Thesis

"Internet Copyright: A Copyright Analysis of Online Streaming Media" 

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ABSTRACT 

 This minor thesis asks the question: what are the copyright implications of watching television online?


To answer this question a survey of the attitudes of University College Cork students to these developments was distributed, and independent academic research took place.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Primary Sources

A) Cases

Irish

  1. EMI Records (Ireland) Ltd & Ors v. Eircom and Anor, Kelly, J., Commercial Court, 8 July 2005, [2005] IEHC 233, online: IRLII

UK

  1. Bunt v. Tilley & Ors [2006] EWHC 407 (QB), [2007] 1 WLR 1243 (10 March 2006), online: BAILII
  2. CBS Songs Ltd. v. Amstrad Consumer Electronics plc. [1987] 2 WLR 1191

USA

  1. A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc. 239 F.3d (9th Cir. 2001)
  2. American Geophysical Union v Texaco Inc. 37 F3d 913 (2nd Cir. 1994)
  3. Live Nation Motor Sports, Inc. v Davis, No. 3:06-CV-276-L, 2007 US Dist. WL 79311 (N.D. Tex. 9 January 2007)
  4. MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd. 545 U.S. 913 (2005)
  5. Paramount Pictures Corporation, et. al. v. ReplayTV, Inc. and SonicBlue, Inc. Civ. No. 01-09358-FMC (Ex) (Amended Complaint)
  6. Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios 464 U.S. 417 (1984)
  7. Ticketmaster Corp.v. Tickets.com, Inc. (C.D. Cal., August 10, 2000) (No. CV99-7654-HLH (BQRx)) (unpublished opinion)

Other

  1. A Painter v Google 3 O 1108/05, Landgericht Erfurt, 15 March 2007

B) Legislation

Irish

  1. Copyright and Related Rights Act, 2000, as amended
  2. European Communities (Directive 2000/31/EC) Regulations, 2003 (S.I. No. 68 of 2003)

UK

  1. Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations, 2002 (UK)

USA

  1. Communications Decency Act 1996 (USA).
  2. Digital Millennium Copyright Act 1998 (USA)
  3. National Stolen Property Act 1934 (USA)
  4. Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act 1970 (USA)

EU

  1. EC directive on the Harmonisation of Certain Aspects of Copyright and Related Rights in the Information Society (2001/29/EC)
  2. Electronic Commerce Directive (2000/31/EC)

Other

  1. Copyright Amendment (Digital Agenda) Act, 2000 (Australia)

Secondary Sources

A) Journal Articles

  1. Allgrove, B., “The search engine's dilemma: implied licence to crawl and cache?” (2002) 2 Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 437, online: OXFORD.
  2. Angelopoulos, C.J., “Modern intellectual property legislation: warm for reform” (2008) 19(2) Ent. L.R. 35, online: WESTLAW.
  3. Bashor, N., “Comment, The Cache Cow: Can Caching and Copyright Co-exist?” (2006) 6 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 101
  4. Coates, J., “Creative Commons – The Next Generation: Creative Commons licence use five years on” (2007) 4:1 SCRIPTed 72: <http://www.law.ed.ac.uk/ahrc/script-ed/vol4-1/coates.asp>.
  5. Douglas, G., “Copyright and Peer-To-Peer Music File Sharing: The Napster Case and the Argument Against Legislative Reform” (2004) 11 Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law 1 <http://www.murdoch.edu.au/elaw/issues/v11n1/douglas111.html>.
  6. Driscoll, M., “Will YouTube Sail into the DMCA’s Safe Harbor or Sink for Internet Piracy?” (2007) 6 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 550
  7. Elkin-Koren, N., “What Contracts Can't Do: The Limits of Private Ordering in Facilitating a Creative Commons” (2005) Fordham Law Review, Vol. 74.
  8. Esquenet, M., “Link to live webcast may constitute copyright infringement” (2007) 2 Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 284, online: OXFORD
  9. Fitzgerald, B., “Copyright 2010: the future of copyright” (2008) 30(2) E.I.P.R. 43, online: WESTLAW.
  10. Fitzgerald, B., O'Brien, D. and Fitzgerald, A., “Search Engine Liability for Copyright Infringement” (2007) <http://eprints.qut.edu.au/archive/00007883/01/7883.pdf> (date accessed: 1-7-08)
  11. Hays, T., “The Evolution and Decentralisation of Secondary Liability for Infringements of Copyright-protected Works (Part 1)” [2006] EIPR 617
  12. Holmes, S. and Ganley, P., “User-generated content and the law” (2007) 2 Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 338, online: OXFORD.
  13. James, S., “The times they are a-changin': copyright theft, music distribution and keeping the pirates at bay” (2008) 19(5) Ent. L.R. 106, online: WESTLAW.
  14. Katz, Z., “Pitfalls of Open Licensing: an Analysis of Creative Commons Licensing” (2006) 46 IDEA 391, online: LEXIS.
  15. Kohl, U., “Legal Reasoning and Legal Change in the Age of the Internet—Why the Ground Rules are still Valid” (1999) 7 IJL&IT 123, online: LEXIS.
  16. Lemley, M., “Rationalising ISP Safe Harbors” (April 10, 2007). Stanford Public Law Working Paper No. 979836 <http://ssrn.com/abstract=979836> (date accessed: 23-4-08).
  17. Maher, M. and Thompson, J., Intellectual Property Crimes, 39 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 763 (2002), online: LEXIS.
  18. Netanel, N., “Why has Copyright Expanded? Analysis and Critique” in Fiona Macmillan ed., 6 New Directions in Copyright Law (Edward Elgar, forthcoming 2008) <http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1066241> (date accessed: 28-1-08).
  19. Pasquale, F. A., “Copyright in an Era of Information Overload: Toward the Privileging of Categorizers” (2007) Vanderbilt Law Review <http://ssrn.com/abstract=888410>.
  20. Rose, N., “Format shifting: UK proposals for a limited ‘private copying’ exception” (2008) <http://www.legal500.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=3726&Itemid=93>.
  21. Ryan, M., “Cyberspace as Public Space: A public Trust Paradigm for Copyright in a Digital World” 79 Or. L. Rev. 647, online: LEXIS.
  22. Sableman, M., “Link Law Revisited: Internet Linking Law at Five Years” (2001) 16 Berkeley Technology Law Journal 1273.
  23. Sensarkar, N., “A shot in the arm for creativity?” (2007) 2(10) Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 651 <http://0-jiplp.oxfordjournals.org.innopac.ucc.ie/cgi/content/abstract/2/10/651>.
  24. Seville, C., “European Union Law: Current Developments: Intellectual Property” (2007) 56(4) ICLQ 899, online: LEXIS.

25.Smith, R.G., “Internet Piracy” No. 65 Australian Institute of Criminology, Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, January 1997 <http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi/ti65.pdf> (date accessed: 8-2-08)

  1. Travis, H., “Building Universal Digital Libraries: An Agenda for Copyright Reform” 33 Pepp. L. Rev. 761, online: LEXIS.
  2. Wadhwa, A., “Overcoming the challenges posted by technology to traditional copyright law: from Betamax to Grokster” (2007) 2 Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 487, online: OXFORD.
  3. Walker, C., “Application of the DMCA Safe Harbor Provisions to Search Engines” (2004) 9 Va. J.L. & Tech. 1
  4. Wong, M.W.S., “User-Generated Content & the Open Source/Creative Common Movements: Has the Time Come for Users' Rights?” (2007) Franklin Pierce Law Center.

B) Books

  1. L. Lessig, Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity (New York: Penguin, 2004).
  2. L. Lessig, The Future of Ideas (New York: Random House, 2001).

C) Miscellaneous

  1. Carlson, M., "Recording Strife: The media industry's legal reactions to VCR and DVR technology" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans Sheraton, New Orleans, LA, May 27, 2004 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p112594_index.html> (date accessed: 6-6-08)
  2. Gowers Review of Intellectual Property (report published 6 December 2006) <http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/media/6/E/pbr06_gowers_report_755.pdf>.
  3. Internal Working Paper of the New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development regarding the Digital Technology and the Copyright Act 1994 dated July 2002 <http://www.med.govt.nz/upload/2429/working.pdf> (date accessed: 30-3-08)
  4. “Internet and Media Industry Leaders Unveil Principles to Foster Online Innovation While Protecting Copyrights” (18-10-07) <http://www.ugcprinciples.com/press_release.html>.
  5. O’Dell, E., “Fair Use - Recalibrating the balance in Fair Dealing” <http://www.cearta.ie/2007/03/fair-use-recalibrating-the-balance-in-fair-dealing/>.

6.Press release of Computer Industry Almanac, Inc. “Worldwide Internet Users Top 1.2 Billion in 2006. USA Tops 210M Internet Users.” February 12, 2007 <http://www.c-i-a.com/pr0207.htm> (date accessed: 26-1-08)

7.Press release of the Stanford Institute for the Quantitative Study of Society, “The Internet Study” <http://www.stanford.edu/group/siqss/Press_Release/press_detail.html> (date accessed: 26-1-08)

  1. Report of the Register of Copyrights Pursuant to §104 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act <http://www.copyright.gov/reports/studies/dmca/sec-104-report-vol-1.pdf>
  2. Smith, E.H., “The Reproduction Right and Temporary Copies: The International Framework, the U.S. Approach and Practical Implications” Paper presented to the SOFTIC SYMPOSIUM 2001 (20-11-01) <http://www.softic.or.jp/symposium/open_materials/10th/en/smith-en.pdf>.
  3. “United States: copyright - online liability” (2008) 14(5) C.T.L.R. 134.

D) Newspaper Articles

  1. Anderson, K., “Why was someone arrested over the TV Links website?” (25-10-07) <http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2007/oct/25/piracy.intellectualproperty> (date accessed: 4-3-08)
  2. Anderson, N., “MPAA head: Content filtering is in ISPs' best interests” (5-12-07) <http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20071205-mpaa-head-content-filtering-in-isps-best-interests.html> (date accessed: 4-5-08)

3.BBC News “Online video 'eroding TV viewing'” (27-11-06) <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/6168950.stm> (date accessed: 5-2-08)

  1. Digital Media Europe News, Carla Moore, “RTÉ reports 78% more hits on RTÉ.ie site” <http://www.dmeurope.com/default.asp?ArticleID=22573> (date accessed: 8-2-08)
  2. Doctorow, C., “Why a rights robocop will never work: Stamping out copyright infringement is harder than the old men in suits thinks it is” Guardian Unlimited (30-10-07) <http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2007/oct/30/copyright>.
  3. Freeberg, D., “Can DivX’s Safe Harbor Protect It from Stage6 Pirates?” (7-2-08) <http://seekingalpha.com/article/63562-can-divxs-safe-harbor-protect-it-from-stage6-pirates> (date accessed: 21-2-08).
  4. Goodin, D., “Scientologists' copyright suit shapes Net liability” (9-6-99) <http://news.cnet.com/Scientologists-copyright-suit-shapes-Net-liability/2100-1023_3-226917.html> (date accessed: 2-5-08).
  5. Greenberg, A., “YouTube's Doppelganger” (29-11-06) <http://www.forbes.com/technology/2006/11/28/piracy-networks-copyright-tech_cx_ag_1129video.html> (date accessed: 3-2-08).
  6. Helft, M., “Google Calls Viacom Suit on YouTube Unfounded” (1-5-07) <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/01/technology/01google.html?_r=1&ex=1182398400&en=c43f48cc80b60663&ei=5070&oref=slogin> (date accessed: 12-12-07)
  7. Hogge, B., “Happy birthday Gowers - but where are our reforms?” (6-12-07) <http://www.openrightsgroup.org/>.
  8. Hogge, B., “Playing catch-up: Copyright in the digital age lags behind the letter of the current laws” (8-11-07) <http://www.newstatesman.com/200711080039>.
  9. Holson, L., “Hollywood Asks YouTube: Friend or Foe?” (15-1-07) <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/15/technology/15youtube.html?ex=1326517200&en=cf8bfb13b379a286&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss> (date accessed: 23-10-07)
  10. Jardin, X., “DivX sues Universal Music Group over Stage6: some analysis” (7-9-07) <http://www.boingboing.net/2007/09/07/divx-sues-universal.html> (date accessed: 12-12-07)
  11. Johnson, B., “Google lines up TV stars for YouTube court battle” (15-8-07) <http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2007/aug/15/google.youtube> (date accessed: 23-10-07).
  12. McCullagh, D., “Judge: Can’t link to webcast if copyright owner objects” (21-12-06) <http://news.cnet.com/2100-1030_3-6145744.html> (date accessed: 7-2-08).
  13. Opsahl, K., “Court Ruling Will Expose Viewing Habits of YouTube Users” (2-7-08) <http://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2008/07/court-ruling-will-expose-viewing-habits-youtube-us> (date accessed: 4-7-08)
  14. Sandoval, G., “TorrentSpy lawyer battling 'copyright extremism'” (31-7-07) <http://news.cnet.com/TorrentSpy-lawyer-battling-copyright-extremism/2100-1030_3-6199730.html?tag=item> (date accessed: 30-4-08).
  15. Sherriff, L., “Cops pull plugs on TV-links, claim 'facilitation of infringement'” (22-10-07) <http://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/10/22/tvlinks_legal_test_case/> (date accessed: 4-3-08)
  16. Sherriff, L., “TV-Links man was arrested under trademark laws” (23-10-07) <http://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/10/23/tv_links_trademark_law/> (date accessed: 4-3-08)
  17. Sherriff, L., “TV-Links man: 'I'm no master criminal'” (29-10-07) <http://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/10/29/no_master_criminal/> (date accessed: 4-3-08).

21.TorrentFreak News “Swedish TV Channels Lose Every Fourth Youngster to Downloading” (16-12-06) <http://torrentfreak.com/swedish-tv-channels-lose-every-fourth-youngster-to-downloading/> (date accessed: 5-2-08)

  1. Turrettini, E., “Can watching streaming video of copyright material get a viewer in trouble?” (11-23-07) <http://www.textually.org/tv/archives/2007/11/018050.htm> (date accessed: 21-5-08)

E) Statistical Information

1.An analysis prepared by LEK for the Motion Picture Association, 2006, “The Cost of Movie Piracy” <http://www.mpaa.org/leksummaryMPA%20revised.pdf> (date accessed: 4-2-08)

  1. Australian Broadband Survey 2005 Consumer Sentiment Report, commissioned by whirlpool.net.au <http://whirlpool.net.au/survey/2005/> (date accessed: 25-1-08)

3.Executive Summary of BuddeComm’s 2007 North America Telecoms, Broadband and Intellectual Property Theft and Organised Crime research project, “Fake Nation – A Study into an Everyday Crime” <http://www.digiplay.info/files/FakeNation.pdf> (date accessed: 8-2-08)

4.Mobile Statistics (tables only) Report <http://www.budde.com.au/publications/annual/north-america/north-america-statistics-telecoms-broadband-mobile-summary.html> (date accessed: 26-1-08)

5.MMS Survey 2007 (Swedish) <http://www.mms.se/arsrapp/%C5rsrapport%202007.pdf> (date accessed: 5-2-08)

6.Pew Internet and American Life Project “Online Video” Report <http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Online_Video_2007.pdf> (date accessed: 8-2-08)

7.Radio Telefís Éireann Authority Forty-sixth Annual Report and Group Financial Statements for the 12 months ended 31 December 2006, presented to the Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources pursuant to sections 25 and 26 of the Broadcasting Authority Act, 1960, page 19. Available online at <http://www.rte.ie/about/pdfs/rte_06_eng_annualreport.pdf> (date accessed: 8-2-08)

F) Websites

  1. CIA World Factbook <https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/> (date accessed: 9-2-08)
  2. Irish Central Statistics Office <www.cso.ie> (date accessed: 9-2-08)
  3. The UCC Survey <http://www.my3q.com/home2/185/devalera01/85005.phtml> (date accessed: 9-2-08)
  4. University College Cork <www.ucc.ie> (date accessed: 9-2-08)
  5. www.creativecommons.org
  6. www.quicksilverscreen.com
  7. www.tv-links.cc (formerly www.tv-links.co.uk)
  8. www.ugcprinciples.com
  9. www.youtube.com

ABOUT

Rory O'Sullivan is a graduate of the National University of Ireland, University College Cork. He received his L.L.M. (e-Law) in 2008 and his B.C.L. (Intl.) Honours degree in 2007. 

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E-mail: devalera01 @ gmail.com 

LAST UPDATED

20-10-13

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