules, la dynastie solaire des Seconds Flaviens, l'Empire chrétien, politique religieuse de Constantin le Grand, nouvelle théorie sur les marques monétaires et les signes chrétiens, les abstractions divinisées et les types symboliques du revers des médailles, description historique des émissions monétaires / par Jules Maurice

Published:

Paris : Leroux, 1911

 

Index:

Maurice, Jules 1859-1939

Title:

Numismatique constantinienne. T. III: La persécution de Maximin Daza, dénominations des espèces monétaires de bronze, description historique des émissions monétaires des quatre ateliers d'Orient / par Jules Maurice

Published:

Paris : Leroux, 1912

 

Index:

Ronde, André

Title:

Digression sur un pseudo-aureus fourré imité du monnayage de Constance Chlore César à Siscia / André Ronde & Dominique Hollard

Published:

Paris : SÉNA, 2010

Note:

Offprint from: L'armée et la monnaie II : actes de la journée d'études du 25 avril 2009 à la Monnaie de Paris / présidée par le Prof. Yann Le Bohec ; textes éd. par Dominique Hollard. - Paris : SÉNA, 2010. - (Recherches et travaux de la Société d'études numismatiques et archéologiques ; no. 3). - P. 67-70, pl. 6

 

Index:

Rowan, Clare 1982-

Title:

Communicating a 'consecratio' : the deification coinage of Faustina I / Clare Rowan

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. I / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : International Numismatic Council. 2011. – P. 991-998

 

Index:

Upchurch, Brent

Title:

'Nummi' de consécration frappés en l’honneur de Constance Chlore divinisé dans les ateliers occidentaux en 306 ap. J.-C. / Upchurch (Brent)

Source:

Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique 70 (2015) 4 (avril) p. 98-101

 

Index:

Wienand, Johannes

Title:

Konstantin und Sol invictus / von Johannes Wienand

Source:

Konstantin der Große : zwischen Sol und Christus / Kay Ehling und Gregor Weber (Hrsg.). - Mainz am Rhein : Von Zabern, 2011. - (Zaberns Bildbände zur Archäologie). - P. 53-63

Abstract:

he paper examines the final years of the Roman sun god Sol invictus in imperial representation, c. 310 to 325 AD. The cessation of explicit references to Sol marks a decisive step in the Christianisation of the Roman monarchy. A close analysis of Sol imagery in the Constantinian coinage allows for a reassessment of this process. The minting patterns make it necessary to differentiate between billon and gold coinage: In the billon coinage, references to Sol invictus were ended abruptly in the course of a currency reform in the year 318 AD (no new Sol coins were minted, and the reform drove out from circulation the existing Sol billon coinage quickly). On the gold coinage, however, Sol survived up until 325 AD. The different patterns imply an awareness on the part of the central administration of the diverging functions of billon and gold coinage as media of imperial representation. The paper shows how the termination of Sol invictus was operated with care and counterbalanced by innovations in other fields of imperial representation, such as the ruler portrait.

 

Index:

Woods, David

Title:

Numismatic evidence and the succession to Constantine I / David Woods

Published:

London : Royal Numismatic Society, 2011

Note::

Offprint from: Numismatic Chronicle 171 (2011) p. 187-196, pl. pl. 26