8. Works Cited

           1.       Feddema, Johannes J.  “Estimated impacts of soil degradation on the African water balance and climate.”                                      Climate Research.  Vol. 10, Issue 2, page 127.  Department of Geography, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.      1998.  Accessed via Columbia University 11/2009.

 

2.     Lal, R.  “SOIL DEGRADATION BY EROSION.”  Land Degradation and Development.  Vol. 12, Issue 6, pg. 519.  School of Natural Resources, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.  August 2001. Accessed via Columbia University 11/2009.

3.        Kandji, Tacko.  Louis Verchot, Jens Mackensen.  “Climate Change and Variability in the Sahel Region: Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in the Agricultural Sector.”  Word Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), 2 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).  2006. Accessed via Columbia University 11/2009.

 

4.     Hiernaux, Pierre“The Crisis of Sahelian Pastoralism: Ecological or Economic?”  Pastoral Development Network.  January 1996. Accessed via Columbia University 11/2009.

 

5.       Hulme, Mike.  Mick Kelly.  “Climate Change, Desertification and Dessiccation, and the Case of the African Sahel.  CSERGE Working Paper GEC 93-17. The Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, University of East Anglia and University College London. Accessed via Columbia University 11/2009.

6.        Nicholson, S.E., C.J. Tucker.  Desertification, Drought, and Surface Vegetation: An Example from the West African Sahel.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Vol. 79, No. 5, May 1998. Accessed via Columbia University 11/2009.

7.     Darkoh, MBK.   “The Nature, Causes, and Consequenses of Desertificaiton in the drylands of Africa.” Human Impact on Environment and Sustainable Development in Africa.   Ashgate Publishing, Hamshire, England, 2003.  Accessed via books.google.com in 10/2009.

8.  Stroosnijder, Leo.  Modifying land management in order to improve efficiency of rainwater use in the African highlands.”  Erosion and Soil & Water Conservation Group.  Soil Science Centre, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.  2009.  Accessed via Columbia Universit 11/2009.

9.  Center for International Earth Science Information Network.  "The Causes of Land Degradation and Desertification."  Columbia University.    1997-2009.  Accessed via Columbia University 9/2009.

10.  United Nations

11. Forse, B, 1989. "The myth of the marching desert." New Scientist 4 (1650): 31-32

12. Malo, A. R., and S. E. Nicholson, 1990: a study of rainfall and vegetation dynamics in the African Sahel using normalized difference vegetation index. J. arid environ., 19, 1-24. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 829

13. Nicholson, S.E.  "The Spatial Coherence of African Rainfall Anomalies: Interhemispheric Teleconnections."  Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology.  Vol. 25, No, LO, October 1986., 1365-1381.  Accessed via Columbia University 9/2009.

14. Dregne, H. E., and N-T. Chou.  "Global desertification dimensions and costs. In Degradation and restoration of arid lands." Lubbock: Texas Tech. University. 1992.  Accessed via Columbia University 9/2009.
15. I. M. Held, T. L. Delworth, J. Lu‡, K. L. Findell, and T. R. Knutson.  "Simulation of Sahel drought in the 20th and 21st centuries."  Procedings of the National Academy of Sciences.  Vol. 102 no. 50,  2005.  Accessed via Columbia University 10/2009.

16 . Folland, C. K., Palmer, T. N. & Parker, D. E. "Sahel Rainfall and Worldwide Temperatures 1901-85."  (1986) Nature Publishing Group 320, 602–607.  Accessed via google 11/2009.

17. Palmer, T. N. "Influence of Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans on Sahel Rainfall."  (1986) Nature Publishing Group 320, 251–253.  Accessed via google 12/2009.

18. Rowell, D. P., Folland, C. K., Maskell, K. & Ward, M. N.  "Model Simulation of the Influence of Global SST Anomalies on Sahel Rainfall."
National Meteorological Center.  (1995) Quart. J. R.
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19. Fontaine, B., Trzaska, S. & Janicot, S. "Regional Impacts of El Nino on West Africa."  (1998) Climate Dyn. 14, 353–368.  Accessed via google 12/2009.

20. Giannini, A., Saravanan, R. & Chang, P. "Oceanic Forcing of Sahel Rainfall on Interannual to Interdecadal Time Scales."  (2003) Science 302, 1027–1030.  Accessed via google 12/2009.

21. Bader, J. & Latif, M.   "Estimating the Decadal Predictability of a Coupled AOGCM."  American Meteorological Society.  (2005) J. Climate, in press.  Accessed via google 12/2009.

22. Liu, J. & Delworth, T. L. "Timescales of Climate Responce."  (2005) Geophys. Res. Lett., in press.  Accessed via Columbia University 12/2009.

23. Hoerling, M. P., Hurrell, J. W. & Eischeid, J. "Decadel Climate Prediction:  Challenges and Opporunities.  (2005) Journal of Physics: Conference Series 125 (2008) 012018.  Accessed via Columbia University 12/2009.

24. Rotstayn, L. D. & Lohmann, U.  "Tropical Rainfall Trends and the Indirect Aerosol Effect." (2002) J. Climate 14, 2103–2116.  Accessed via Columbia University 12/2009.

25.  Alexander Löw. Victor Brovkin, Thomas Raddatz, Martin Claussen (MPI-M) "Land surface albedo products for land surface and climate modeling." Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg.  Accessed via Google 12/2009.

         26. Ben van der Pluijm 2008 http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange2/current/lectures/land_deg/land_deg.html            

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