Navigation

04. Republican period

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Studien zur Zeitfolge der Münzprägung der Römischen Republik : auf Grund der Vorarbeiten von A. Alföldi jun. / A. Alföldi

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 36 (1954) p. 5-30, pl. 1-32

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. 2. Beitr.: Mettius-Denar mit 'Caesar Dict. Qvart.' / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 50 (März 1964) p. 29-33

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. 3. Beitrag: Die verstümmelte Emission des M. Mettius mit der Legende Caesar Imp und den Münzbuchstaben G-H-I-K-L / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 51-54 (Mai 1964) p. 65-76

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. 5. Beitrag: Denar des P. Sepullius Macer mit Caesar Imp / Andreas Alföldi.

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 61 (Februar 1966) p. 4-17

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr.. Beitr. VI, VII, VIII, IX, XIV und XV: Massenemission des Macer und des Buca mit Caesar Dict. Perpetuo vor Caesars Ermordung / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 47 (1968) 51-74, pl. 1-10

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. 10. und 11. Beitr.: Zwei irreguläre Denartypen des P. Sepullius Macer mit Caesar Dictator Perpetuo : zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 64 (November 1966) p. 145-149

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. 12. und 16. Beitrag: Die ersten beiden Denartypen nach der Ermordung Caesars mit Caesar Imper / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 71 (August 1968) p. 57-74

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. 13. Beitrag: Der früheste Denartypus des L. Buca mit Caesar Dictator Perpetuo / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 73 (Februar 1969) p. 1-4, pl. 1-2

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. Beiträge XVII-XXII: Denartypen des C. Cossutius Maridianus und die letzte  Denaremission des P. Sepullius Macer / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 47 (1968) p. 85-103, pl. 20-25

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur römischen Münzprägung im zweiten punischen Kriege / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Jahrbuch für Numismatik und Geldgeschichte 15 (1965) p. 33-47, pl. 5-11

 

Index:

Amandry, Michel 1949-

Title:

A propos du monnayage de L. Sempronius Atratinus / Michel Amandry

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 132 (November 1983) p. 82-85

 

Index:

Amandry, Michel 1949-

Title:

Le monnayage en bronze de Bibulus, Atratinus et Capito : une tentative de romanisation en Orient. I / Michel Amandry

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 65 (1986) p. 73-85, pl. 9-17

 

Index:

Amandry, Michel 1949-

Title:

Le monnayage en bronze de Bibulus, Atratinus et Capito : une tentative de romanisation en Orient. II / Michel Amandry

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 66 (1987) p. 101-112, pl. 15-25

 

Index:

Amandry, Michel 1949-

Title:

Le monnayage en bronze de Bibulus, Atratinus et Capito. III / Michel Amandry

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 69 (1990) p. 65-96, pl. 14-16

 

Index:

Amandry, Michel 1949-

Title:

Le témoignage de Pomponius et la date de création des ‘Triumviri monetales’ / Michel Amandry     

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 122 (1976) p. 59-63

 

Index:

Amela Valverde, Luis

Title:

El áureo de Cn. Pompeyo Magno (RRC 402/1) = The aureus of Pompey the Great (RRC 402/1) / Luis Amela Valverde

Source:

Espacio, Tiempo y Forma. Ser. II: Historia antigua 23 (2010) p. 205-216

Abstract:

The discovery of a fifth copy of the rare aureus of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (cos. I 70 BC) caused us to take up again this coining, with a clear triumphant nature, celebrated respectively in 81, 71 and 61 BC. In fact, this aureus seems to be in relation with the eastern campaigns of Pompeius, and its iconography shows his wishes of a triumph celebration as well as his imitatio Alexandri.

 

Index:

Amela Valverde, Luis

Title:

La circulación monetaria romano-republicana de Hispania durante la segunda guerra civil según las ocultaciones de la época / Luis Amela Valverde

Source:

Numisma 254 (2010) p. 7-39

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to offer a brief look at some aspects of coin circulation in Hispania in the first century BC, specifically the early 40’s, during the war that confronted Caesar with Pompey and his sons, basing ourselves on the evidence of the deposits hidden during this period. We provide the list and the composition of the hoards from this era including those that have been assigned to this period but which are really not related. We analyze the circulation of the Roman coin, where the Iberian coin is purely residual. We also analyze the presence of military coin releases in the Peninsula, the relationship of the hoards to the movements of troops (as ascertained from the classical texts), the presence of embossed (incised) marks, and lastly, the bibliography used in this work.

 

Index:

Amela Valverde, Luis

Title:

De nuevo sobre el denario de César con elefante (RRC 443/1) = Again on the 'Elephant Caesar' denarius (RRC 443/1) / Luis Amela Valverde

Source:

Minerva 26 (2013) p. 145-162

Abstract:

Recently there have been several studies of D.L. Nousek, D. Woods y B. Woytek on the first issue of C. Julius Caesar (cos. I 59 BC), the famous “Elephant denarius” (RRC 443/l), one of the most interesting in the Roman numismatic scene. This paper presents a review of the different proposals.

 

Index:

Amela Valverde, Luis

Title:

De nuevo sobre la série de Q. Nasidius (RRC 483) / Luis Amela Valverde

Source:

Revue Numismatique 161 (2005) p. 79-92

 

Index:

Amela Valverde, Luis

Title:

La emisión 'DIVOS IVLIOS' (RRC 535/1-2) / Luis Amela Valverde

Source:

Iberia 6 (2003) p. 25-40

Abstract:

Examination of the DIVOS IVLIOS coinage, one of the most evident examples of propaganda on the currency, made by Octavianus, during the civil wars of the Roman republic. Research of metrology, mint place and significance of this issue.

 

Index:

Amela Valverde, Luis

Title:

Sobre la era pompeyana de Artaxata : una nota / Luis Amela Valverde

Source:

Numisma 255 (2011) p. 65-76

Abstract:

In this article we wish to present some interesting bronzes of Artashat, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Armenia, where a Pompeian era was apparently used. A brief study is given of this coinage, including a new variant, and the chronology is discussed of the silver coins issued by Tigranes II in Artashat.

 

Index:

Assenmaker, Pierre

Title:

CAESAR DIVI F et IMP CAESAR : de la difficulté de dater des émissions monétaires / Pierre Assenmaker

Source:

Liber amicorum Tony Hackens / éd. par Ghislaine Moucharte ... [et al.]. - Louvain-la-Neuve : Association de Numismatique Professeur Marcel Hoc, cop. 2007. - (Numismatica Lovaniensia ; 20). – P. 159-177

Abstract:

Cet article étudie la chronologie, sujette à de nombreuses controverses, des émissions de deniers et d’aurei aux légendes CAESAR DIVI F et IMP CAESAR, qui constituent le dernier monnayage frappé par Octave avant qu’il ne prenne le nom d’Auguste. La première partie fixe les termini chronologiques assurés de ces deux séries, qui doivent avoir été émises entre 36 et 27 av. J.-C. Après quelques remarques méthodologiques sur l’ambiguïté ou la non-spécificité de certains types monétaires célébrant un succès militaire, la deuxième partie tente d’identifier les monnaies commémorant la victoire navale de Nauloque. L’article se clôt sur une remise en perspective de l’impact respectif de Nauloque et d’Actium dans le monnayage du vainqueur de ces deux batailles.

 

Index:

Assenmaker, Pierre

Title:

'L. Sulla imperator' et 'imperator iterum' : pour une réévaluation de la chronologie des émissions monétaires de Sylla (RRC 367-368 et 359) / Pierre Assenmaker

Published:

[Paris] : Société Française de Numismatique, 2013

Note:

Offprint from: Revue Numismatique 170 (2013) p. 247-277

Abstract:

This paper sheds new light on the problem of the chronology of the Sullan issues with the legends L. SVL(L)A IM(P)(E) (RRC 367-368) and L. SVLLA IMPER ITERV(M) (RRC 359). The first part deals with the meaning of the title imperator, which a priori designates Sulla as a “commander cum imperio”. The traditional order of these series involves an arbitrary use of the iteration, which is not especially probable. The following sections of this paper intend therefore to reassess the arguments on which the common dating rests. Finally, the following hypothesis is tested: the coins L. Sulla imperator could have been issued ca. 90-89, during the Social War, and those of the series L. Sulla imperator iterum issued from the end of 84 onwards in order to fund the campaign in Italy.

 

Index:

Assenmaker, Pierre

Title:

Monnayage et idéologie dans les années de Nauloque et d’Actium / Pierre Assenmaker

Published:

Bruxelles : [Société Royale de Numismatique de Belgique, 2008]

Note:

Offprint from: Revue Belge de Numismatique 154 (2008) p. 55-85

Abstract:

The monetary series with the legends CAESAR DIVI F and IMP CAESAR, which have to be dated in the years 36-27 B.C., give an essential testimony – too often neglected – on the propaganda elaborated under the 'regime of Imperator Caesar'. This article presents a synthesis of the ideological themes developed during this period, in the art and the monetary issues as in the literary works (mainly Vergil and Horace): exaltation of victory and celebration of peace, the preeminence of Imperator Caesar, who is presented as the liberator, restorer, and new founder of Rome, whose action is supported by many deities, and to whom a place in the divine sphere is promised. The analysis of these themes underlines the coherency and continuity of the ideological elaboration of the new regime, initiated as soon as after Naulochos, continued and amplified after Actium.

 

Index:

Babelon, Ernest Charles François 1854-1924

Title:

Description historique des monnaies de la République romaine : vulgairement appelées monnaies consulaires. T. I / par Ernest Babelon

Published:

Paris ; Londres : Rolin et Feuardent, 1886

 

Index:

Babelon, Ernest Charles François 1854-1924

Title:

Description historique des monnaies de la République romaine : vulgairement appelées monnaies consulaires. T. II / par Ernest Babelon

Published:

Paris ; Londres : Rolin et Feuardent, 1886

 

Index:

Bahrfeldt, Max Ferdinand von 1856-1935

Title:

Die gefütterten Münzen aus der Zeit der römischen Republik / von M. Bahrfeldt

Source:

Numismatische Zeitschrift 16 (1884) p. 309-366

 

Index:

Bahrfeldt, Max Ferdinand von 1856-1935

Title:

Die Kupfermünzen der römischen Metelli / von M. Bahrfeldt

Source:

Numismatische Zeitschrift 13 (1881) p. 149-177, pl. 3

 

Index:

Bahrfeldt, Max Ferdinand von 1856-1935

Title:

Die letzten Kupferprägungen unter der römischen Republik / M. Bahrfeldt

Source:

Numismatische Zeitschrift 42 (1909) p. 67-86, pl. 1

 

Index:

Bahrfeldt, Max Ferdinand von 1856-1935

Title:

Nachträge und Berichtigungen zur Münzkunde der römischen Republik : im Anschluss an Babelon's Verzeichniss der Consular-Münzen. [Bd. I] / von M. Bahrfeldt

Published:

Wien : Bahrfeldt, 1897

 

Index:

Bahrfeldt, Max Ferdinand von 1856-1935

Title:

Nachträge und Berichtigungen zur Münzkunde der römischen Republik : im Anschluss an Babelon's Verzeichniss der Consular-Münzen. Bd. II / von M. Bahrfeldt

Published:

Wien : Bahrfeldt, 1900

 

Index:

Bahrfeldt, Max Ferdinand von 1856-1935

Title:

Nachträge und Berichtigungen zur Münzkunde der römischen Republik : im Anschluss an Babelon's Verzeichniss der Consular-Münzen. Bd. III / von M. v. Bahrfeldt

Published:

Hildesheim : [Bahrfeldt], 1919

Note:

Offprint from: Numismatische Zeitschrift 51 (1918) p. 73-180, pl. 1-7

 

Index:

Bahrfeldt, Max Ferdinand von 1856-1935

Title:

Die Römisch-Sizilischen Münzen aus der Zeit der Republik /  Max Bahrfeldt

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 12 (1904) p. 331-447, pl. 1-5

 

Index:

Baldus, Hans Roland

Title:

Eine Münzprägung auf das Ehepaar Mark Anton-Kleopatra VII / Hans Roland Baldus

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 129 (Februar 1983) p. 5-10

 

Index:

Bertol, Anja

Title:

'Aes rude' and 'aes formatum' : a new typology based on the revised Mazin hoard / Anja Bertol, Karmen Farac

Source:

Vjesnik Arheološkog Muzeja u Zagrebu 3. s. 45 (2013) 1 (Svibanj)  p. 94-113

Abstract:

R. Garrucci was the first researcher who classified aes rude, amorphous bronze pieces of unequal weight and without any official stamp or mark. Following him, J. Brunšmid based the typology of aes rude on the material from the Mazin hoard, found in 1896 and kept, almost in its entirety, in the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb (1537 pieces). In 1910, E. Haeberlin offered his typology based on material then known from Italy and Central Europe. A new typology of aes rude and aes formatum, based on the revised Mazin material, is presented in this paper.

 

Index:

Bilić, Tomislav

Title:

Late Roman republican hoards terminating with the denarii of C.L. Caesares / Tomislav Bilić

Source:

Vjesnik Arheološkog Muzeja u Zagrebu 3. s. 45 (2013) 1 (Svibanj)  p. 115-138

Abstract:

Several coin hoards terminating with the denarii of C.L. Caesares found in SE Europe are analysed in this paper, utilizing the new dating of this type of coinage, differing from that offered in the standard reference for this coinage (Ric). All the hoards were studied anew for the requirements of this paper and are here published with reference to modern numismatic literature. The concealment of the hoards has been regularly associated with either Augustus’ Balkan campaigns or the great Illyrian-Pannonian uprising of AD 6-9, but in both cases they were interred during the early Imperial period. Yet their nature reflects the earlier, pre-Augustan and Early Augustan circulation, rather than the new Roman order of the 1st c. AD. It is argued that the hoards only indicate the penetration of Republican coins to Illyricum as a result of Augustus’ campaigns, rather than being an indicator of either of these military operations in the area.

 

Index:

Chaves Tristan, Francisca

Title:

Monedas romanas. I: República / por Francisca Chaves Tristán

Published:

Madrid : Real Academia de la Historia, 2005

 

Index:

Cohen, Henry 1806-1880

Title:

Description générale des monnaies de la République romaine, communément appelées médailles consulaires / par H. Cohen

Published:

Paris : Rollin, 1857

 

Index:

Crawford, Michael Hewson 1939-

Title:

Coinage and money under the Roman Republic : Italy and the Mediterranean economy / Michael H. Crawford

Series:

The library of numismatics

Published:

Berkeley : University of California Press, cop. 1985

 

Index:

Crawford, Michael Hewson 1939-

Title:

From 'aes signare' to 'aes signatum' / Michael H. Crawford

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 88 (2009) p. 195-197

 

Index:

Ekström, Curt

Title:

Från republik till kejsardöme : en dramatisk period i romarrikets historia återspeglad i mynten / Curt Ekström

Source:

Samlad glädje 2009 : Numismatiska Klubben Uppsala 1969-2009 / [red.: Curt Ekström, Kjell Holmberg och Magnus Wijk]. - Uppsala : Numismatiska Kubben, cop. 2009. - P. 41-50

Abstract:

The dramatic transition period from Roman Republic to Roman Empire in the first century B.C. is briefly described in the present article with special reference to the coinage produced. The strong triumvirs in the First and Second Triumvirates and their internal connections and fights are clearly reflected in the coinage, as is the presence of additional power pretenders on the political scene. Finally, it turns out that Julius Caesar and his heir Octavianus were the most powerful military and political leaders, the latter becoming the first Roman emperor under the name of Augustus.

 

Index:

Evans, Jane DeRose 1956-

Title:

The restoration of memory : Minucius and his monument / Jane DeRose Evans

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. I / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : [International Numismatic Commission], 2011. – P. 657-661

 

Index:

Evans, Jane DeRose 1956-

Title:

The Sicilian coinage of Sextus Pompeius (Crawford 511) / Jane DeRose Evans

Source:

American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 32 (1987) p. 97-157, pl. 9

 

Index:

Grueber, Herbert Appold 1846-1927

Title:

Coinages of the Triumvirs, Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian, illustrative of the history of the times / [H.A. Grueber]

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 4th ser. 11 (1911) p. 109-152, pl. 8-9

 

Index:

Grueber, Herbert Appold 1846-1927

Title:

Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum. Vol. I: Aes rude, aes signatum, aes grave, and coinage of Rome from B.C. 268 / by H.A. Grueber

Published:

London : British Museum, 1910

 

Index:

Grueber, Herbert Appold 1846-1927

Title:

Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum. Vol. II: Coinages of Rome (continued), Roman Campania, Italy, the social war, and the provinces / by H.A. Grueber

Published:

London : British Museum, 1910

 

Index:

Grueber, Herbert Appold 1846-1927

Title:

Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum. Vol. III: Tables of finds and cognomina, indexes, plates, etc. / by H.A. Grueber

Published:

London : British Museum, 1910

 

Index:

Grueber, Herbert Appold 1846-1927

Title:

Roman bronze coinage from B.C. 45-3 / [H.A. Grueber]

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 4th ser. 4 (1904) p. 185-244, pl. 12-14

 

Index:

Guzzetta, Giuseppe

Title:

Il tesoretto di età repubblicana da Rutigliano : per la cronologia delle emissioni degli anni 70-50 a.C. / Giuseppe Guzzetta

Published:

[Roma] : Istituto poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Libreria dello Stato, [2000]

Note:

Offprint from: Bollettino di Numismatica 34-35 (gennaoi-dicembre 2000) p. 161-198

 

Index:

Hersh, Charles Austin 1923-1999

Title:

The coinage of Quintus Labienus Parthicus / Charles Hersh

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 59 (1980) p. 41-49, pl. 4-5

 

Index:

Hollander, David Bruce

Title:

Money in the late Roman Republic / by David B. Hollander

Published:

Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2007

Abstract:

Roman monetary history has tended to focus on the study of Roman coinage but other assets regularly functioned as, or in place of, money. This book places coinage in its broader monetary context by also examining the role of bullion, financial instruments, and commodities such as grain and wine in making payments, facilitating exchange, measuring value and storing wealth. The use of such assets reduced the demand for coinage in some sectors of the economy and is a crucial factor in determining the impact of the large increase in the coin supply during the last century of the Republic. Money demand theory suggests that increased coin production led to further monetization, not per capita economic growth.

 

Index:

Kraft, Konrad 1920-1970

Title:

Der goldene Kranz Caesars und der Kampf um die Entlarvung des 'Tyrannen' / Konrad Kraft

Source:

Jahrbuch für Numismatik und Geldgeschichte 3-4 (1952-1953) p. 7-97, pl. 1-4

 

Index:

Kroha, Tyll 1929-

Title:

Münzen der Römischen Republik / [T. K.]

Series:

Das Fenster ; Thema 103

Published:

[Köln] : Geldgeschichtliche Sammlung Kreissparkasse Köln, [1979]

 

Index:

Leidig, Tilmann 1940-

Title:

Carrinas C. f. : Überlegungen zu zwei Bronzemünzen der Treverer / Tilmann Leidig

Source:

Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 122 (1998) p. 211–218

 

Index:

Martin, Thomas R. 1947-

Title:

Sulla 'Imperator Iterum' : the Samnites and Roman republican coin propaganda / Thomas R. Martin

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 68 (1989) p. 19-44, pl. 1

 

Index:

Mattingly, Harold 1884-1964

Title:

Nummus und As : ein Beitrag zur frührömischen Münzprägung / Harold Mattingly

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 33 (1947) p. 5-15, pl. 1-2

 

Index:

Mattingly, Harold 1884-1964

Title:

Some historical coins of the late Republic / by Harold Mattingly

Source:

Journal of Roman Studies 12 (1922) p. 230-239

 

Index:

Molinari, Maria Cristina

Title:

Gli aurei a nome di Giulio Cesare e Aulo Irzio / Maria Cristina Molinari

Published:

[Milano : Società Numismatica Italiana], 2003

Note:

Offprint from: Rivista Italiana di Numismatica 104 (2003) p. 165-253, pl. 1-10 

 

Index:

Perassi, Claudia

Title:

Ex nummis cognoscere : la collezione numismatica dell'università cattolica : le monete romane repubblicane / mostra fotografica a cura di Claudia Perassi

Published:

Milano : Università Cattolica, 2004

 

Index:

Rolland, Henri 1887-1970

Title:

Numismatique de la République romaine : catalogue général et raisonné / par H. Rolland

Published:

Paris : Ciani, [1921]

 

Index:

Rowan, Clare 1982-

Title:

The value of coinage in the Second Punic War and after / Clare Rowan

Source:

Embodying value : the transformation of objects in and from the Ancient world / ed. by Annabel Bokern, Clare Rowan. - Oxford : Archaeopress, 2014. - (BAR International series ; 2592). - P. 77-88

Abstract:

This article examines the double-sided nature of the value of coinage in the ancient world. A coin’s value can derive from a particular government or authority, or its value can be created between two private actors in the marketplace. One type of value may be privileged over the other in particular periods and contexts, and thus an ancient coin could move between different spheres of value, with its worth being calculated and re-calculated according to context. These at times conflicting value-attribution mechanisms are explored through a case study of the coinage of Capua and the Bretti during the period of the Second Punic War and after. While government-sponsored value was privileged in Southern Italy during the period of conflict, Roman monetary policies after the war provided incentive for the creation of local value attributions between private individuals.

 

Index:

Russo, Roberto

Title:

I primi due assi coniati pubblicati nel 1866 e nel 1868 dal barone d'Ailly e poi dimenticati / Roberto Russo

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 88 (2009) p. 199-204, pl. 4

 

Index:

Ryan, Frank

Title:

Der Sonnengott auf den Münzen der Römischen Republik / Frank Ryan

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 84 (2005) p. 81-89, pl. 6

 

Index:

Schaefer, Richard

Title:

A fresh look at Roman Republican Star bronzes, RRC 113 and 196 / Richard Schaefer and Andrew McCabe

Published::

London : Royal Numismatic Society, 2011

Note:

Offprint from: Numismatic Chronicle 171 (2011) p. 99-108

Abstract:

The Star bronzes RRC 113 and 196 are among the most difficult to classify in the Roman Republican series. Crawford dates RRC 113 to 206-195 BC and RRC 196 to 169-158 BC. Although the as and semis denominations are plentiful and easy to classify, their lower fractions, except the star-before quadrantes, are rare. The traditional dating of fractions with star above (RRC 113) to 206-195 BC and those with star before (RRC 196) to 169-158 BC is based on the perception that the plentiful star-before quadrantes are lighter than those with star above. There are, however, two issues of star-before quadrantes, a rare heavier issue whose style is close to that of RRC 113, and the much commoner light quadrantes with erratic design features. The latter seem to form part of the large volume of unofficial lightweight semisses and quadrantes produced after 150 BC. Design elements of the other fractions with star before are consistently like RRC 113, and those with star above are like RRC 196. Thus we propose to switch the lighter fractions, associating the star-before fractions with RRC 113 in 206-195 BC and the star-above fractions with RRC 196 in 169-158 BC. Although the official RRC 113 and RRC 196 lower fractions cannot be distinguished from each other by weight alone, an analysis of weights shows the unofficial quadrantes to be consistently much lighter than the official issues.

 

Index:

Scharp, Henri Jacques 1874-1957

Title:

De Romeinsche denarius van 269-268 vóór Chr. en het gelijktijdige bronzen geld / [H.J. Scharp]

Source:

Jaarboek voor Munt- en Penningkunde 8 (1921) p. 1-23

 

Index:

Seaby, Herbert Allen 1898-1979

Title:

Roman silver coins. Vol. I: The Republic to Augustus / by H.A. Seaby

Edition:

3rd ed. / rev. by David R. Sear and Robert Loosley

Published:

London : Seaby, 1978

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

A plated denarius brockage of L·RVSTI / Clive Stannard

Source:

Annotazioni Numismatiche 32 (dicembre 1998) p. 730-731

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

‘Pseudomints’ and small change in Italy and Sicily in the late Republic / Clive Stannard and Suzanne Frey-Kupper

Source:

American Numismatic Journal 2nd ser. 20 (2008) p. 351-404, pl. 83-85

Abstract:

Two 'pseudomints' of the first century BC are described: Pseudo-Ebusus/Massalia (almost certainly at Pompeii) and Pseudo-Panormos/Paestum (probably at Minturnae). The circulation of their coins, and of a plethora of foreign coins, suggests that a relatively monetarized economy in Latium and Campania was pressing all available coin into service, in a context of a penury of small change. Appendix 1 considers the circulation and overstriking in central Italy of Koan bronze coin. Appendix 2 compiles finds of foreign coin from Rome, Minturnae and Pompeii.

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

Quartered and counter-marked Republican asses, and the central Italian Italo-Baetican assemblage / Clive Stannard

Source:

Essays in honour of Roberto Russo / ed. by Peter G. van Alfen and Richard B. Witschonke. - Zürich ; London : Numismatica Ars Classica NAC, 2013. - P. 365-376

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

Riconiazioni e monetazione imitativa nell’Italia centrale nella tarda Repubblica / Clive Stannard

Source:

Monete Antiche 9 (maggio-giugno 2003) p. 5-22

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

Two-headed and two-tailed denarii in the Roman Republic / Clive Stannard

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 147 (1987) p. 160-163

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

Two-headed and two-tailed denarii again / Clive Stannard

Source:

Annotazioni Numismatiche 17 (marzo 1995) p. 361-362

 

Index:

Suspène, Arnaud

Title:

Rois de Rome et rois étrangers : sur les monnaies de la République romaine / Arnaud Suspène

Source:

Revue de la BNF (2009) 3 p. 83-89

 

Index:

Travaglini, Adriana

Title:

Denari romani repubblicani nel Museo di Brindisi : Collezione Marzano-Collezione De Leo / [Adriana Travaglini]

Source:

Ricerche e Studi 12 (1980-1987) p. 145-174

 

Index:

Weisser, Bernhard 1964-

Title:

National wertvolles Kulturgut : die Sammlung römischen Schwergeldes von Ernst Justus Haeberlin / Bernhard Weisser

Source:

Nub Nefer - Gutes Gold : Gedenkschrift für Manfred Gutgesell / hrsg. von Robert Lehmann ... [et al.]. - Rahden : Leidorf, 2014. - (Hannoversche Numismatische Beiträge ; Bd. 1). - P. 279-305

 

Index:

Witschonke, Richard

Title:

The use of die marks on Roman Republican coinage / Richard Witschonke

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 158 (2012) p. 65-86

Abstract:

The use of various systems of die marks in the coinage of the Roman Republic has been well documented, but the purpose of these marks has never been convincingly explained. This article reviews the evidence and previous scholarship, and proposes a possible explanation for the phenomenon: that the marks were designed to allow the tracing of debased or plated coins found in circulation back to the responsible mint employees.

 

Index:

Woytek, Bernhard 1974-

Title:

Julius Caesars Finanzen und Münzprägung im Jahre 49 v. Chr. : Bemerkungen zu RRC 443/1 / Bernhard Woytek

Source:

XIII Congreso Internacional de Numismática, Madrid, 2003 : actas = proceedings = actes. I / ed. por Carmen Alfaro, Carmen Marcos y Paloma Otero. - Madrid : Ministerio de Cultura, Subdirección General de Publicaciones, Información y Documentación, 2005. - P. 643-648

 

Index:

Woytek, Bernhard 1974-

Title:

'P.CLODIVS M.F.' auf 'BRVT.IMP' : eine Denarüberprägung des Jahres 42 v. Chr. / Bernhard Woytek

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 226 (Juni 2007) p. 35-43

 

Index:

Woytek, Bernhard 1974-

Title:

Die römische Republik / Bernhard Woytek

Source:

A survey of numismatic research, 2002-2007 / International Numismatic Commission ; general ed. Michel Amandry, Donal Bateson. - Glasgow : International Association of Professional Numismatists, 2009. – P. 135-145

 

Index:

Woytek, Bernhard 1974-

Title:

Die Verwendung von Mehrfachstempeln in der antiken Münzprägung und die 'Elefantendenare' Iulius Caesars (RRC 443/I) / Bernhard Woytek

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 85 (2006) p. 69-90, pl. 9-11

Abstract:

In many parts of the Greek world, lower (anvil) dies with more than one obverse type were occasionally used to produce coins, as has long been recognized: When blanks were placed carelessly on such anvil dies, the coins struck from them would show impressions of parts of two dies on their obverses. Such misstrikes are known from Achaemenid sigloi - the present paper adding two more examples -, from Greek coinages of Asia Minor, the mainland, Sicily and Magna Graecia, as well as from Seleucid and Arsacid coins. This phenomenon occurs, however, only on isolated specimens of all the mentioned Greek series, so that it is not even described in most manuals on ancient coinage: Hitherto, it has been studied properly only on Celtic coins, especially on the silver coinages of southern France, where traces of this production technique occur most frequently. In 1995 and 2000, multiple anvil dies were discovered in two - not yet published - hoards of Celtic coining implements unearthed in Bavaria (southern Germany), together with other tools for metal-working. Significantly, the only Roman coin with the impression of a multiple obverse die published up to now is a provincial coin from Gaul, an Augustan col nem bronze from Nemausus, which was part of the hoard of Port-Haliguen. The present paper discusses two elephant denarii of Julius Caesar (RRC 443/1; group of crude style) showing traces of a second border of dots on the obverse, which is a characteristic of coins produced from multiple anvil dies. This technical observation ties in well with the author's hypothesis that RRC 443 was produced by - or on the orders of -Julius Caesar's financial administration in 49 bc, most likely in southern Gaul.