Ensai's 圓載 Biography

圓載. Ensai. d. 877. Heian period (794–1192) monk from Yamato 大和. He was a disciple of Saichō 最澄. In 838 he went to China and presented the monks of Mount Tiantai 天台山 a set of questions related to Tiantai doctrine for their reply, which he then sent back to Japan (the Tōketsu 唐決 in one fascicle). He was received favorably by Emperor Xuanzong 宣宗, receiving purple robes 紫袍 and lodging at Ximingsi 西明寺. He requested permission from the Japanese court to stay longer in China. They approved and he was given a quantity of gold. In 855 he and Enchin 圓珍 (814–891) received tantric initiations 灌頂 from Faquan 法全 (d.u.) at Qinglongsi 青龍寺. In 877 he attempted to return to Japan with a great many texts, but was caught in a storm and drowned. The Gyōreki shō 行歴抄 in one fascicle, which is an abridged version of Enchin's travelogue the Zaitō junrei ki 在唐巡禮記 in five fascicles compiled by 頼覺 in 1049, reports Enzai had engaged in wicked behavior such as violating a nun and plotting to kill Enshū 圓修. It seems during the Huichang abolition of Buddhism 會昌法難 in 845 he probably had to disrobe 還俗, but took a nun for a wife though later resumed being a monk.

Zhang, Weiran 張偉然. “Xinglichao shangyi – tebie shi guanyu ru Tang liuxueseng Yuanzai de shishi” 《行曆抄校注》商疑——特別是關於入唐留學僧圓載的史實. Jiuzhou xuelin 九州學林 5, no. 1 (2007): 308–326.