Restrictions on the number of basic parameters of microelectronic devices (volume, weight, power consumption) have reached their limits in the "silicon" technology. Further increases in density memory when the size of each transistor has several hundred nanometers, it becomes too expensive. It is anticipated that the costs in that direction by 2010 will be from 30 to 50 billion dollars. Further, any costs will no longer be meaningless, as close fundamental physical limitations.
In 1997-1998. DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, USA) developed a programme of building a new science-technology - Molecular Electronics (moletronics).
The aim of the programme is proof of moletronics creating possibilities for integration of other molecules or nanoparticles in complete functional electronic devices that are linked with each other and with external devices computer technology. Information is transmitted or stored in them in the form of electrons or as a difference of electrical potentials defined by the same number of electrons. Indeed, as usual, needed Logic and memory elements. Those and other must function in the usual range of temperatures (industrial and commercial), have a very high density, low-power energy in the management. Memory must be volatile, word (for example, byte) and terabit-level volume. Sami devices are created on the principle of self-directed, as well as scaling here loses meaning. Their structure should preferably be three-dimensional.
Finally, the device should be developed to some extent "fit" to the existing production of electronic equipment and does not require complete reconstruction.
However moletronics is only part of the so-called "computational science of life" (VNZH, it is computational life science - CLS). The purpose of this area of science is to ascertain the connection between life and development of computing systems (the latter being developed much faster).
In the relatively recent past, one of the areas of biology and communications technology called bionics, now meets the term "bioengineering".
Indeed, living cells naturally constitute a memory device. Moreover, in some biological structures special way they interact with each other in the transmission of data flows. One can only organize the process.
In life on Earth there is some hierarchy of biological systems: molecules, organelle, cells, tissues (especially the brain), the individual, society and ecosystem. In terms of VNZH each of these sectors must be a certain way "computerization" and being subjected to "engineering".
Studies have traditionally cover modeling, defining the degree of penetration and effectiveness of applying the results of the development of scientific hypotheses. In the field of applied engineering program is considered the introduction of the results. All remains as it was: scientists make discoveries, and engineers are adopting in their lives.