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  • samantha viderama
    November 19, 2010

Philippine National Heroes


Dr. Jose P. Rizal
(1861-1896)

The Philippines' national hero. Born in Calamba, Laguna, on June 19, 1861. Published his masterpiece Noli Me Tangere in Berlin(Germany) in 1887 and his second novel El Filibusterismo in Ghent(Belgium) in 1891. His two novels stirred the conscience of his people. He contributed various literary works to La Solidaridad. For his leadership in the reform movement and for his incendiary novels, Rizal was arrested and later killed by musketry in Bagumbayan, Manila, on December 30, 1896. His execution was the last straw for other Filipinos who called for a bloody revolution against Spain.

Andres Bonifacio
(1863-1897)

He founded the secret society, Katipunan, on July 7, 1892, to fight Spain. He was also president of the Tagalog republic from August 24, 1896 to May 10, 1897. Born in Tondo, Manila, on November 30, 1863. He grew up in the slums and never knew the benefits of a prosperous life. He married Gregoria de Jesus in 1892. He was killed on May 10, 1897, near Mount Buntis, Maragondon, Cavite.

General Gregorio del Pilar
(1875-1899)

Hero of Tirad Pass. Born on November 14, 1875, in Bulacan, Bulacan. Died on December 2, 1899, in the battle of Tirad Pass, to enable Aguinaldo to escape from the Americans. One of the youngest and bravest generals ever produced by the Philippines.

General Emilio Aguinaldo
(1899-1964)

He officially proclaimed the Philippine independence in Malolos, Bulacan, on January 23, 1899, with him as the first president. It was the first republic in Asia. Born in Kawit, Cavite, on March 22, 1869. Died at the Veterans Memorial Hospital, Quezon City, on February 6, 1964.

Apolinario Mabini
(1864-1903)

Sublime paralytic and the brain of the revolution. Born in Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas, on June 22, 1864. He joined La Liga Filipina in 1892 and Aguinaldo's revolutionary government from June 1898 to May 1899. He was captured by the American forces in December 1899 and deported to Guam in January 1901. He died in Manila on May 13, 1903.

Father Mariano Gomez
(1799-1872)
Father Jose Burgos
(1837-1872)
GOMBURZA

Three intellectuals who crusaded for reform. Killed by garrote in Bagumbayan, Manila on February 17, 1872, for allegedly instigating the Cavite mutiny.




Emilio Jacinto
(1875-1899)

Brains of the Katipunan. Born in Trozo, Manila, on December 15, 1875. He joined the Katipunan in 1894 and became Bonifacio's trusted friend and adviser. He wrote the Kartilya ng Katipunan, the primer of the Katipunan which embodied the teachings of the organization. He founded and edited the Katipunan newspaper, Kalayaan, whose first issue came out in January 1896. Died on April 16, 1899. He was one of the heroic figures in Philippine history.

General Antonio Luna
(1866-1899)

The greatest general of the revolution. Younger brother of Juan Luna, the famous painter. Editor of La Independencia, whose first issue came out on September 3, 1898. Born in Binondo, Manila, on October 29, 1866. He was one of the propagandists in Spain who were working for political reforms in the Philippines. He contributed articles to La Solidaridad. He was assassinated in Cabanatuan City, on June 5, 1899.

Trece Martirez

The 13 martyrs of Cavite, who were executed by a firing squad on September 12, 1896. They were: 1)Maximo Inocencio; 2)Jose Lallana; 3)Eugenio Cabezas; 4)Maximo Gregorio; 5)Hugo Perez; 6)Severino Lapidario; 7)Alfonso de Ocampo; 8)Francisco Osorio; 9)Antonio de San Agustin; 10)Luis Aguado; 11)Agapito Conchu; 12)Victoriano Luciano; and 13)Feliciano Cabuco.

Melchora Aquino
(1812-1919)

B etter known as Tandang Sora. Born in Banlat, Kalookan City, on January 6, 1812. She helped the Katipuneros under the leadership of Andres Bonifacio by providing them food, shelter, and other material goods. She is recognized as the Grand Woman of the revolution and the Mother of Balintawak. She died on March 12, 1919.

Graciano Lopez-Jaena
(1856-1896)

Founder and first editor of the newspaper La Solidaridad, which became the vehicle of expression for Filipino propaganda in Spain. Together wtih Jose Rizal and Marcelo H. Del Pilar, he undertook propaganda campaigns in Spain. Born in Jaro, Iloilo, on December 18, 1856. He died on January 20, 1896, in Barcelona, Spain.

Panday Pira
(1483-1576)

First Filipino cannon-maker. He forged the cannons which Rajah Sulayman used in defending the Muslim Kingdom of Manila against the Spanish invaders. Born in one of the islands in Southern Philippines in 1483. He died in 1576.

Mariano Ponce
(1863-1918)

Researcher, historian, bibliographer, propagandist, diplomat, physician, folklorist, and an outstanding reformist. Born in Baliwag, Bulacan, on March 23, 1863. While in Spain, he joined the propaganda movement and became one of the initiators of La Solidaridad, later becoming its managing editor. Died in HongKong on May 23, 1918.

Gregoria de Jesus
(1875-1943)

One of the brave and patriotic women who played a heroic role in the Philippine revolution. Born in Kalookan City, on May 9, 1875. Wife of Andres Bonifacio and Lakambini of the Katipunan. She actually fought alongside her husband during the revolution, aside from being the custodian of the Katipunan documents. She organized the Katipunan's Women Chapter. She died on March 15, 1943.

Fernando Ma. Guerrero
(1873-1890)

Musician, journalist, politician, and lawyer. Considered the greatest lyric poet in Spanish. Born in Ermita, Manila, on May 30, 1873. When the revolution broke out, General Antonio Luna invited him to join the editorial staff of La Independencia, the organ of the revolution. Thus, he fought for the Filipino cause with his pen. Died in Manila June 12, 1929.

Felipe Agoncillo
(1859-1941)

Outstanding diplomat of the Philippine revolution. Born in Taal, Batangas, on May 26, 1859. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo appointed him as Minister Plenipotentiary to the peace conference in Washington and Paris. Died on September 29, 1941, at the Manila Doctor's Hospital.

Juan Luna
(1857-1899)

A genius of the brush and a patriot of the highest order. Creator of the world-famous painting, SPOLARIUM, which was awarded the gold medal in the Exposicion Nacional de Bellas Artes in Madrid in 1884. It is also known as the greatest painting of all times. Born in Badoc, Ilocos, Norte, on October 23, 1857. He was closely associated with the Reform Movement, together with Rizal, Lopez-Jaena, Ponce, etc. He died in Hongkong on December 7, 1899.

Rafael Palma
(1874-1939)

Orator, statesman, scholar, educator, and writer. Born in Tondo, Manila, on October 24, 1874. He was involved in the propaganda campaign against the Spaniards. He cofounded with Gen. Antonio Luna the revolutionary newspaper, La Independencia. Later, he also founded El Nuevo Dia, Cebu's first daily. Died in Manila on May 24, 1939.

Marcelo H. Del Pilar
(1850-1896)

Political analyst of the Filipino colony in Spain. Born in Kupang, Bulacan, Bulacan, on August 30, 1850. In 1882, he founded the nationalistic newspaper, Diariong Tagalog. In December 1889, he became the editor of La Solidaridad and became the moving spirit behind the propaganda movement. Died on July 4, 1896.

Pedro Paterno
(1858-1911)

Statesman, poet, writer, and peacemaker. Born in Manila on February 27, 1858. He was the negotiator/mediator of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. He helped prepare the Malolos constitution. Died on April 26, 1911.

Leona Florentino
(1849-1884)

First poetess of the Philippines. Born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, on April 19, 1849. Her poems were given international recognition at the Exposicion in Madrid in 1887 and in Paris in 1889. Died on October 4, 1884.
Artemio Ricarte
(1866-1945)

The unconquerable hero of the revolution. Born in Batac, Ilocos Norte, on October 20, 1866. Known as Viborra, he was a gentle public school teacher who became a dashing revolutionary general. Died in the jungles of Sierra Madre on July 31, 1945.

Isabelo delos Reyes
(1864-1938)

Last of the propagandists. Gifted son of Leona Florentino, first poetess of the Philippines. Born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, on July 7, 1864. He aroused the hostility of the friars and government officials when he openly criticized the evils of the Spanish rule and he advocated reforms. He was the founder of the first Philippine labor union, as well as the first independent Filipino Catholic church. Died on October 9, 1938.

Jose Palma
(1876-1903)

Poet and soldier. Born in Tondo, Manila, on June 3, 1876. Younger brother of Dr. Rafael Palma. He was a staff member of La Independencia. He wrote Filipinas, a patriotic poem in Spanish, which became the lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem. Died in Manila, on February 12, 1903.

Rajah Lakandola
( -1575)

One of the most illustrious ancient Filipinos. Chief of Tondo, when Legazpi came to Manila in 1571. He became a Christian and took the name of Carlos, after the king of Spain. He made the blood compact with Goiti. He fought alongside the Spaniards against the Chinese pirate, Limahong. Died in 1575.

Rajah Soliman
( -1571)

The last rajah of Manila, noted for his daring and bravery. Nephew of Rajah Lakandola. Of all of the early rulers of Manila, he was feared most by the Spaniards. He was killed on June 3, 1571, in the Battle of Bangkusay.

Leonor Rivera
(1867-1893)

Cousin and fiancee of Jose Rizal. She was the Maria Clara in Rizal's Noli Me Tangere.

Marcela MariƱo Agoncillo
(1859-1946)

Maker of the first Philippine flag. Born in Taal, Batangas, on June 24, 1859. Married to Felipe Agoncillo. She labored to make the Filipino flag in Hong Kong with the help of Delfina Herbosa de Natividad, a niece of Rizal. Died on May 30, 1946 in Taal, Batangas.

Galicano Apacible


One of the founders of La Solidaridad.

Jose Ma. Panganiban
(1863-1890)

Avenger of Filipino honor. Born in Mambulao, Camarines Norte, on February 1, 1863. A good friend and co-worker of Rizal. He was Bicolandia's greatest contribution to the historic campaign for reforms, more popularly called the Propaganda Movement. He wrote articles for La Solidaridad, under the pen names Jomapa and J.M.P. Died in Barcelona, Spain, on August 19, 1890.
Diego Silang
(1730-1763)

He led the revolt of the Ilocanos in opposition to the tribute and abuses of the Spanish officials. Born in Aringay, La Union, on December 16, 1730. The revolt started in Vigan, Ilocos Sur. He was killed by Miguel Vicos, a Spanish mestizo who bore grievances against Diego Silang.

Maria Josefa Gabriela Silang


After the death of Diego Silang on May 28, 1763, the fight was carried on by his wife, MARIA JOSEFA GABRIELA SILANG, and his uncle, Nicolas Cari&ntildeo. She too lost her life for freedom's sake on September 30, 1763.

Lapu-Lapu
(c. 16th century)

Chief of Mactan who led the first successful Filipino armed resistance against Spanish aggression. He fought and killed Magellan in a battle in Mactan, on April 27, 1521.


Francisco Baltazar
(1788-1862)

More popularly known as Balagtas, he is considered the prince of Tagalog poets. Born in Panginay, Bigaa, Bulacan, on April 2, 1788. He wrote Florante at Laura, a masterpiece of local versification, upholding moral and social values; it served as the basic foundation of the Philippine literature. Died in Orion, Bataan, on February 20, 1862.

Epifanio delos Santos
(1871-1928)

Lawyer, journalist, historian, philosopher, bibliographer, biographer, painter, poet, musician, literary critic, antique collector, and librarian. Born in Malabon, Rizal, on April 7, 1871. Died on April 28, 1928, in Manila.

Francisco Dagohoy
(c. Mid-18th century)

He led the longest revolt in Bohol against the Spaniards. The immediate cause of the revolt was the refusal of a Jesuit priest to give a Christian burial to Dagohoy's brother. The Spaniards needed 85 years before they were able to suppress the rebellion. It was only in 1829 that they finally succeeded in bringing to end the revolt started by Dagohoy.

Teresa Magbanua
(1871-1947)

The first woman in Panay to fight in the Philippine revolution. Known as the Visayan Joan of Arc. Born in Pototan, Iloilo, on November 4, 1871. Died in August 1947.

Trinidad Tecson
(1848-1928)

Mother of Biak-na-Bato. Born in San Miguel, Bulacan, on November 18, 1848. Even though women-members of the Katipunan were exempted from the pact, she participated in Sanduguan(blood compact). She fought fearlessly in 12 bloody battles of the revolution in Bulacan, including the famous Battle of Biak-na-Bato. Later, she became known as The Mother of the Philippine Red Cross. Died on June 28, 1928.

Agueda Esteban


Katipunan member who later married Artemio Ricarte. She commuted from Cavite to Manila to buy saltpeter, lead, and copper which where used to make ammunitions. She also carried secret messages about the planned offensives against the Spanish posts.

Julian Felipe
(1861-1941)

Composer of the Philippine National Anthem. Born in Cavite City on January 28, 1861. A dedicated music teacher and composer, he was appointed by Aguinaldo as Director of the National Band of the Philippine Republic. Died in Manila on October 2, 1941.

Marina Dizon
(1875-1950)

Daughter of a Katipunan leader in Cavite, who was one of the Trece Martirez, executed by the Spanish officials in 1896. Born in Trozo, Manila, on July 18, 1875. She joined the Katipunan in July 1893, one of the first women to have done so. She also kept important documents of the Katipunan. Died on October 25, 1950.

General Francisco Makabulos
(1871-1922)

Leader of the revolt in Tarlac. Born in La Paz, Tarlac, on September 17, 1871. He was the first patriot in Tarlac, who joined the Katipunan. General Aguinaldo appointed him as one of the brigadier generals of the Central Luzon area. He established the Central Executive Committee, which had a constitution called the Constitution of Makabulos. Died in La Paz, Tarlac, on April 30, 1922.

Father Jacinto Zamora
(1835-1872)




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