Digital Concepts‎ > ‎


Society thrives when digital commodities are freely available and accessible, with reasonable protections for copyright holders.
  • Open Software and Data
    • Open Source Software: A movement to create software that is open, in the sense that anyone is free to modify the program in any way they want.
    • Open Science: A movement to provide open access to the methodology, observations, data, and conclusions made by scientific researchers.
    • Open Data: A movement to encourage data to be openly available without restrictions.
    • Open Government: A movement to encourage government processes to be as open and transparent as possible.
  • Copyright
    • DMCA: The Digital Millennium Copyright Act, which criminalizes the circumvention of copyright software, even when no copyright infringement occurs
    • SOPA: The Stop Online Piracy Act, a recent bill to try to fight online piracy, while imposing significant restrictions on basic Internet infrastructure.
    • Public domain: Works that are no longer under copyright protection.
    • Fair use: The ability to use copyrighted information for certain restricted purposes or uses.
    • Creative Commons licensing: A type of license that encourages openness rather than restrictions on information.
    • Remix: The act of modifying existing creative works, such as a song or book, to provide an alternative version.
  • Standardization
    • APIs: Application Programming Interface, the set of methods that one program can use to access another.
    • platform: A system that can be used as the foundation for additional innovation, such as iOS or Facebook.
    • IETF: The Internet Engineering Task Force, the standards body for the Internet.
See the Openness bookshelf in our Digital Civilization group on Goodreads to browse various books we have selected that address these topics.

Relevant blog posts