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2.     Lal, R.  “SOIL DEGRADATION BY EROSION.”  Land Degradation and Development.  Vol. 12, Issue 6, pg. 519.  School of Natural Resources, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.  August 2001. Accessed via Columbia University 11/2009.

3.        Kandji, Tacko.  Louis Verchot, Jens Mackensen.  “Climate Change and Variability in the Sahel Region: Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in the Agricultural Sector.”  Word Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), 2 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).  2006. Accessed via Columbia University 11/2009.


4.     Hiernaux, Pierre“The Crisis of Sahelian Pastoralism: Ecological or Economic?”  Pastoral Development Network.  January 1996. Accessed via Columbia University 11/2009.


5.       Hulme, Mike.  Mick Kelly.  “Climate Change, Desertification and Dessiccation, and the Case of the African Sahel.  CSERGE Working Paper GEC 93-17. The Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, University of East Anglia and University College London. Accessed via Columbia University 11/2009.

6.        Nicholson, S.E., C.J. Tucker.  Desertification, Drought, and Surface Vegetation: An Example from the West African Sahel.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Vol. 79, No. 5, May 1998. Accessed via Columbia University 11/2009.

7.     Darkoh, MBK.   “The Nature, Causes, and Consequenses of Desertificaiton in the drylands of Africa.” Human Impact on Environment and Sustainable Development in Africa.   Ashgate Publishing, Hamshire, England, 2003.  Accessed via books.google.com in 10/2009.

8.  Stroosnijder, Leo.  Modifying land management in order to improve efficiency of rainwater use in the African highlands.”  Erosion and Soil & Water Conservation Group.  Soil Science Centre, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.  2009.  Accessed via Columbia Universit 11/2009.

9.  Center for International Earth Science Information Network.  "The Causes of Land Degradation and Desertification."  Columbia University.    1997-2009.  Accessed via Columbia University 9/2009.

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13. Nicholson, S.E.  "The Spatial Coherence of African Rainfall Anomalies: Interhemispheric Teleconnections."  Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology.  Vol. 25, No, LO, October 1986., 1365-1381.  Accessed via Columbia University 9/2009.

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         26. Ben van der Pluijm 2008 http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange2/current/lectures/land_deg/land_deg.html