04. Republican period

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

The main aspects of political propaganda on the coinage of the Roman Republic / by Andrew Alföldi

Source:

Essays in Roman coinage presented to Harold Mattingly / ed. by R.A.G. Carson and C.H.V. Sutherland. - London : Oxford University Press, 1956. - P. 63-95

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Studien zur Zeitfolge der Münzprägung der Römischen Republik : auf Grund der Vorarbeiten von A. Alföldi jun. / A. Alföldi

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 36 (1954) p. 5-30, pl. 1-32

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. 2. Beitr.: Mettius-Denar mit 'Caesar Dict. Qvart.' / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 50 (März 1964) p. 29-33

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. 3. Beitr.: Die verstümmelte Emission des M. Mettius mit der Legende Caesar Imp und den Münzbuchstaben G-H-I-K-L / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 51-54 (Mai 1964) p. 65-76

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. 4. Beitr.: Denar des Aemilius Buca mit 'Caesar. Im-P M' / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 58 (Juni 1965) p. 29-40, pl. 1-5

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. 5. Beitr.: Denar des P. Sepullius Macer mit Caesar Imp / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 61 (Februar 1966) p. 4-17

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. Beitr. 6, 7, 8, 9, 14 und 15: Massenemission des Macer und des Buca mit Caesar Dict. Perpetuo vor Caesars Ermordung / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 47 (1968) p. 51-74, pl. 1-10

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. 10. und 11. Beitr.: Zwei irreguläre Denartypen des P. Sepullius Macer mit Caesar Dictator Perpetuo : zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 64 (November 1966) p. 145-149

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. 12. und 16. Beitr.: Die ersten beiden Denartypen nach der Ermordung Caesars mit Caesar Imper / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 71 (August 1968) p. 57-74

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. 13. Beit.g: Der früheste Denartypus des L. Buca mit Caesar Dictator Perpetuo / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 73 (Februar 1969) p. 1-4, pl. 1-2

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur Auswertung der Münzquellen der Geschichte des Jahres 44 v. Chr. Beitr. 17-22: Denartypen des C. Cossutius Maridianus und die letzte  Denaremission des P. Sepullius Macer / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 47 (1968) p. 85-103, pl. 20-25

 

Index:

Alföldi, Andreas 1895-1981

Title:

Zur römischen Münzprägung im zweiten punischen Kriege / Andreas Alföldi

Source:

Jahrbuch für Numismatik und Geldgeschichte 15 (1965) p. 33-47, pl. 5-11

 

Index:

Amandry, Michel 1949-

Title:

A propos du monnayage de L. Sempronius Atratinus / Michel Amandry

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 132 (November 1983) p. 82-85

 

Index:

Amandry, Michel 1949-

Title:

Le monnayage en bronze de Bibulus, Atratinus et Capito : une tentative de romanisation en Orient. I / Michel Amandry

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 65 (1986) p. 73-85, pl. 9-17

 

Index:

Amandry, Michel 1949-

Title:

Le monnayage en bronze de Bibulus, Atratinus et Capito : une tentative de romanisation en Orient. II / Michel Amandry

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 66 (1987) p. 101-112, pl. 15-25

 

Index:

Amandry, Michel 1949-

Title:

Le monnayage en bronze de Bibulus, Atratinus et Capito. III / Michel Amandry

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 69 (1990) p. 65-96, pl. 14-16

 

Index:

Amandry, Michel 1949-

Title:

Le témoignage de Pomponius et la date de création des ‘Triumviri monetales’ / Michel Amandry     

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 122 (1976) p. 59-63

 

Index:

Amela Valverde, Luis

Title:

El áureo de Cn. Pompeyo Magno (RRC 402/1) = The aureus of Pompey the Great (RRC 402/1) / Luis Amela Valverde

Source:

Espacio, Tiempo y Forma. Ser. II: Historia antigua 23 (2010) p. 205-216

Abstract:

The discovery of a fifth copy of the rare aureus of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (cos. I 70 BC) caused us to take up again this coining, with a clear triumphant nature, celebrated respectively in 81, 71 and 61 BC. In fact, this aureus seems to be in relation with the eastern campaigns of Pompeius, and its iconography shows his wishes of a triumph celebration as well as his imitatio Alexandri.

 

Index:

Amela Valverde, Luis

Title:

La circulación monetaria romano-republicana de Hispania durante la segunda guerra civil según las ocultaciones de la época / Luis Amela Valverde

Source:

Numisma 254 (2010) p. 7-39

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to offer a brief look at some aspects of coin circulation in Hispania in the first century BC, specifically the early 40’s, during the war that confronted Caesar with Pompey and his sons, basing ourselves on the evidence of the deposits hidden during this period. We provide the list and the composition of the hoards from this era including those that have been assigned to this period but which are really not related. We analyze the circulation of the Roman coin, where the Iberian coin is purely residual. We also analyze the presence of military coin releases in the Peninsula, the relationship of the hoards to the movements of troops (as ascertained from the classical texts), the presence of embossed (incised) marks, and lastly, the bibliography used in this work.

 

Index:

Amela Valverde, Luis

Title:

De nuevo sobre el denario de César con elefante (RRC 443/1) = Again on the 'Elephant Caesar' denarius (RRC 443/1) / Luis Amela Valverde

Source:

Minerva 26 (2013) p. 145-162

Abstract:

Recently there have been several studies of D.L. Nousek, D. Woods y B. Woytek on the first issue of C. Julius Caesar (cos. I 59 BC), the famous “Elephant denarius” (RRC 443/l), one of the most interesting in the Roman numismatic scene. This paper presents a review of the different proposals.

 

Index:

Amela Valverde, Luis

Title:

De nuevo sobre la série de Q. Nasidius (RRC 483) / Luis Amela Valverde

Source:

Revue Numismatique 161 (2005) p. 79-92

 

Index:

Amela Valverde, Luis

Title:

La emisión 'DIVOS IVLIOS' (RRC 535/1-2) / Luis Amela Valverde

Source:

Iberia 6 (2003) p. 25-40

Abstract:

Examination of the DIVOS IVLIOS coinage, one of the most evident examples of propaganda on the currency, made by Octavianus, during the civil wars of the Roman republic. Research of metrology, mint place and significance of this issue.

 

Index:

Amela Valverde, Luis

Title:

La emisión RRC 426, de Fausto Cornelio Sila / Luis Amela Valverde

Source:

Numisma 257 (2013) p. 19-31

Abstract:

One of the most interesting series of coins issued during the interwar period through the end of the Roman Republic was made by Faustus Cornelius Sulla (q. 54 BC). This issue was made not only as a compliment to his father, the dictator L. Cornelius Sulla (cos. I 88 BC), but also to his father-in-law, the consul Pompey the Great (cos. I 70 BC), the most influential person on the current political scene. Because of this double feature, it is not surprising that some researchers have wanted to make of this coinage two different series.

 

Index:

Amela Valverde, Luis

Title:

Sobre la era pompeyana de Artaxata : una nota / Luis Amela Valverde

Source:

Numisma 255 (2011) p. 65-76

Abstract:

In this article we wish to present some interesting bronzes of Artashat, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Armenia, where a Pompeian era was apparently used. A brief study is given of this coinage, including a new variant, and the chronology is discussed of the silver coins issued by Tigranes II in Artashat.

 

Index:

Antela-Bernárdez, Borja

Title:

The coinage of G. Annius Luscus / Borja Antela-Bernárdez

Source:

The city and the coin in the ancient and early medieval worlds / ed. by Fernando López Sánchez. - Oxford : Archaeopress, 2012. - (BAR international series ; 2402). - P. 37-47

Abstract:

During the Sertorian Wars (82-73/72 BC), two interesting characters under the names of L. Fabius Hispaniensis  and C. Tarquitius Priscus are referred to in textual evidence as quaestors of C. Annius, the governor  sent to Hispania by L. Cornelius Sulla with a remit to pursue Q. Sertorius. Two men with similar names and who where in the service of Sertorius are referred to in literary sources as having been exiled  under Sulla’s proscriptions. An in-depth study of the numismatic evidence highlights a possible new way of understanding both the coinage of C. Annius during his service in Hispania and the importance of these two individuals in the politics of the time.

 

Index:

Assenmaker, Pierre

Title:

CAESAR DIVI F et IMP CAESAR : de la difficulté de dater des émissions monétaires / Pierre Assenmaker

Source:

Liber amicorum Tony Hackens / éd. par Ghislaine Moucharte ... [et al.]. - Louvain-la-Neuve : Association de Numismatique Professeur Marcel Hoc, cop. 2007. - (Numismatica Lovaniensia ; 20). – P. 159-177

Abstract:

Cet article étudie la chronologie, sujette à de nombreuses controverses, des émissions de deniers et d’aurei aux légendes CAESAR DIVI F et IMP CAESAR, qui constituent le dernier monnayage frappé par Octave avant qu’il ne prenne le nom d’Auguste. La première partie fixe les termini chronologiques assurés de ces deux séries, qui doivent avoir été émises entre 36 et 27 av. J.-C. Après quelques remarques méthodologiques sur l’ambiguïté ou la non-spécificité de certains types monétaires célébrant un succès militaire, la deuxième partie tente d’identifier les monnaies commémorant la victoire navale de Nauloque. L’article se clôt sur une remise en perspective de l’impact respectif de Nauloque et d’Actium dans le monnayage du vainqueur de ces deux batailles.

 

Index:

Assenmaker, Pierre

Title:

'L. Sulla imperator' et 'imperator iterum' : pour une réévaluation de la chronologie des émissions monétaires de Sylla (RRC 367-368 et 359) / Pierre Assenmaker

Published:

[Paris] : Société Française de Numismatique, 2013

Note:

Offprint from: Revue Numismatique 170 (2013) p. 247-277

Abstract:

This paper sheds new light on the problem of the chronology of the Sullan issues with the legends L. SVL(L)A IM(P)(E) (RRC 367-368) and L. SVLLA IMPER ITERV(M) (RRC 359). The first part deals with the meaning of the title imperator, which a priori designates Sulla as a “commander cum imperio”. The traditional order of these series involves an arbitrary use of the iteration, which is not especially probable. The following sections of this paper intend therefore to reassess the arguments on which the common dating rests. Finally, the following hypothesis is tested: the coins L. Sulla imperator could have been issued ca. 90-89, during the Social War, and those of the series L. Sulla imperator iterum issued from the end of 84 onwards in order to fund the campaign in Italy.

 

Index:

Assenmaker, Pierre

Title:

Monnayage et idéologie dans les années de Nauloque et d’Actium / Pierre Assenmaker

Published:

Bruxelles : [Société Royale de Numismatique de Belgique, 2008]

Note:

Offprint from: Revue Belge de Numismatique 154 (2008) p. 55-85

Abstract:

The monetary series with the legends CAESAR DIVI F and IMP CAESAR, which have to be dated in the years 36-27 B.C., give an essential testimony – too often neglected – on the propaganda elaborated under the 'regime of Imperator Caesar'. This article presents a synthesis of the ideological themes developed during this period, in the art and the monetary issues as in the literary works (mainly Vergil and Horace): exaltation of victory and celebration of peace, the preeminence of Imperator Caesar, who is presented as the liberator, restorer, and new founder of Rome, whose action is supported by many deities, and to whom a place in the divine sphere is promised. The analysis of these themes underlines the coherency and continuity of the ideological elaboration of the new regime, initiated as soon as after Naulochos, continued and amplified after Actium.

 

Index:

Babelon, Ernest Charles François 1854-1924

Title:

Classement chronologique et iconographique de quelques monnaies de la fin de la république romaine / Ernest Babelon

Source:

Revue Numismatique 3e sér. 2 (1884) p. 407-426

 

Index:

Babelon, Ernest Charles François 1854-1924

Title:

Description historique des monnaies de la République romaine : vulgairement appelées monnaies consulaires. T. I / par Ernest Babelon

Published:

Paris ; Londres : Rolin et Feuardent, 1886

 

Index:

Babelon, Ernest Charles François 1854-1924

Title:

Description historique des monnaies de la République romaine : vulgairement appelées monnaies consulaires. T. II / par Ernest Babelon

Published:

Paris ; Londres : Rolin et Feuardent, 1886

 

Index:

Bahrfeldt, Max Ferdinand von 1856-1935

Title:

Die gefütterten Münzen aus der Zeit der römischen Republik / von M. Bahrfeldt

Source:

Numismatische Zeitschrift 16 (1884) p. 309-366

 

Index:

Bahrfeldt, Max Ferdinand von 1856-1935

Title:

Die Kupfermünzen der römischen Metelli / von M. Bahrfeldt

Source:

Numismatische Zeitschrift 13 (1881) p. 149-177, pl. 3

 

Index:

Bahrfeldt, Max Ferdinand von 1856-1935

Title:

Die letzten Kupferprägungen unter der römischen Republik / M. Bahrfeldt

Source:

Numismatische Zeitschrift 42 (1909) p. 67-86, pl. 1

 

Index:

Bahrfeldt, Max Ferdinand von 1856-1935

Title:

Nachträge und Berichtigungen zur Münzkunde der römischen Republik : im Anschluss an Babelon's Verzeichniss der Consular-Münzen. [Bd. I] / von M. Bahrfeldt

Published:

Wien : Bahrfeldt, 1897

 

Index:

Bahrfeldt, Max Ferdinand von 1856-1935

Title:

Nachträge und Berichtigungen zur Münzkunde der römischen Republik : im Anschluss an Babelon's Verzeichniss der Consular-Münzen. Bd. II / von M. Bahrfeldt

Published:

Wien : Bahrfeldt, 1900

 

Index:

Bahrfeldt, Max Ferdinand von 1856-1935

Title:

Nachträge und Berichtigungen zur Münzkunde der römischen Republik : im Anschluss an Babelon's Verzeichniss der Consular-Münzen. Bd. III / von M. v. Bahrfeldt

Published:

Hildesheim : [Bahrfeldt], 1919

Note:

Offprint from: Numismatische Zeitschrift 51 (1918) p. 73-180, pl. 1-7

 

Index:

Bahrfeldt, Max Ferdinand von 1856-1935

Title:

Die Römisch-Sizilischen Münzen aus der Zeit der Republik /  Max Bahrfeldt

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 12 (1904) p. 331-447, pl. 1-5

 

Index:

Baldus, Hans Roland

Title:

Eine Münzprägung auf das Ehepaar Mark Anton-Kleopatra VII / Hans Roland Baldus

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 129 (Februar 1983) p. 5-10

 

Index:

Barth, Christian Wilhelm

Title:

Das römische Ass und seine Theile in Abbildungen / hrsg. von C.W. Barth

Published:

Leipzig : beim Herausgeber, 1838

 

Index:

Bertol, Anja

Title:

'Aes rude' and 'aes formatum' : a new typology based on the revised Mazin hoard / Anja Bertol, Karmen Farac

Source:

Vjesnik Arheološkog Muzeja u Zagrebu 3. s. 45 (2013) 1 (Svibanj)  p. 94-113

Abstract:

R. Garrucci was the first researcher who classified aes rude, amorphous bronze pieces of unequal weight and without any official stamp or mark. Following him, J. Brunšmid based the typology of aes rude on the material from the Mazin hoard, found in 1896 and kept, almost in its entirety, in the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb (1537 pieces). In 1910, E. Haeberlin offered his typology based on material then known from Italy and Central Europe. A new typology of aes rude and aes formatum, based on the revised Mazin material, is presented in this paper.

 

Index:

Bilić, Tomislav

Title:

Late Roman republican hoards terminating with the denarii of C.L. Caesares / Tomislav Bilić

Source:

Vjesnik Arheološkog Muzeja u Zagrebu 3. s. 45 (2013) 1 (Svibanj)  p. 115-138

Abstract:

Several coin hoards terminating with the denarii of C.L. Caesares found in SE Europe are analysed in this paper, utilizing the new dating of this type of coinage, differing from that offered in the standard reference for this coinage (Ric). All the hoards were studied anew for the requirements of this paper and are here published with reference to modern numismatic literature. The concealment of the hoards has been regularly associated with either Augustus’ Balkan campaigns or the great Illyrian-Pannonian uprising of AD 6-9, but in both cases they were interred during the early Imperial period. Yet their nature reflects the earlier, pre-Augustan and Early Augustan circulation, rather than the new Roman order of the 1st c. AD. It is argued that the hoards only indicate the penetration of Republican coins to Illyricum as a result of Augustus’ campaigns, rather than being an indicator of either of these military operations in the area.

 

Index:

Burnett, Andrew Michael

Title:

Reflections on the San Martino in Pensilis hoard / Andrew Burnett

Source:

Revue Numismatique 162 (2006) p. 37-50

Abstract:

The author reexamines the San Martino in Pensilis hoard, and assesses its significance for the transitional period of Italian coinage in the 3rd century BC. The hoard allows us to document, for the first time, the changes that were taking place in the middle of the century, and enables us to date the coinages of Cales, Teanum and Suessa to the end of the First Punic war. It also contains the first and second issues of Roman didrachms and suggests that there was a gap in Roman coin production between 300 and 260 BC.

 

Index:

Chaves Tristan, Francisca

Title:

Monedas romanas. I: República / por Francisca Chaves Tristán

Published:

Madrid : Real Academia de la Historia, 2005

 

Index:

Cohen, Henry 1806-1880

Title:

Description générale des monnaies de la République romaine, communément appelées médailles consulaires / par H. Cohen

Published:

Paris : Rollin, 1857

 

Index:

Crawford, Michael Hewson 1939-

Title:

Coinage and money under the Roman Republic : Italy and the Mediterranean economy / Michael H. Crawford

Series:

The library of numismatics

Published:

Berkeley : University of California Press, cop. 1985

 

Index:

Crawford, Michael Hewson 1939-

Title:

From 'aes signare' to 'aes signatum' / Michael H. Crawford

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 88 (2009) p. 195-197

 

Index:

Ekström, Curt

Title:

Från republik till kejsardöme : en dramatisk period i romarrikets historia återspeglad i mynten / Curt Ekström

Source:

Samlad glädje 2009 : Numismatiska Klubben Uppsala 1969-2009 / [red.: Curt Ekström, Kjell Holmberg och Magnus Wijk]. - Uppsala : Numismatiska Kubben, cop. 2009. - P. 41-50

Abstract:

The dramatic transition period from Roman Republic to Roman Empire in the first century B.C. is briefly described in the present article with special reference to the coinage produced. The strong triumvirs in the First and Second Triumvirates and their internal connections and fights are clearly reflected in the coinage, as is the presence of additional power pretenders on the political scene. Finally, it turns out that Julius Caesar and his heir Octavianus were the most powerful military and political leaders, the latter becoming the first Roman emperor under the name of Augustus.

 

Index:

Ellams, Matthew

Title:

Experiencing the Republican Empire : a numismatic perspective / Matthew Ellams ... [et al.]

Source:

Journal of the Numismatic Association of Australia 25 (2014) p. 55-67

Abstract:

This article takes three case studies of ‘Republican provincial coinage’ in the eastern Mediterranean as a starting point to examine what provincial coinage in the Roman Republic can reveal about Roman hegemony in this period. The case studies demonstrate the divergent experience of Roman power before the rule of Augustus; while in Boeotia Roman contact appears to have brought about a decline in minting, within Achaea production continued as the Romans used local coinage for their own (likely military) purposes. Finally an examination of the currency of Crete and Cyrenaica reveals how numismatic iconography from this period can reflect Roman conceptions of power, and the Roman perception of the regions they had conquered. These three case studies reveal the potential of this type of evidence, traditionally the prerogative of ‘Greek’ numismatists, in aiding our understanding of Roman expansion and Roman ideologies.

 

Index:

Evans, Jane DeRose 1956-

Title:

The restoration of memory : Minucius and his monument / Jane DeRose Evans

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. I / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : [International Numismatic Commission], 2011. – P. 657-661

 

Index:

Evans, Jane DeRose 1956-

Title:

The Sicilian coinage of Sextus Pompeius (Crawford 511) / Jane DeRose Evans

Source:

American Numismatic Society Museum Notes 32 (1987) p. 97-157, pl. 9

 

Index:

Gorini, Giovanni 1941-

Title:

Tesoretto di età repubblicana da ‘Forum Sempronii’ / Giovanni Gorini

Source:

Forum Sempronii. I: Scavi e ricerche, 1974-2012 / a cura di Mario Luni e Oscar Mei. - Urbino : Quattro venti, cop. 2012. - (Quaderni di archeologia nelle Marche ; 17). - P. 139-154

 

Index:

Grueber, Herbert Appold 1846-1927

Title:

Coinages of the Triumvirs, Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian, illustrative of the history of the times / [H.A. Grueber]

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 4th ser. 11 (1911) p. 109-152, pl. 8-9

 

Index:

Grueber, Herbert Appold 1846-1927

Title:

Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum. Vol. I: Aes rude, aes signatum, aes grave, and coinage of Rome from B.C. 268 / by H.A. Grueber

Published:

London : British Museum, 1910

 

Index:

Grueber, Herbert Appold 1846-1927

Title:

Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum. Vol. II: Coinages of Rome (continued), Roman Campania, Italy, the social war, and the provinces / by H.A. Grueber

Published:

London : British Museum, 1910

 

Index:

Grueber, Herbert Appold 1846-1927

Title:

Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum. Vol. III: Tables of finds and cognomina, indexes, plates, etc. / by H.A. Grueber

Published:

London : British Museum, 1910

 

Index:

Grueber, Herbert Appold 1846-1927

Title:

Roman bronze coinage from B.C. 45-3 / [H.A. Grueber]

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 4th ser. 4 (1904) p. 185-244, pl. 12-14

 

Index:

Guzzetta, Giuseppe

Title:

Il tesoretto di età repubblicana da Rutigliano : per la cronologia delle emissioni degli anni 70-50 a.C. / Giuseppe Guzzetta

Published:

[Roma] : Istituto poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Libreria dello Stato, [2000]

Note:

Offprint from: Bollettino di Numismatica 34-35 (gennaoi-dicembre 2000) p. 161-198

 

Index:

Hersh, Charles Austin 1923-1999

Title:

The coinage of Quintus Labienus Parthicus / Charles Hersh

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 59 (1980) p. 41-49, pl. 4-5

 

Index:

Hochard, Pierre-Olivier

Title:

Un ‘atelier républicain à Sardes’ ? : le cas des aurei et deniers de Cassius et Brutus au type de Libertas / Hochard (Pierre-Olivier)

Source:

Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique 68 (2013) 8 (octobre) p. 241-246

 

Index:

Hollander, David Bruce

Title:

Money in the late Roman Republic / by David B. Hollander

Published:

Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2007

Abstract:

Roman monetary history has tended to focus on the study of Roman coinage but other assets regularly functioned as, or in place of, money. This book places coinage in its broader monetary context by also examining the role of bullion, financial instruments, and commodities such as grain and wine in making payments, facilitating exchange, measuring value and storing wealth. The use of such assets reduced the demand for coinage in some sectors of the economy and is a crucial factor in determining the impact of the large increase in the coin supply during the last century of the Republic. Money demand theory suggests that increased coin production led to further monetization, not per capita economic growth.

 

Index:

Hollard, Dominique 1957-

Title:

Le fonds républicain du Cabinet des médailles de Paris / Hollard (Dominique)

Source:

Bulletin de la Société Française de Numismatique 69 (2014) 10 (décembre) p. 288-295

 

Index:

Kraft, Konrad 1920-1970

Title:

Der goldene Kranz Caesars und der Kampf um die Entlarvung des 'Tyrannen' / Konrad Kraft

Source:

Jahrbuch für Numismatik und Geldgeschichte 3-4 (1952-1953) p. 7-97, pl. 1-4

 

Index:

Kroha, Tyll 1929-

Title:

Münzen der Römischen Republik / [T. K.]

Series:

Das Fenster ; Thema 103

Published:

[Köln] : Geldgeschichtliche Sammlung Kreissparkasse Köln, [1979]

 

Index:

Leidig, Tilmann 1940-

Title:

Carrinas C. f. : Überlegungen zu zwei Bronzemünzen der Treverer / Tilmann Leidig

Source:

Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 122 (1998) p. 211–218

 

Index:

Marchi, Giuseppe 1795-1860

Title:

L'aes grave del Museo Kircheriano ovvero le monete primitive de'popoli dell'Italia media : ordinate e descritte aggiuntovi un ragionamento per tentarne l'illustrazione / [pref. Giuseppe Marchi e Pietro Tessieri]

Published:

Roma : tip. e fonderia di C. Puccinelli, 1839

 

Index:

Martin, Thomas R. 1947-

Title:

Sulla 'Imperator Iterum' : the Samnites and Roman republican coin propaganda / Thomas R. Martin

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 68 (1989) p. 19-44, pl. 1

 

Index:

Mattingly, Harold 1884-1964

Title:

Nummus und As : ein Beitrag zur frührömischen Münzprägung / Harold Mattingly

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 33 (1947) p. 5-15, pl. 1-2

 

Index:

Mattingly, Harold 1884-1964

Title:

Some historical coins of the late Republic / by Harold Mattingly

Source:

Journal of Roman Studies 12 (1922) p. 230-239

 

Index:

Molinari, Maria Cristina

Title:

Gli aurei a nome di Giulio Cesare e Aulo Irzio / Maria Cristina Molinari

Published:

Milano : Società Numismatica Italiana, 2003

Note:

Offprint from: Rivista Italiana di Numismatica 104 (2003) p. 165-253, pl. 1-10 

 

Index:

Museo Kircheriano

Title:

L'aes grave, cioe, le monete italiche primitive del Museo Kircheriano / desegnate in pietra sotto la direzione di P.T. da Girolamo Apollonj, pittore romano negli anni MDCCCXXXVII e MDCCCXXXVIII

Published:

[Roma : tip. e fonderia di C. Puccinelli, 1839]

 

Index:

Pancotti, Andrea

Title:

Alcune considerazioni sulle monete cosiddette 'tusculanae' della repubblica romana / [Andrea Pancotti]

Source:

Bollettino della Unione Storia ed Arte 3. s. 4 (2009). - P. 9-22

 

Index:

Pancotti, Andrea

Title:

I denari serrati della repubblica romana : alcune considerazionimore / Andrea Pancotti & Patrizia Calabria

Source:

Proceedings of the XIVth International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009. I / ed. by Nicholas Holmes. - Glasgow : International Numismatic Commission, 2011. – P. 888-892

 

Index:

Parisot-Sillon, Charles

Title:

Le stéréotype du barbare dans la communication monétaire à la fin de la République romaine / Charles Parisot-Sillon & Arnaud Suspène

Source:

Contacts de cultures, constructions identitaires et stéréotypes dans l'espace méditerranéen antique [Texte imprimé] / sous la dir. de Hélène Ménard & Rosa Plana-Mallart. - Montpellier : Presses universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2013. - (Collection 'Mondes anciens'). - P. 49-61

Abstract:

From the age of Q. Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus to the time of Caesar, the recurring character of the barbarian in speeches, writings and iconographical representations issued by the Roman aristocracy can be explained by its federative aspect. While he may seem familiar to any reader of the classical Greek historians, this character acquires specific features in Roman thought: centuries of strife with the Celts in Italy have left a deep impression on Roman minds, which is why Rome does not deal with them in the same way the Greeks do. Moreover, its aristocracy has its own set of values. Although this variously philhellenic ruling elite perpetuates the core distinction between hellenized peoples and barbarous peoples, it does so through a truly Roman perspective, both historical and moral. Celebrating its successes against the barbarians, deemed as the Empire’s most fearsome enemies, it wishes to legitimate its social leadership. For that purpose, the Roman aristocracy uses stereotypes on foreign peoples to strenghten the identity-conveying discourse it addresses to the plebs. Striking coinage is one of the most convenient ways to air this discourse.

 

Index:

Paunov, Evgeni I. 1972-

Title:

Actium and the 'legionary' coinage of Mark Antony : historical, economic and monetary consequences in Thrace (the coin evidence) / Eugeni I. Paunov, Ilya S. Prokopov

Source:

Nomismatikī́ kai oikonomikī́ istoría stīn Īpeiro katá tīn archaiótīta : praktiká tou 1ou Diethnoús synedríou (Panepistī́mio Iōannínōn, 3-7 Oktōvríou 2007) = Numismatic history and economy in Epirus during Antiquity : proceedings of the 1st International Conference (University of Ioannina, October 3rd-7th 2007) / ed. by Katerini Liampi ... [et al.]. - Athēna : Etaireía Melétēs Nomismatikēs kai Oikonomikēs Istorías, Lydía Líthos, 2013. - (Kerma ; 3). - P. 107-129, pl. 12-13

Abstract:

After the battle off the Actium promontory on the South Epirote coast on 2 September 31 BC, the course of history in the Mediterranean was dramatically changed. For the conflict between the armies of Mark Antony and Octavian, there was active involvement of foreign troops. Thracian mercenaries and allies participated in the ground operations on both sides, all without seeing actual fighting. Days before the final battle the future king of Thrace Rhoemetalces I with his own cavalry force, deserted Antony’s side and joined Octavian. Dicomes, chieftain of the Getae (from Northeast Thrace), promised support to Antony but never appeared at Actium. In order to pay his army Mark Antony organized a large scale coinage in silver, the so called ‘legionary’ denarii, minted in the camp at Patrae in the winter of 32/31 BC. Subsequently, large quantities of this coinage appeared all around the Roman world, including the North – in Thrace and Macedonia.  This paper treats aspects of the historical and economic consequences for the northern Balkan kingdoms and tribes after the 30’s BC, which resulted in the rapid transformation of these territories into Roman provinces. A major portion of the ‘legionary’ issue was filtered and transferred via Epirus and Thessaly to the north. These coins continued their circulation among soldiers, mercenaries and merchants in Thrace and other areas long after the defeat of Mark Antony. The paper also provides a survey of the main types of coins circulated in Thrace in the 2nd-1st c. BC, and how they changed over that period.  All known coin hoards from Thrace (modern Bulgaria) with closing dates around or shortly after Actium (32/31-29/29 BC), are reviewed and analyzed – 17 deposits in total (table 1). A summary table of coin hoards with ‘legionary’ denarii in Europe (table 2) is also given. Further, a newly discovered coin hoard of 67 Republican denarii from Vratsa area (Northwestern Bulgaria), with couple of silver pieces of jewelry (2 bracelets, torque, 2 finger-rings), is also included for illustration and discussion (table 3, figs 2-4). The hoard closes with issues of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, Armenia devicta type, dated to 32 BC.

 

Index:

Perassi, Claudia

Title:

Ex nummis cognoscere : la collezione numismatica dell'università cattolica : le monete romane repubblicane / mostra fotografica a cura di Claudia Perassi

Published:

Milano : Università Cattolica, 2004

 

Index:

Pink, Karl 1884-1965

Title:

The triumviri monetales and the structure of the coinage of the Roman Republic / by Karl Pink

Series:

Numismatic studies ; no. 7

Published:

New York : American Numismatic Society, 1952

 

Index:

Ribera i Lacomba, Albert V.

Title:

La moneda en la Casa de Ariadna (VII,4,51-31) de Pompeya : el contexto arqueológico de las monedas de 'Ebusus' y de las series imitativas de la pseudo-ceca de Pompeya / Albert V. Ribera i Lacomba, Juan V. Salavert León, Clive Stannard

Source:

Overdr. uit: Ebusus y Pompeya, ciudades marítimas : testimonios monetales de una relación = Ebusus e Pompei, città marittime : testimonianze monetali di una relazione / Alicia Arévalo González, Darío Bernal Casasola y Daniela Cottica, ed. científicos. - Cádiz : Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Cádiz, [2013]. - (Monografías del Proyecto Pesca y ‘Garum’ en Pompeya y Herculano ; 1). - P. 181-205

 

Index:

Rolland, Henri 1887-1970

Title:

Numismatique de la République romaine : catalogue général et raisonné / par H. Rolland

Published:

Paris : Ciani, [1921]

 

Index:

Rowan, Clare 1982-

Title:

The value of coinage in the Second Punic War and after / Clare Rowan

Source:

Embodying value : the transformation of objects in and from the Ancient world / ed. by Annabel Bokern, Clare Rowan. - Oxford : Archaeopress, 2014. - (BAR International series ; 2592). - P. 77-88

Abstract:

This article examines the double-sided nature of the value of coinage in the ancient world. A coin’s value can derive from a particular government or authority, or its value can be created between two private actors in the marketplace. One type of value may be privileged over the other in particular periods and contexts, and thus an ancient coin could move between different spheres of value, with its worth being calculated and re-calculated according to context. These at times conflicting value-attribution mechanisms are explored through a case study of the coinage of Capua and the Bretti during the period of the Second Punic War and after. While government-sponsored value was privileged in Southern Italy during the period of conflict, Roman monetary policies after the war provided incentive for the creation of local value attributions between private individuals.

 

Index:

Russo, Roberto

Title:

I primi due assi coniati pubblicati nel 1866 e nel 1868 dal barone d'Ailly e poi dimenticati / Roberto Russo

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 88 (2009) p. 199-204, pl. 4

 

Index:

Ryan, Frank

Title:

Der Sonnengott auf den Münzen der Römischen Republik / Frank Ryan

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 84 (2005) p. 81-89, pl. 6

 

Index:

Salomonson, Jan Willem 1925-

Title:

De afspiegeling van een politiek conflict op Romeinse denariën uit het jaar 55 voor Chr. / door J.W. Salomonson

Source:

Jaarboek voor Munt- en Penningkunde 41 (1954) p. 1-10, pl. 3

Abstract:

The republican denarius Syd. 934 is discussed. This coin, with the moneyer's name MESSALA F(ilius) , was issued in the second half of the year 53 B.C. by special order of the Senate (s c) during the consulship of M. Valerius Messala, the moneyer's father (PATRE COS) . The author points out that the reverse, showing a sceptre and a diadem 'kept down' symbolically by a curule chair, alludes to the political situation at Rome in that year. A survey of this situation is given: Pompey tried to secure dictatorial power but encountered resolute resistance in senatorial quarters. Finally, he was forced to abandon, for the time being, his dictatorial plans and this victory of the senatoria  party was confirmed by the consulship of Messala (senior). In the political propaganda which accompanied the conflict, Pompey was impeached of 'monarchical' inclinations. Henceforth it is suggested that the royal attributes - represented on purpose below the legs of the curule chair - symbolise Pompey's autocratic ambitions 'suppressed' by the authority of the senate which is characterized by the sella curulis. An analogous image on a coin of Brutus (Syd. 1298) - Victory treading a sceptre and tearing a diadem - supports this conclusion.

 

Index:

Schaefer, Richard

Title:

A fresh look at Roman Republican Star bronzes, RRC 113 and 196 / Richard Schaefer and Andrew McCabe

Published::

London : Royal Numismatic Society, 2011

Note:

Offprint from: Numismatic Chronicle 171 (2011) p. 99-108

Abstract:

The Star bronzes RRC 113 and 196 are among the most difficult to classify in the Roman Republican series. Crawford dates RRC 113 to 206-195 BC and RRC 196 to 169-158 BC. Although the as and semis denominations are plentiful and easy to classify, their lower fractions, except the star-before quadrantes, are rare. The traditional dating of fractions with star above (RRC 113) to 206-195 BC and those with star before (RRC 196) to 169-158 BC is based on the perception that the plentiful star-before quadrantes are lighter than those with star above. There are, however, two issues of star-before quadrantes, a rare heavier issue whose style is close to that of RRC 113, and the much commoner light quadrantes with erratic design features. The latter seem to form part of the large volume of unofficial lightweight semisses and quadrantes produced after 150 BC. Design elements of the other fractions with star before are consistently like RRC 113, and those with star above are like RRC 196. Thus we propose to switch the lighter fractions, associating the star-before fractions with RRC 113 in 206-195 BC and the star-above fractions with RRC 196 in 169-158 BC. Although the official RRC 113 and RRC 196 lower fractions cannot be distinguished from each other by weight alone, an analysis of weights shows the unofficial quadrantes to be consistently much lighter than the official issues.

 

Index:

Samwer, Karl Friedrich Lucian 1819-1882

Title:

Geschichte des älteren römischen Münzwesens bis circa 200 vor Christi (554 der Stadt) / aus den hinterlassenen Papieren des Geheimraths Dr. Karl Samwer, hrsg. von M. Bahrfeldt

Published:

Berlin : W.H. Kühl, 1883

 

Index:

Scharp, Henri Jacques 1874-1957

Title:

De Romeinsche denarius van 269-268 vóór Chr. en het gelijktijdige bronzen geld / [H.J. Scharp]

Source:

Jaarboek voor Munt- en Penningkunde 8 (1921) p. 1-23

 

Index:

Seaby, Herbert Allen 1898-1979

Title:

Roman silver coins. Vol. I: The Republic to Augustus / by H.A. Seaby

Edition:

3rd ed. / rev. by David R. Sear and Robert Loosley

Published:

London : Seaby, 1978

 

Index:

Seidl, Johann Gabriel

Title:

Das alt-italische Schwergeld im k.k. Münz- und Antiken-Cabinette zu Wien / beschr. von J.G. Seidl

Published:

Wien : in Commission bei W. Braumüller, 1854

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

Are Ebusan coins at Pompeii, and the Pompeian pseudo-mint, a sign of intensive contacts with the island of Ebusus? / Clive Stannard

Source:

Ebusus y Pompeya, ciudades marítimas : testimonios monetales de una relación = Ebusus e Pompei, città marittime : testimonianze monetali di una relazione / Alicia Arévalo González, Darío Bernal Casasola y Daniela Cottica, ed. científicos. - Cádiz : Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Cádiz, [2013]. - (Monografías del Proyecto Pesca y ‘Garum’ en Pompeya y Herculano ; 1). - P. 125-155

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

A Central Italian coin with Dionysus/panther types, and contacts between Central Italy and Spain, in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC / Clive Stannard, Alejandro G. Sinner

Source:

Saguntum 46 (2014) p. 159-180

Abstract:

Three ‘Dionysus/panther’ coins are known from Catalonia, one from excavations at Cabrera de Mar. This is a key component of the Central Italian Assemblage of the Italo-Baetican series, and dates to the late 90s/early 80s BC. The excavation coin probably arrived during the Sertorian Wars (80–72 BC), certainly before 50 BC. We therefore review evidence of contacts between Hispania Citerior and Central Italy, Hispania Citerior and Ulterior, and Hispania Ulterior and Central Italy. We compare coins from the Cabrera de Mar Valley with Spanish coins from Minturnae. We reconsider the Isla Pedrosa wreck, which contained specimens of the Central Italian Assemblage, imported Italic ceramics from the Catalan coast and La Loba mine, and some of the more important wrecks between c. 200 and 50 BC. There is little evidence for maritime contact between Citerior and Ulterior, but better evidence, in each case, of contacts with central Italy. The relationship between the Central Italian and Baetican Assemblages of the Italo-Baetican series remains unclear.

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

A plated denarius brockage of L·RVSTI / Clive Stannard

Source:

Annotazioni Numismatiche 32 (dicembre 1998) p. 730-731

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

‘Pseudomints’ and small change in Italy and Sicily in the late Republic / Clive Stannard and Suzanne Frey-Kupper

Source:

American Numismatic Journal 2nd ser. 20 (2008) p. 351-404, pl. 83-85

Abstract:

Two 'pseudomints' of the first century BC are described: Pseudo-Ebusus/Massalia (almost certainly at Pompeii) and Pseudo-Panormos/Paestum (probably at Minturnae). The circulation of their coins, and of a plethora of foreign coins, suggests that a relatively monetarized economy in Latium and Campania was pressing all available coin into service, in a context of a penury of small change. Appendix 1 considers the circulation and overstriking in central Italy of Koan bronze coin. Appendix 2 compiles finds of foreign coin from Rome, Minturnae and Pompeii.

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

Quartered and counter-marked Republican asses, and the central Italian Italo-Baetican assemblage / Clive Stannard

Source:

Essays in honour of Roberto Russo / ed. by Peter G. van Alfen and Richard B. Witschonke. - Zürich ; London : Numismatica Ars Classica NAC, 2013. - P. 365-376

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

Riconiazioni e monetazione imitativa nell’Italia centrale nella tarda Repubblica / Clive Stannard

Source:

Monete Antiche 9 (maggio-giugno 2003) p. 5-22

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

Two-headed and two-tailed denarii in the Roman Republic / Clive Stannard

Source:

Numismatic Chronicle 147 (1987) p. 160-163

 

Index:

Stannard, Clive

Title:

Two-headed and two-tailed denarii again / Clive Stannard

Source:

Annotazioni Numismatiche 17 (marzo 1995) p. 361-362

 

Index:

Suspène, Arnaud

Title:

Rois de Rome et rois étrangers : sur les monnaies de la République romaine / Arnaud Suspène

Source:

Revue de la BNF (2009) 3 p. 83-89

 

Index:

Thiry, Jean-Claude

Title:

A propos d'un as de C. Licinius Macer et de la répartition des attributions entre les triumvirs monétaires sous le République / Jean-Claude Thiry

Source:

Bulletin du Cercle d'Etudes Numismatiques 25 (1988) 1 (janvier-mars) p. 1-6

 

Index:

Travaglini, Adriana

Title:

Denari romani repubblicani nel Museo di Brindisi : Collezione Marzano-Collezione De Leo / [Adriana Travaglini]

Source:

Ricerche e Studi 12 (1980-1987) p. 145-174

 

Index:

Weisser, Bernhard 1964-

Title:

National wertvolles Kulturgut : die Sammlung römischen Schwergeldes von Ernst Justus Haeberlin / Bernhard Weisser

Source:

Nub Nefer - Gutes Gold : Gedenkschrift für Manfred Gutgesell / hrsg. von Robert Lehmann ... [et al.]. - Rahden : Leidorf, 2014. - (Hannoversche Numismatische Beiträge ; Bd. 1). - P. 279-305

 

Index:

Witschonke, Richard

Title:

The use of die marks on Roman Republican coinage / Richard Witschonke

Source:

Revue Belge de Numismatique 158 (2012) p. 65-86

Abstract:

The use of various systems of die marks in the coinage of the Roman Republic has been well documented, but the purpose of these marks has never been convincingly explained. This article reviews the evidence and previous scholarship, and proposes a possible explanation for the phenomenon: that the marks were designed to allow the tracing of debased or plated coins found in circulation back to the responsible mint employees.

 

Index:

Woods, David

Title:

On Caesar's coinage in 48BC / [David Woods]

Source:

Latomus 69 (2010) 1 p. 38-42, pl. 1

Abstract:

ulius Caesar's second issue of coinage in 48BC during his civil-war with Pompey consisted of an aureus, three slightly different varieties of denarius, and a quinarius, all displaying the same basic reverse-type, the legend CAESAR across a trophy. As for the obverse, the aureus and the denarii display the same female head, while the quinarius displays a different female head. In each case, however, the only obverse-legend consists of three letters or numerals at the back of the neck, usually read LII, the number 52 in Roman numerals, where what looks like a reversed letter T is read as the older form of the numeral L. This has traditionally been interpreted in reference to the age of Caesar at the date of issue. This paper argues that this obverse-legend is to be read as IIT, the 3rd person singular of the perfect tense of the verb ire 'to go/advance'. The reverse- and obverse- legends are intended to be read together here as a pure perfect, CAESAR IIT, meaning 'Caesar advances'.

 

Index:

Woytek, Bernhard 1974-

Title:

Julius Caesars Finanzen und Münzprägung im Jahre 49 v. Chr. : Bemerkungen zu RRC 443/1 / Bernhard Woytek

Source:

XIII Congreso Internacional de Numismática, Madrid, 2003 : actas = proceedings = actes. I / ed. por Carmen Alfaro, Carmen Marcos y Paloma Otero. - Madrid : Ministerio de Cultura, Subdirección General de Publicaciones, Información y Documentación, 2005. - P. 643-648

 

Index:

Woytek, Bernhard 1974-

Title:

'P.CLODIVS M.F.' auf 'BRVT.IMP' : eine Denarüberprägung des Jahres 42 v. Chr. / Bernhard Woytek

Source:

Schweizer Münzblätter 226 (Juni 2007) p. 35-43

 

Index:

Woytek, Bernhard 1974-

Title:

Die römische Republik / Bernhard Woytek

Source:

A survey of numismatic research, 2002-2007 / International Numismatic Commission ; general ed. Michel Amandry, Donal Bateson. - Glasgow : International Association of Professional Numismatists, 2009. – P. 135-145

 

Index:

Woytek, Bernhard 1974-

Title:

Die Verwendung von Mehrfachstempeln in der antiken Münzprägung und die 'Elefantendenare' Iulius Caesars (RRC 443/I) / Bernhard Woytek

Source:

Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 85 (2006) p. 69-90, pl. 9-11

Abstract:

In many parts of the Greek world, lower (anvil) dies with more than one obverse type were occasionally used to produce coins, as has long been recognized: When blanks were placed carelessly on such anvil dies, the coins struck from them would show impressions of parts of two dies on their obverses. Such misstrikes are known from Achaemenid sigloi - the present paper adding two more examples -, from Greek coinages of Asia Minor, the mainland, Sicily and Magna Graecia, as well as from Seleucid and Arsacid coins. This phenomenon occurs, however, only on isolated specimens of all the mentioned Greek series, so that it is not even described in most manuals on ancient coinage: Hitherto, it has been studied properly only on Celtic coins, especially on the silver coinages of southern France, where traces of this production technique occur most frequently. In 1995 and 2000, multiple anvil dies were discovered in two - not yet published - hoards of Celtic coining implements unearthed in Bavaria (southern Germany), together with other tools for metal-working. Significantly, the only Roman coin with the impression of a multiple obverse die published up to now is a provincial coin from Gaul, an Augustan col nem bronze from Nemausus, which was part of the hoard of Port-Haliguen. The present paper discusses two elephant denarii of Julius Caesar (RRC 443/1; group of crude style) showing traces of a second border of dots on the obverse, which is a characteristic of coins produced from multiple anvil dies. This technical observation ties in well with the author's hypothesis that RRC 443 was produced by - or on the orders of -Julius Caesar's financial administration in 49 bc, most likely in southern Gaul.