Bob Lazar and UFO Engine
Spaceship Engine Future
The first question: how to overcome huge distances of space, not breaking the threshold of the speed of light? Or: how can within a reasonable time limits and taking into account the real economic opportunities to travel between sites, remote from each other on many light years?
Recall that the speed of light is about 300 thousand kilometers per second or 1.1 billion kilometers per hour. A light year - a distance which the light beam passes for one year. To achieve, for example, the closest star to us Proxima Centauri must fly to it at the speed of light over 4 years. But for this first step is to resolve the issue, how to achieve the speed of light or close to it. This will entail the problem of the engines, navigation and necessary amount of fuel, and even when relativistic effects at the space-time transition, that is slowing down time, the increase in mass, reducing the length and a number of other phenomena, it quickly becomes clear that such a journey requires level of Humankind has not yet been reached. Overcoming interstellar distances requires technology that modern science is not yet available.
It is known that the shortest distance between two points - it straight. And science is based on the axiom that the fastest from A to B can be reached by moving in a straight line at the speed of light. According to Lazar, this axiom may be upset: the space-time fastest from A to B can be reached, "curve" through induced gravitational field of space-time line, resulting in points A and B close to each other. For example, on a sheet of paper to depict two points A and B. Track between them will represent the shortest distance between them. But if a certain way crumple (collapse, lay down, transform) sheet of paper, we can ensure that these points are very close or even touch. And then a temporary transition between them takes moments. Such a drawdown, said Lazar, you can make with "a sheet of" space-time. Main - learn to manage the gravitational force, which "bend" space-time line.
The greater the gravitational force, the stronger curvature of space-time and the shorter the distance between points A and B. When it comes to space-time, most of us imagine some kind of emptiness, or nothing. But remember, because not so long ago people were confident that the air in the atmosphere and also represents nothing. However, over time, we know all the same composition and properties of air.
The space-time - is actually a sort of essence, and one of its properties is that it can be curve gravitational field. Lazar said that the force of gravity bend space-time and light. The possibility of such a curvature embedded in the theory of relativity and Einstein's nothing unusual here not. An example is the fact that we see some stars, located right behind the Sun, and if the light was distributed strictly on the line, they were not visible. Heavy weight of the Sun, creating around him a powerful gravitational field, passing next bend rays of light from stars. This is confirmed by numerous observations during a full solar eclipses.
The force of gravity distorts and time. If you take two identical atomic clocks and placed one at sea level, while others raised at high altitude, then when they would be returned back, they will show different times. This is because gravitational force diminish with distance from its source. That is, atomic clocks, raised at high altitude, suffered the gravitational force of less than hours at sea level. Modern science can observe the influence of gravitational fields on the space-time, but gravitation to reproduce in the laboratory produced little. The only source that we know quite noticeable gravitational forces remain large mass of matter such as stars, planets, Moon. As the gravitational field around a large mass (the planet) bend space-time, exactly the same bend space-time any gravitational field, whether it is a natural origin or artificially created.
The big advantage of artificial gravity field is that it could not only include, but switch off. By creating the gravitational field of sufficient intensity, can be curve space-time and thereby change the distance between the point where we are, and a point we want to reach. We are moving in a desired point and then stop pointing artificial gravity field, resulting in space-time once again takes its earlier form. Thus reducing the distance by curvature of space-time, we get an opportunity to overcome long distances with less straight-ahead. So it seems like "a mountain to Mohammed" - we attract para his appointment, in fact staying on the ground.
Then look at how, for Lazarus, can be quickly overcome enormous interstellar distances, not exceeding the speed of light. This is achieved by creating a powerful gravitational field, which bend space-time and thus allows to overcome the distance in light years, many in a short time or overnight without the need okolosvetovoy rectilinear traffic speeds. But how to create a gravitational field? To understand how to create or increase the power of gravity, you must first know what actually constitutes these forces.
There are two basic theories: wave, in which the gravitational force is a wave phenomenon, and Quantum (common), which refers to the gravity, as the flow of subatomic particles - quanta-"gravitons". According to Lazar, quantum theory of gravity is complete nonsense. The force of gravity - the wave phenomenon. There are two specific different type - let's call them the force of gravitation "A" and the gravitational force "B". The force of gravity "A" operates in a microcosm, a gravitational force "B" in the macroworld. The force of gravity "B" Science is well known: it is a powerful force, restraint Earth and other planets in their orbits around the Sun and Moon and created man satellites - in their orbits around the Earth.
The force of gravity "A" unfamiliar to us. This is a small gravitational wave, which is the main component of force, not to spread protons and neutrons. Manifestations of gravitational force "A" in the traditional physics denoted by the term "strong interaction". The force of gravity "A" - a wave that you want to create and strengthen in order to obtain needed for interstellar flight curvature of space-time. The force of gravity "A" operates at the atomic level, a gravitational force "B" - at the level of stars and planets.
However, there should be no direct correlation between the size of these waves and their strength, because gravitational force "A" significantly more powerful gravitational force "B". At the Earth because of "B" could be for a short time "disable", just jumping up. So, it is not as great. It is not difficult to detect and because of "A", as it operates in the nucleus of every atom, whether we have on Earth, or somewhere in the open spaces of the universe. Breaking us protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom is almost impossible - it shows how powerful a force "A".
However, there is a big problem as soon as we try to apply the effect of gravitational force "A" to the macroworld. Lazar said that science still does not know how that would observe and record gravitational force "A" in the natural laboratory conditions or with the help of simple public funds. The reason for this lies primarily in the fact that the force of gravity "A" is the main component of the forces operating inside the atomic nucleus, between protons and neutrons. Abroad it is not an atom goes. This means that the gravitational wave "A" that we want to create a wide macroworld, virtually no create, as concluded "within a" matter, inside the atom - at least inside of matter that exists with us on Earth.
As Lazar said, the Earth can not be judged on any matter of our universe. Abundant matter, when there is stellar system, is directly dependent on factors determining the process. On education excess of matter affect two major factors: the number of electromagnetic energy and mass of the substance involved in the process of the emergence of the star system. Our star system has one star - the Sun. But most, in our Galaxy, called the Milky Way, are binary (double) and multiple (multiple) star system. Many stars have similar systems, in comparison with which our Sun - a dwarf. Obviously, if there is a big one star system, binary or multiple star systems had more substance and electromagnetic energy than was necessary. This should lead to the natural systems of education in these large set of elements, including elements that do not occur on Earth.
Scientists concluded that there must be combinations of protons and neutrons, forming a stable elements with atomic weight in excess of the maximum weight of the periodic system, although none of these heavy elements not found on Earth. 88 of the 92 elements of the periodic system exist in nature. Some of the heavy elements we define only barely visible, many - artificially created in laboratories. As the atomic weight elements of stability is reduced. But laboratory experiments for the Exploration of heavy ions, conducted in Germany showed that the law applies only to a certain limit, since the half-element, standing in the periodic system at number 108, is shorter than that of element 109, although theoretically should have been vice versa. For Lazar is the fact that there are sustained heavy elements with higher atomic weights and having a larger number of protons, neutrons and electrons than any element on Earth.
According to Lazarus, the most important feature of this sustainable superheavy element is that gravitational forces "A" in its nucleus is too "much", so that their effect extends beyond the atom. Thus, these elements have around him a natural gravitational force field "A" in addition to the field force "B" of all elements without exception. No natural element on earth does not have enough protons and neutrons that the gravitational wave forces "A" was able to go beyond the atom and accessible to its registration devices.
The wave of gravitational force "A" distributes its negligible effect on the distance around the atom, but its properties can be measured. She has amplitude, wavelength and frequency, like any other wave of the electromagnetic spectrum. According to Lazar, gravitational wave is actually part of the electromagnetic spectrum. If a gravitational wave forces "A" can be registered, her, as any electromagnetic wave, can be strengthened. Strengthening wave increases the amplitude of its fluctuations. Thus, we can strengthen and gravitational wave forces "A" to then use it in the right order - for curved space-time required for interstellar travel. With the enhanced power of the wave of force "A" can be compared only the gravitational force of "black hole" capable of as much bend space-time.
This brings us back to the old question: how to create a gravitational field? To that end, Lazar said, requires an element that would be heavy enough to force gravitational wave "A" extends beyond the atom. In this case it could be used to strengthen and curvature of space-time.
Obviously, for curved space-time enough for space travel, it is necessary to very high levels of energy. But how can I place on board a small "drive" compact, lightweight and at the same time very powerful source of energy? And what is it like to submit this source? Remember that we are creating heavy elements mainly in particle accelerators and that their stability decreases as increasing atomic weight. What does this mean? First, we create heavy, unstable elements in the accelerator. Then their different atomic bombing and sub-atomic particles. The bombing was becoming one element into another, more difficult. This new element has a higher atomic weight. Nuclear weight shows how many protons in the nucleus of the atom concluded. When the atomic weight elements increases, it means that in its nucleus has increased the number of protons. What does "stability is reduced? Stability is defined element of time in which it exists, has not disintegrate. Atoms some elements disintegrate faster than other atoms. The faster splits element, the more unstable it is. With the breakup of the atom releases, or radiation, sub-atomic particles and energy that seems to radiation, which captures Geiger. Geiger Counter defines radioactive uranium radiation, to be precise - picks up sub-atomic particles released, or beams, the nucleus of uranium at the time of dissolution. Elements, whose radiation happens continuously, called radioactive.
As is known, the heavier elements produced in accelerators, relate to radioactive, they rapidly disintegrate. Because we are able to synthesize only a small number of them and because they fall very quickly, we can not know them quite a lot. But Lazar argues that the elements of high atomic weight, while remaining stable there, although they do not occur on Earth, and science does not yet learned to synthesize them in particle accelerators. These elements 114-115, missing in the periodic system. Following No. 115 again are unstable elements such as element 116 disintegrates for a fraction of a second.
Finally, we come to the question of the source of energy. The source of energy is the element 115. He had been bombed protons in a small particle accelerator. With the capture of a proton nucleus of the atom 115 of its atomic weight increases, there is an atom element 116, which immediately disintegrates. With the breakup of the element 116 is released, or beams, antimatter particle. What is it? Antimatter (or antimatter) - it complete opposite of matter. Charge and spin (rotary) characteristics of elementary particles of matter and antimatter opposites. When contact particles of matter and antimatter annihilation of their happening, that is mutual destruction. In doing so, released a very large amount of energy. The collision sufficiently large masses of matter and antimatter happen strongest explosion. To imagine the explosive force of antimatter, Lazar offers compare it with a capacity of the atomic bomb. For example, when the bombing, dropped on August 9, 1945 at Nagasaki, the radius of the zone of total destruction amounted to approximately 3.5 kilometres. This - the result of a chain reaction in which, according to Lazar, in the energy becomes less than one percent substance.
By that time, Dr. Edward Teller calculated the possibility of establishing a hydrogen bomb. It dissolution with the same amount of substance should have been given more power, that is, should happen more powerful explosion. Resetting the hydrogen bomb, a mass equal to the one that destroyed Nagasaki, the zone of total destruction would reach 35 kilometers. And this, again, when making energy in less than one percent of nuclear material. The remaining 99% in this type of bombs are dispersed, without taking part in the nuclear reaction. Now imagine that, for example, a bomb exploded in Baghdad with antimatter, equal to the number of atomic bomb, dropped on Nagasaki. The zone would cover the complete destruction of Africa, Europe and Asia - to calculate precisely is not possible for obvious reasons.
According to Lazar, this would be the result of annihilation, in which antimatter fully converted into energy. In such a bomb should react 100% nuclear charge. At present, science does not know the real way, as can be used in bomb antimatter. We can get and retain only for a short time and only particle accelerator.
So, in the reactor "flying dish" element 115 scorer accelerated protons, which, penetrating the core of atom 115, turns it into element 116. He immediately disintegrates, a small amount of radiation antiparticles. Antimatter play in a special vacuum tube, to avoid his contact with matter. At the exit, it goes to gaseous substance (cloth). There annihilation. Substance and antimatter completely transformed into energy. Thermal energy released by this reaction, with the help of thermoelectric generators with 100 - the percentage of efficiency is converted into electrical energy. This - a method of turning heat directly into electrical energy. Many people set up satellites and interplanetary vehicles using thermoelectric generators, but their productivity is still very, very low. All reactions and processes in the reactor, must be carefully calculated and linked with each other, and then the reactor could produce enormous quantities of energy.