Chronology of Occidental Astrology in EA

Chronology of Occidental Astrology in East Asia

28 January 2015

Jeffrey Kotyk

David Pingree's model of astral science periods in India:

I. Vedic (c.1000-400 BCE).

II. Babylonian (400 BCE-200 CE): Vedāṅgajyotiṣa

III. Greco-Babylonian (c200-400): Yavanajātaka

IV. Greek (c400-1600): Āryabhaṭīya.

V. Islamic (c1600-1800).1

1500-1000 BCE

Earliest references to planets in Vedic literature, though no explicit references in the Rg Veda. The earliest identifiable reference, along with Rāhu,2 is in the Atharvaveda.3 Complete list of twenty-eight nakṣatra-s first provided in the Atharvaveda.4

1206-1150 BCE

Bronze age collapse and subsequent dark age in eastern Mediterranean.

c.1000 BCE

The Enuma Anu Enlil, running to seventy tablets, contained seven thousand omens accumulated from past experience and provides relevant advice regarding the signals from gods.5 Mesopotamia recognized the periodicity of various celestial phenomena while devising prediction methods.6

8th cent. BCE

The earliest extant Greek texts, the poems of Homer, make repeated reference to celestial phenomena as divinities.7

c.700 BCE

The Babylonian star list, the MUL APIN series, records the twelve zodiacal constellations among eighteen star groups in the path of the moon.8

6th cent. BCE

Native Chinese astral science is thought to have influenced by Babylonian sources by this century as Mesopotamian and Chinese models share various features,9 though Pankenier disputes this.10

c.513 BCE

Darius the Great conquers the Indus Valley.

c.500 BCE

Invention of the Babylonian zodiac, an amalgamation of earlier model of eighteen signs.11

5th cent. BCE.

Earliest examples Babylonian horoscopes or proto-horoscopes, which includes the date of birth, planetary positions (in the order of Moon, Sun, Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Saturn, and Mars) and further astrologically significant items.12 The earliest surviving personal horoscopic chart using the twelve-sign zodiacal system dated to 410 BCE from Babylon.13 By this century the nineteen-month (Metonic) cycle had been discovered and established.14

c.400 BCE

The astronomy of the Jyotirvedāṅga was greatly influenced by ideas introduced from Mesopotamia into India probably through Iranian intermediaries.15

4th cent. BCE

Theory of astral resonance widespread in Greece.16

c. 350-250 BCE

Life of the Babylonian Berossus (born c.350 BCE, died >281 BCE), who settled on the island of Cos and taught astrology. Such Babylonians are thought to be responsible for introducing astrology into Greece. The concept of apokatastasis (eternal recurrence) is attributed to Berossus by Seneca.17

335-323 BCE

Conquests of Alexander the Great.

321-184 BCE

Maurya empire.

c.305 BCE

Expedition of Seleucus I (d.281 BCE) to India. Cession of the territories of Paropamisadae, Aria, Arachosia, and Gedrosia to Candragupta Maurya. Greek continued to be used on the Indo-Iranian frontier.18

3rd cent. BCE

First explicit references to planets in Sanskrit texts after Greek settlement in Bactria.19

c.250-230 BCE

Diodotid dynasty establishes an independent state in Bactria after rebelling against the Seleucids.

246-180 BCE

First known depiction of the zodiac in Egypt from a temple at Esna in the Ptolemaic dynasty. Though influenced by Egyptian art, the basic design remains Babylonian.20

c.230-10 BCE

Euthydemid dynasty in Bactria. Euthydemos overthrew Greco-Bactrian king Diodotos II.

2nd cent. BCE

Prediction of the life of the native on the basis of the horoscope cast at his birth developed in Hellenistic Egypt.21 Babylonian astrology combined with Egyptian calendars and religious practices, Hermeticism, the Pythagorean sacred mathematics, and the philosophies of the Stoics and middle Platonists.22 Greek astronomer Hipparchus seems to have played an enormous role in the transmission of Babylonian astronomy.23

187-78 BCE

Śuṅga dynasty.

c.150-125 BCE

The presence of Babylonian mathematical astronomy evident in the work of Hipparchus.24

139 BCE

The praetor Cornelius Hipsalus bans astrologers.25

1st cent. BCE

Rise of astrology in the late Roman Republic. It competed with traditional forms of Roman divination while beginning to play a major political role.26

100 BCE – 100 CE

Modern ordering of seven planets with associated day names originating from Egypt around the CE.27 Imagery of Roman planetary deities first appear in western regions. Until the 4th century the Roman planetary deities were always listed with Saturn in the primal position.28

33 BCE

Augustus bans astrologers and magicians from the city of Rome.29


Śārdūlakarṇāvadāna probably composed.30


Augustus' empire-wide ruling criminalized all consultations about death (i.e., genethiological astrology). This seems to have been accompanied by official publication of his own horoscope.31


Tiberius renews the official imperial stances against unsolicited astrological consultation, expelling astrologers from both Rome and Italy.32

1st cent.

Seven-day week probably first used in eastern regions of the Roman empire, but became widespread from the 3rd century, being officially adopted by Constantine in 321.33

1st to 3rd cent.

Kuṣāṇa dynasty.


Life of Ptolemy.


Life of Vettius Valens.

2nd cent.

Horoscopes introduced into India.34 The introduction of Hellenic astronomy into India begins in this century and continues on until the early fifth century with the point of entry being western India.35 The ascending and descending nodes of the moon were known in Greco-Roman astronomy and mythologized as Caput and Cauda Draconis as early as the second century CE.36 In 120 Vettius Valens refers to the days of the week beginning with Sunday. First usage of weekdays using modern ordering of planets is with Dio Cassius (born 155 CE).37


Reign of Rudradāman I, who ruled from c.130-160. He and his successors encourage study of Greek astral sciences, such as horoscopy and astronomy.


According to Pingree, in 149/150, an Alexandrian text on Hellenistic astrology, originally composed in Egypt sometime shortly after 100 CE, was translated into Sanskrit prose by Yavaneśvara in western India, which was later preserved as the Yavanajātaka, composed by Rāja Sphujidhvaja in 269-70 during the Reign of Rudrasena II (r. c. 255-276),38 however Bill Mak has disputed this.39


The Śārdūlakarṇāvadāna, according Daoxuan's sūtra catalog the Da Tang neidian lu 大唐內典錄 (T 2149), was translated into Chinese by An Shigao 安世高 in or around year 1 of reign era Yuanjia 元嘉 (151) under the Emperor Huan 桓帝 of the Later Han dynasty. That this early version concerned astrology is indicated by “twenty-eight nakṣatra-s” (er shi ba xiu 二十八宿) in the alternative titles noted in the catalog.40


Mātaṅga Sūtra 摩登伽經 (T 1300), a version of the Śārdūlakarṇāvadāna, translated into Chinese by Zhi Qian 支謙. Starts month from the new moon, and spring (the first month of the year) from 1st day of 2nd month (the extant Sanskrit and Tibetan versions state it is from the rainy season or prāvṛt), indicating western influences.41 Includes 28 nakṣatra-s from Kṛttikā, 9 graha-s, monthly gnomic, the Metonic cycle and monthly gnomonic measurement.42

3rd cent.

The first Sasanian rulers sponsor Pahlavi translations of Sanskrit and Greek works on astral sciences including the Greek treatises of Dorotheus of Sidon and Vettius Valens, plus the Syntaxis Mathematike (Almagest) of Ptolemy, and additionally a Sanskrit astrological work by Farmāsb (Parameśvara?).43


Chinese translation of the Śārdūlakarṇāvadāna 舍頭諫太子二十八宿經 (T 1301) by Dharmapāla 竺法護. Largely similar to T 1300, though no western influences. Close translation of Sanskrit original.44 Descriptions of 28 nakṣatra-s.


Gupta dynasty.

4th cent.

Fourth century Roman laws preserved in the Theodosian Code condemn divination and magic: in principle any private magical or divinatory act could be punished with death.45 Western calendrical system of the seven-day week introduced into India. In the Vṛddhayavanajātaka, an astrological work by Mīnarāja dated to 300-325, the planets are for the first time in India listed in the temporal order of their regency over the days of the week.46 The first known complete list in Greek of the decans in the zodiac comes from Hephaestion of Thebes.47

396? [<586]

Chinese translation of Mahāsaṃnipata Sūtra 大方等大集經 (T 397) by Dharmakṣema/Narendrayaśas. Includes 12 zodiac houses.48


An unknown figure in India, having access to Greek astronomical texts, often based on the work of Hipparchus and other Hellenistic astronomers, attempted to combine the cosmology and chronology of the Purāṇas with these Greek traditions.49

June 21st, 484

Earliest Indian inscription mentioning the seven-day week: dated to 165 of the Gupta era during the reign of Budhagupta (r. c. 477-500).50


The first known astronomical text to define the weekday in India is the Āryabhaṭīya by Āryabhaṭa.51

5th cent.

Earliest extant representations of the planetary deities in India from the Gupta period.52 The Paitāmasiddhānta, a fundamental text of the Brāhmapakṣa in Indian astronomy, probably composed in the early fifth century CE. Survived as a component incorporated into the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa (sixth or seventh century).53


Pahlavi literature flourished under the reign of the celebrated Sasanian king Ḵosrow including translations from Syriac, Greek, and Indian sources on science, in particular astronomy and medicine.54

6th cent.

Seven planet ordering as in modern use appears in Indian literature around the sixth century.55 Varāhamihira, an astrologer of Persian ancestry who lived at or near Ujjayinī in the middle of the sixth century, wrote a Pañcasiddhāntikā, in which he summarized five astronomical texts: a Paitāmahasiddhānta whose epoch is 80 AD and which is based on elements of Lagadha's Jyotiṣavedāṅga, which was written in the late fifth century BCE under Mesopotamian influence; a Vasiṣṭhasiddhānta, of which an earlier version was referred to by Sphujidhvaja but which was known to Varāhamihira in a recension of 499; a Romakasiddhānta (Roman astronomical system) and a Pauliśasiddānta (Paulus' astronomical system), both in the recension of Lāṭadeva, a pupil of Āryabhaṭa; and finally Lāṭadeva's adaptation of a Sūryasiddhānta to conform to the Ārdharātrikapakṣa founded by Āryabhaṭa.56 In the late sixth century, texts such as the Matsyapurāṇa and Agnipurāṇa "represent the total assimilation of the imported calendrical system with the native astro-religious mythology of India."57


Life of eminent astronomer and monk Yixing 一行.58


Manichaeism formally introduced into China, which included the seven-day week and associated astrological elements, some of which were incorporated into Chinese Buddhist literature.59


Life of Amoghavajra 不空.


Chinese translation of the Navagrahakaraṇa 九執曆 by Gautamasiddha 瞿曇悉達. It includes Siddhānta algorithms, superior methods for eclipse predictions, the dot for zero and a table of sine functions.


Lalla in the mid-eighth century writes the Śiṣyadhīvṛddhidatantra, extensively dealing with the purāṇic cosmological tradition. He adapts the earlier flat earth concept into spherical cosmology. He also systematically refutes from physical observations and arguments unacceptable concepts from purāṇic astronomy: that solar and lunar eclipses are caused by Rāhu, that the Moon is above the Sun, that Meru causes the darkness of night, that in the kṛṣṇapakṣa the Moon is being drunk by the Gods, that the earth is flat, and that it is supported by a tortoise, elephants, or some other physical supports.60


An Lushan rebellion 安史之亂.


Chinese compilation of the Xiuyao Jing 宿曜經 (T 1299)61 under Amoghavajra 不空. Initial draft done by Shi Yao 史瑤 in 759, though it proved problematic. Subsequently in 764 it was revised by Yang Jingfeng 楊景風.


Futian Li 符天歷 calendar formulated by Cao Shi Wei 曹士蒍.


Zongmi 宗密: his Yuan Ren Lun 原人論 summarizes native Chinese cosmogony in contrast to Buddhist ideas.62


Translation of the Douli Yusi Jing 都利聿斯經.63


Compilation of the Fantian Huoluo Jiuyao 梵天火羅九曜 (T 1311). Attributed to lectures given by Yixing (d. 727), but Taishō version reveals later elements. It cites the Yusi Jing 聿斯經, which was translated between 785-805. It further states, “This star [Rāhu] is in a hidden position and does not appear. There are eclipses when it meets with the sun or moon. It is called an eclipse spirit. Ketu is the tail of the eclipse spirit, called the leopard's tail.”64 This is suggestive of later Middle Eastern influences in India (see below), though Ketu there was redesigned as a serpent's tail. Yixing himself defined Ketu as a comet in his commentary,65 which reflects the original Indian concept. The iconography is identical to that found in the painting entitled "Tejaprabhā Buddha and the Five Planets" 熾盛光佛并五星圖 from Qianning 4 乾寧四年 (897 CE) by Zhang Huai Xing 張淮興. The first reference to the text is from between 890-953 in the Ishiyama shichishū 石山七集.66


Qiyao Rangzai Jue 七曜攘災決 (T 1308), a table for determining planetary locations, compiled by Brahmin monk Jinjutuo 金俱吒. The calendar starts from 794 for the seven planets, and 806 for Rāhu and Ketu.67 Brought to Japan by monk Shū'ei 宗叡 (809-884) in 865.68


Probable period for the composition of astrological sādhana-s attributed to Yixing and Vajrabodhi (671-741), including the Qiyao Xingchen Bie Xinfa 七曜星辰別行法 (T 1309), Beidou Qixing Humo Fa 北斗七星護摩法 (T 1310), Fantian Huoluo Jiuyao 梵天火羅九曜 (T 1311), Xiuyao Yigui 宿曜儀軌 (T 1304) and Beidou Qixing Niansong Yigui 北斗七星念誦儀軌 (T 1305). These display native Chinese elements that appear incongruent with their interests and writings, especially in the case of Yixing, reflecting popular astral practices of the late Tang.69


Xiuyao Jing 宿曜經 brought to Japan by Kūkai 空海 (774-835). Followed again by Tendai monks Ennin 圓仁 (794-864) in 847 and Enchin 圓珍 (814-891) in 858.


Imperial edict issued in China ordering official observatory staff to maintain secrecy and not associate with civil servants and commoners.70


Huichang abolition of Buddhism 會昌廢佛.71 Esoteric Buddhism is critically damaged as a result.


Futian Li 符天歷 brought to Japan by Tendai monk Nichi'en 日延 in 957 (he departed Japan for China in 953).

975 (January 25)

Date of horoscope from Dunhuang (Pelliot chinois 4071), written by Kang Zun 康遵 (probably Sogdian). Cites Yusi Jing 聿廝經 and Wu Xing Jing 五星經.


The Xu Yiqie Jing Yinyi 續一切經音義 (T 2129), compiled in the Liao Dynasty by the monk Xilin 希麟, describes Ketu as being perpetually hidden with Rāhu and causing eclipses when coming into contact with the sun and moon (常隱不現遇日月行次卽蝕).

c. Early 2nd millennium.

Around the time of Al-Bīrūnī (973-1048) Ketu is redesigned as the descending node of the moon. Until then he was solely the personification of comets.72

11th cent.

Earliest definite usage of the terms sukuyō-dō 宿曜道 and sukuyō-shi 宿曜師 (Sukuyō astrologers) in journals of aristocrats are from the beginning to the mid-eleventh century in Japan. The former is a system of astrology and amalgamation of astrology techniques for divining the fortunes of individual aristocrats and performing rites as necessary based on the Xiuyao Jing 宿曜經. It simultaneously developed alongside Onmyō-dō 陰陽道, a unique Japanese system of occult practices and knowledge borrowing from multiple sources of Chinese knowledge. Both traditions had a profound impact on aristocratic Heian society. The term sukuyō itself appears in the Tale of Genji 源氏物語 (chapters 1 and 14) from the early eleventh century. Sukuyō-dō continued on in the Kamakura period (1185–1333), especially under figures like Chinyo 珍譽, though the core of the tradition evolved from divination towards prayer rituals. 73

1David Pingree, A History of Indian Literature Vol. 6 Scientific and Technical Literature Part 3, Fasc. 4: Jyotiḥśāstra Astral and Mathematical Literature, Volume 6, Part 4 (Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1981), 8-9.

2He is the demon said to be responsible for devouring planets and causing eclipses. One of the nine graha 九執. The concept was developed over a period of time. He is first explicitly named in the Atharvaveda, and later in the Mahābhārata and Purāṇas associated with Svarbhānu who appears in the earlier Rg Veda. He was first described as a disembodied demonic head consuming the sun and moon, but later as a result of Greek influences in the early Gupta period this description was revised as being the ascending node of the moon in astronomical literature, considered a “dark planet” 暗曜 from which calculations could be made for predicting eclipses. Later this was coordinated with the entity Ketu 計都, the descending node of the moon. By the early second millennium (based on the influences of Middle Eastern astrology) his imagery was further revised and he became a head of a serpent with Ketu as its tail . He is said to be the son of Siṃhikā, the wife of the demon Vipracitta, otherwise alternatively as the son of Bṛhaspati, Kāśyapa or Rudra.

3Stephen Markel, "The Genesis of the Indian Planetary Deities" in East and West 41 (December 1991), 176.

4David Pingree, "Astronomy and Astrology in India and Iran" in Isis 54.2 (1963), 230.

5Clive L. N. Ruggles, Ancient Astronomy: An Encyclopedia of Cosmologies and Myth (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2005), 39.

6Hermann Hunger and David Pingree, Handbook of Oriental Studies Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia (Leiden: Brill, 1999), 50.

7John Lankford ed., A History of Astronomy An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1997), 179.

8John Lankford ed. (1997), 160.

9Edward H. Schafer, Pacing the Void T'ang Approaches to the Stars (First Floating World Editions, 2005), 10.

10David Pankenier, "Did Babylonian astrology influence early Chinese astral prognostication Xing Zhan Shu?" Early China 37-1 (2014): 1-13.

11John Lankford ed. (1997), 43.

12Hermann Hunger and David Pingree (1999), 26-27.

13Marilynn Lawrence, "Hellenistic Astrology" on Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (

14Clive L. N. Ruggles (2005), 38.

15David Pingree, "The Purāṇas and Jyotiḥśāstra Astronomy" in Journal of the American Oriental Society 110.2 (1990), 275.

16Clive L. N. Ruggles (2005), 39.

18Pierfrancesco Callieri, “India iv. Relations: Seleucid, Parthian, Sasanian Periods” on Iranica Online ( ).

19Michio Yano, "Planet Worship in Ancient India" in Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences in Honour of David Pingree (Leiden: Brill, 2004), 333.

20R. A. Parker, “Ancient Egyptian Astronomy” in The Place of Astronomy in the Ancient World, ed. F.R. Hodson (London: Oxford University Press, 1974), 61.

21David Pingree (1981), 81.

22Marilynn Lawrence, "Hellenistic Astrology".

23John Lankford ed. (1997), 12.

24Roger Beck, A Brief History of Ancient Astrology (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007), 16.

25Steven J. Green, Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and His Augustan Contemporaries (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 65.

26Tamsyn S. Barton, Power and Knowledge Astrology, Physiognomics and Medicine under the Roman Empire (Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1994), 38-39.

27Yabuuchi Kiyoshi 薮内清, Chūgoku no Tenmon Rekihō 中国の天文暦法 (Tokyo: Heibonsha, 1990), 178.

28Stephen Markel (1991), 183.

29Steven J. Green (2014), 103.

30David Pingree (1963), 233.

31Steven J. Green (2014), 104.

32Steven J. Green (2014), 105.

33Stephen Markel (1991), 181.

34David Pingree (1981), 81.

35David Pingree, "The Recovery of Early Greek Astronomy from India" in Journal for the History of Astronomy 7 (1976), 110.

36Stephen Markel, "The Imagery and Iconographic Development of the Indian Planetary Deities Rāhu and Ketu" in South Asian Studies 6 (1990), 21.

37Michio Yano (2004), 335.

38David Pingree (1981), 81. Stephen Markel (1991), 177.

39Bill M. Mak, "The 'Oldest Indo-Greek Text in Sanskrit' Revisited: Additional Readings from the Newly Discovered Manuscript of the Yavanajātaka," Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 62.3 (2014), 37-41

40(CBETA, T55, no. 2149, p. 221, c6-p. 223, c6)

41Zenba Makoto 善波周, 佛典の天文暦法について in Indogaku Bukkyōgaku Kenkyū 印度學佛研究 7 (1956), 24-25.

42Jan Nattier does not regard this work to be a genuine work of Zhiqian. See Jan Nattier, "A Guide to the Earliest Chinese Buddhist Translations Texts from the Eastern Han 東漢 and Three Kingdoms 三國 Periods" in Bibliotheca Philologica et Philosophica Buddhica, Vol. X (Tokyo, Japan: The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology Soka University, 2008), 177-178. PDF Version: BPPB X (2008).

43D. Pingree and C. J. Brunner. Iranica Online ( ).

44Zenba Makoto (1956), 25

45Tamsyn S. Barton (1994), 59.

46Stephen Markel (1991), 181.

47R. A. Parker (1974), 61.

48See Bill Mak, “Ratnaketu-parivarta, Sūryagarbha-parivarta and Candragarbha-parivarta of Mahāsaṃnipātasūtra (MSN) - Indian Jyotiṣa through the lens of Chinese Buddhist Canon.”

49David Pingree (1990), 276.

50Stephen Markel (1991), 182.

51Michio Yano (2004), 336.

52Stephen Markel (1991), 179. David Pingree, "Indian Planetary Images and the Tradition of Astral Magic" in Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 52 (1989), 6.

53David Pingree (1976), 110.

55Zenba Makoto (1956), 24.

56David Pingree (1976), 110.

57Stephen Markel (1991), 178.

58Originally from Changle 昌樂 in Weizhou 魏州 (the Song Gaoseng Zhuan 宋高僧傳 has it as Ju Lu 鉅鹿). His secular name was Zhang Sui 張遂, being a descendent of the early Tang figure Zhong Gongjin 張公謹. In his youth he extensively studied traditional Chinese sciences as well as Daoist texts under a Daoist adept 道士 named Yin Chong 尹崇. He later ordained and served under monk Puji 普寂 at the age of 24 or 25 before later studying the Vinaya under Wuzhen 悟真 (alternatively Huizhen 惠真). In 717 Emperor Xuanzong 玄宗 ordered his uncle to request him to come to court and assist Śubhakarasiṃha 善無畏 in translating the Mahāvairocana Sūtra 大日經 (T 848). There he initially drafted the Kaiyuan era Dayan calendar 開元大衍歷 in 721, which was completed in 727. In these years he compiled a number of works on calendrical science and Buddhism. In 723 he along with Liang Lingzan 梁令瓚 used copper and iron to cast an apparatus for measuring the movements of stars and the moon, demonstrating the movement of fixed stars, to which Xuanzong was pleased before ordering construction of another instrument the armillary sphere 渾天儀. In 724 the Mahāvairocana Sūtra was completed and thereafter Yixing requested further clarification on the text, compiling his commentary the Da Rijing Shu 大日經疏 (T 1796), which was probably completed in 725. Yixing also studied esoteric Buddhism under Vajrabodhi 金剛智. Yixing died in 727 at the age of 45, being given the posthumous title of Dahui Chanshi 大慧禪師. His depiction in historical documents varies. The earliest source material about him comes from a recording copied by Kūkai 空海 of his memorial stele erected by Emperor Xuanzong 玄宗, which is preserved in the Shingon Fuhō Den 真言付法傳 or Ryaku Fuhō Den 略付法傳. Here is remembered as an erudite Buddhist monk, whereas the the Jiu Tang Shu 舊唐書 (compiled in 945) lists him under the arts 方伎 section and celebrates his accomplishments in astronomy. Both Tendai and Shingon claim him in their respective lineages. See Osabe Kazuo 長部和雄. Ichigyō Zenji no Kenkyū 一行禪師の研究. Kōbe: Kōbe Shōka Daigaku Keizai Kenkyūsho, 1963.

59Yabuuchi Kiyoshi (1990), 179.

60David Pingree (1990), 279.

61In the Edo period the Shingon monk Kakushō 覺勝, active at Kōyasan 高野山, critically evaluated and compared several versions of the text, thereafter compiling an authoritative annotated version which was published in 1736 and became prominent around Kōyasan. His edition and the domestic versions he based it on differ considerably from the Taishō edition. They probably reflect the original version brought to Japan by Kūkai 空海 in 806, whereas the latter is reflective of later editing done with mainland canons. See Yano Michio 矢野道雄, Mikkyō Senseijutsu 密教占星術 (Tokyo: Toyoshoin, 2013), 226-264.

62For a full translation and study see Peter N Gregory, Inquiry into the Origin of Humanity: An Annotated Translation of Tsung-mi's Yuan jen lun with a Modern Commentary (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1995).

63An astrology text translated in the Zhenyuan 貞元 period (785-805). No longer extant. According to the Xin Tang Shu 新唐書 (59, compiled in 1060), it was brought from western India by a “douli expert” 都利術士 named Li Miqian 李彌乾 and translated by Qugong 璩公 (the Chongwen Zongmu 崇文總目 names him as Shi Qugong 釋璩公, suggesting he was a monk) as two fascicles, though the Song Shi 宋史 (206) lists it as one fascicle. The original Indic edition 本梵書 is recorded as being five fascicles in the Chongwen Zongmu under the Lishu Lei 歷數類 heading. There were multiple commentaries on the text available in the Song period. The text was first to introduce the concept of eleven stars 十一曜 (the five visible planets, sun, moon, Rāhu 羅睺, Ketu 計都, Ziqi紫氣 and Yuebei 月孛 / Yuebo 月勃) through which astrological divination was carried out. These were later incorporated into Daoist literature. The text was brought to Japan by monk Shū'ei 宗叡 (809-884) in 865 (see his Shin Shosha Shōrai Hōmon Tō Mokuroku 新書寫請來法門等目錄, T 2174A). It was used in the Sukuyō-dō 宿曜道 tradition. There are fragments of the text cited in a Sukuyō horoscope from the year 1152 entitled Sukuyō Unmei Kanroku 宿曜運命勘錄 as included in the Zoku Gunsho Ruijū 續群書類從 (卷第九百八雜部五十八). They reveal concepts from Hellenistic astrology, such as aspect (trine 三合) and planetary domiciles. Fragments of the text are also cited as Yusi Jing 聿廝經 in Dunhuang document Pelliot chinois 4071. The title possibly stands phonetically for Ptolemaios (i.e., Ptolemy, the Greco-Egyptian astronomer of Alexandria), where the translation was from a language not representing vowels whereby P-T-L-M-Y-V-S was rendered T-L-YV-S, and thereafter Duli Yusi in Chinese. In relation to this is a similar text by Chen Fu 陳輔 entitled the Yusi Si-men Jing 聿斯四門經 (“Yusi Four Gates Classic”) in one fascicle, suggesting the work could be Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos, i.e., Four Books (Yano Michio, 2013). Alternatively, douli could refer to the Talas River. See Jao Tsung-I 饒宗頤, Lun Qiyao Yu Shiyiyao 論七曜與十一曜 (1982).

64T. no. 1311, 21: 461.c29-462.a2.

65T. no. 1796, 39: 618.a15-16.

66Takeda Kazuaki, “Tō-ji hōbodai-in kyūzō hoshi mandara to zanketsu ni tsuite東寺宝菩提院旧蔵星曼荼羅図残闕について, Mikkyō bunka 183 (1993), 12.

67Yabuuchi Kiyoshi (1990), 181.

68See T. no. 2174A, 55: 111.b21.

69For an extensive discussion see Osaba Kazuo 長部 和雄, “Tōdai no Kōki Mikkyō 唐代の後期密教 in Bukkyō Shigaku 仏教史学 10.2 (1962).

70Jiu Tang Shu 舊唐書 (36): 開成五年十二月敕:司天臺占候災祥,理宜秘密。…監司官吏不得更與朝官及諸色人等交通往來

71A purge of Buddhism and other 'foreign' religions in Tang China under Emperor Wuzong 武宗 (814–846; r. 840–846). Having a negative attitude toward Buddhism from a young age, in 840 he inherited the throne from his brother Wenzong 文宗 (r. 826–840) before serving the Daoist adept Zhao Guizhen 趙歸眞. Zhao had regularly advised the emperor that Buddhism had to be eliminated, arguing that it was deleterious to the state and not an original Chinese tradition. He initially took severe measures against Buddhist clergy, forcing those guilty of crimes or those not practicing precepts to disrobe. In year 5 of reign era Huichang 會昌 (845) the emperor decreed that Buddhism was to be eliminated. It was said that at least 4,600 temples were destroyed or converted for use in other purposes, while 260,500 monks and nuns were defrocked. Scriptures were burned and metal images and bells were recast into coins and agricultural tools. Other foreign religions were similarly repressed, particularly Manichaeism, whose clerics were executed across the empire. The emperor permitted two Buddhist temples in each capital (Chang'an 長安 and Luoyang 洛陽) to remain along with one in each province. Wuzong died the following year as a result of poisoning from Daoist alchemical elixirs. Xuanzong (r. 846–859) ascended the throne and repealed his predecessor's policies. The persecution was witnessed firsthand by Japanese monk Ennin 圓仁 (794–864), the details of which he recorded in his travelogue Nittō guhō junrei kōki 入唐求法巡禮行記.

72Stephen Markel (1990), 21. The original Vedic meaning of ketu meant rays of light and this came to refer to comets, the earliest reference of which is found in the Atharvaveda. Ketu was initially conceived of as solely the personification of comets. This is reflected in Yixing's 一行 commentary the Darijing Shu 大日經疏 (T 1796) where he defines Ketu as a “banner” , meaning “comet” 彗星 (T. no. 1796, 39: 618.a15-16.). By the early second millennium he was revised as the descending node of the moon and closely associated with Rāhu 羅睺. This development is reflected in the Xu Yiqie Jing Yinyi 續一切經音義 (T 2129), compiled around 987 in the Liao Dynasty (907-1125) by monk Xilin 希麟, where Ketu is understood as being perpetually hidden with Rāhu and causing eclipses when coming into contact with the sun and moon (常隱不現遇日月行次即蝕). Ketu was also redesigned in India as the tail of a serpent in conjunction with Rāhu the head owing to Middle Eastern influences.

73See the following:

Toda, Yusuke 戶田雄介. “Sukuyō-dō no Insei-ki Chinga to Keisan wo Chūshin ni 宿曜道の院政期 珍賀と慶算を中心に.” Bukkyō Daigaku Daigakuin Kiyō vol. 34, 27–40. 2006.

----. “Kamakura Bakufu no Sukuyō-shi: Toku ni Chinyo ni tsuite 鎌倉幕府の宿曜師 特に珍譽について.” Bukkyō Daigaku Daigakuin Kiyō vol. 35, 45-59. 2007.