Sawirus Ibn Muqaffa`, History of the Church part 12

HISTORY OF THE PATRIARCHS OF THE EGYPTIAN CHURCH

KNOWN AS THE HISTORY OF THE HOLY CHURCH

VOLUME IV. PART II

CYRIL III, IBN LAKLAK
(1216-1243 A.D.)

(Part 2)


PUBLICATIONS DE LA SOCIETE D'ARCHEOLOGIE COPTE
TEXTES ET DOCUMENTS XV

HISTORY OF THE PATRIARCHS OF THE EGYPTIAN CHURCH
KNOWN AS THE HISTORY OF THE HOLY CHURCH
ACCORDING TO
MS. ARABE 302 BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE, PARIS FOLL. 287v° ---- 355r°

VOLUME IV. PART II

CYRIL III, IBN LAKLAK
(1216-1243 A.D.)

 TRANSLATED AND ANNOTATED

BY

ANTOINE KHATER              O.H.E. KHS-BURMESTER

LL. D., PARIS                        PH. D., CANTAB.

LE CAIRE ---- IMPRIMERIE DE L'lNSTITUT FRANCAIS D'ARCHEOLOGIE ORIENTALE.


And there was among the rights of the mentioned storey a terrace at the side of the prayer-house (al-Masğid), and it was exposed to the prayer-house (al-Masğid). And the patriarch wished to make a covering over it, and the mentioned muezzin (al-Mu'adhdhin) forbade him. And when it (the covering) was made, he (the muezzin) went up (and) he demolished it and he removed (it), and they did not remain on good terms. And it happened that the patriarch went out to Miniat Surad(2) to celebrate at it the feast of the Mistress (3) on the twenty-first day of (the month of) Tubah And the mentioned storey was unoccupied, and, in the morning, he who had with him the keys of the cell (κελλίον), went up to it, and he found the doors were locked from the outside (and) secure, but the upper door had been broken, and another place had been broken through, and the door of the wardrobe was deprived of its panel, and there was there much raiment. And the patriarch came and he did not find missing (anything), save a silver paten and a silver cross in which was a piece of the True Cross (5); and all the raiment was safe, and it had value. And the door-keepers came, and they testified that this breaking through (6) was not made, except from the side of the prayer-house (al-Masğid), and they informed the governor (al-Wali) about this. And he (the governor) took the muezzin (al-Mu'adhdhin) and he

(2) This place was in the district of Cairo and had a celebrated church dedicated to the All-Holy Virgin Mary. It is mentioned by Al-Makrizi, cf. B.T.A. Evetts, The Churches and Monasteries of Egypt, p. 3A5. This may be the modern town Musturud which is 3 km. west of Al-Matariah, where there is a celebrated church dedicated to the All-Holy Virgin, cf. O.F.A. Meinardus, Christian Egypt Ancient and Modern, 1st ed., pp. 176-177.

(3) I.e. the All-Holy Virgin Mary.

(4) = January 16th, Julian Style. This day is the Feast of the Falling-asleep of the All-Holy Virgin, and it is distinct from the Feast of her Assumption on Masri 16th August 9th, Julian Style.

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imprisoned him; and intercession came from some of the notables of the Muslims (al-Muslimin) to the patriarch on his account, but he (the patriarch) refused to have him brought out. And the muezzins (al-Mu'adhdhinun) of the old mosque (al-Ğama`) at Cairo (Misr) banded together and they (were) a great multitude. And they began to gather in groups and to come to the mentioned prayer-house (al-Masğid), and they called to prayer altogether, so that the quarter was troubled by them, and complaint of their action was made to the judge Ğamal ad-Din [I]bn al-Mathli, the possessor of the Diwan of Imprisonment (al-Ahbas). And he ordered that no (one) should call to prayer in the prayer-house (al-Masğid), except one muezzin (Mu'adhdhin), and the affair resulted in the closing of the mentioned prayer-house (al-Masğid). And the common Muslims (al-Muslimun) gathered together, and they came in an innumerable crowd to the door of the prayer-house (al-Masğid), and they broke the locks which were on it, and they ascended to the minaret, and they shouted for assistance(1) and they jabbered; and there assembled at the door of the Church Al-Mu`allakah a crowd not to be counted, and the souls of the faithful were afraid. And it was the first Sunday of Lent, and the patriarch was vested, and he was at the Divine Liturgy (al-Kuddas), and he celebrated the Liturgy (Kuddas) of Cyril (Kirullus) (4) and the governor came, and he sent away the people, and the affair ended well. And the majority of the crowd went to the Amir Ğamal ad-Din [IJbn Yaghmur, the representative of the Sultan, and they complained to him and they said: «O our Sire, the prayer-houses (al-Masağid) are closed, and the churches are open!» And he said: «This conversation is not to be heard, but all must be open; and he who desires the prayer-house (al-Masğid), let him go up to it, and he who desires the church, let him go up to it, only none should be harmed

(1) I.e. from God.

(4) Cf. E.F. Brightman, Liturgies Eastern and Western, pp. 144-188. This Liturgy, though extremely rarely celebrated nowadays, is used especially in Lent.

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and no one should oppose another ---- these are subject(s) of the Sultan and you know (it), and if this prayer-house (al-Masğid) is poor, I will support it, only violation by anyone of another's rights is not permitted». And the Muslims (al-Muslimun) went away and they gathered among them something and they whitened the prayer-house (al-Masğid), and they made at it a stone-bench (Mastabah) and they whitened it, and nothing happened from them except good. And the Christians (an-Nasara), during all this period, were (living) with the Muslims (al-Muslimin) in great equity and considerable respect and. common good-feeling, and may God ---- praised be He! ---- preserve their days and make victorious their Sultan, and he in our Sultan, and their Imam, and he is our shepherd. And after this, the father, the patriarch turned to the Monastery of Abba (Abu) Macarius (Makar) (2) in the sixth week of the Holy Lent, and with him a body of the bishops of Lower Egypt (al-Wağh al-Bahart), and of the priests and of the deacons, and a great multitude. And he (the patriarch) had obtained release by the Sultan Al-Malik al-`Adil, of some of the ointment of balsam(4), and he (the Sultan) commanded it for him. And he (the patriarch) took it with him, and he went to the Monastery, and he celebrated the Divine Liturgy on Maundy Thursday according to the rule and the custom. And there was with him a great company of the priests of Cairo (al-Kahirah) and Cairo (Misr), and the districts. And he wished to appease their hearts by consecrating them (the Holy Oils) in the Sanctuary of

(1) I.e. some money.

(2) Cf. O.F.A. Meinardus, Monks and Monasteries of the Egyptian Deserts, pp. 160-210 and O.H.E. KHS-Burmester, A Guide to the Monasteries of the Wadi 'n-Natrun, pp. 28-40.

(4) For the balsam-trees which once grew at Al-Matariah (Cairo), cf. O.F.A. Meinardus, In the Steps of the Holy Family, Cairo, 1963, pp. 8 and 32-35. balsam is one of the essential ingredients in the preparation of the Chrism, cf. Arn, van Lantschoot, 'Le MS. Vatican Copte 44et le Livre du Chreme (ms. Paris arabe 100)', in Le Museon, t. XLV, pp. 181-234.

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Benjamin (Banyamin)(1). But the monks became enraged at this, and they came with the crutches (2) and they broke some of the lamps (κανδήλιον) of the church, but the patriarch did not pay any attention to them, and he completed his work, and he went out to his cell (κελλίον) in which he passed the night. And when it was morning, he prayed in it (the cell) the Prayer of the First Hour of Good Friday. And when the monks had assembled and had come to him, they made an obeisance (μετάνοια) to him, and they besought that he should forgive to them their error, and they submitted to every condition (he might lay) upon them, and they had habits from which he removed them. And he came to the church, and he rejoiced, and he accomplished the Feast (4), and he ordained him who wished to be ordained, only the ordination (fee) was a necessity on account of what remained of the sum owing to the Sultan. Then he (the patriarch) turned to the port of Alexandria, and he stayed at it for a time, and there occurred for him in it what had occurred in the Monastery with its priests. Then they returned to obedience and to what was agreed on by the group. And this patriarch had strength of soul and patience and forbearance, and he did not pay attention to anything of what occurred. Then he returned to Cairo (Misr), after he had passed through the towns of (the Province of) Al-Gharbiah, and most of Lower Egypt (al-Wağh al-Bahari), and had visited its churches. And the Sultan ---- may his victory be empowered! ---- was staying in Syria (aš-Šam). And the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani, the monk, (was) with

(l) For the Sanctuary of Benjamin at the Monastery of Saint Macarius, cf. H.G. Evelyn White, The Monasteries of the Wadi 'n-Natrun, vol. II, pp. 300-301 and vol. IIII, pp. 41-45, and O.H.E. KHS-Burmesteu, The Egyptian or Coptic Church, pp. 220-234.

(2) These are placed under the arm by the monks to obtain support during the long hours of the Office.

(4) Le. Easter.

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them (1) at the Church of Abba (Abu) Sergius (Sarğah) in Cairo (Misr), and he used not to obey the patriarch nor to assemble with him nor to agree to anything of his works. And the patriarch used not to come to the mentioned church, and there was nothing in it for him, except the mention of his name in the Divine Liturgies and the Prayers and nothing-else. And he (As-Sani) used to say: «If it were not for the order of the Sultan, I would forbid him who mentions his name in this church (to do so), because this one is not a patriarch, but he is a lessee of the patriarchate from the Sultan, and the Sultan is not to be opposed», and he used to mention things by which he criticized adversely and menaced (the patriarch). And in these days, he (the Sultan) ordered to be dug the side of the river, at the bank, that he might lay in it the foundations of the wall which he had ordered to be built at Cairo (Misr) and Cairo (al-Kahirah). And he sent to the patriarch, and he ordered him that he should bring his companions and dig with the people. And he set apart for him a place amounting in length to one hundred cubits for the depth of the foundations. And all the people had come, the amirs and the notables and the governors (al-Wulat) and the rest of the people; and (as regards) the Jews (al-Yahud), they brought them out with the bringing out of the Christians (an-Nasara). And the people became ashamed, and they came from every place, and they dug, and they remained thus nearly a month; then they finished the work and they rested. And the patriarch used to provide for them with regard to what they ate and they drank; and he ceased taking simony (xeirotoni/a),or it was little and rarely. And the prices decreased and things were to be found, and safety was general in the lands. And as for the elder (aš-Šaikh) Niš al-Khilafat Abu (Aba) 'l-Fatuh, (it was) that the patriarch had gone to his dwelling at night and had passed the night with him, and this had made an impression on him, and he became neither a friend

(1) I.e. the group which was opposed to the patriarch Cyril III.

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nor an enemy, but he remained aside, except that he multiplied visits to the church of Abba (Abu) Sergius (Sarğah) and to meetings with the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani, the monk. And the patriarch had forbidden that a monk should reside in a city or in the Rif (2), except during the days of harvesting, not otherwise; and the conditions continued thus. Then the news arrived that the troops of the Rum (ar-Rum) (3) had gone out and had come to Harran (Harran) (4) and (that) they had burned the hostel which (was) on its outskirts, and (that) they had taken captives and had pillaged; and (that) they had returned and had descended at Amid (5) (and) had besieged it. And the blessed water (of the Nile) increased, and the people were assured thereby. And the command of the Sultan came to bring out the troops, and there were not present of them, except a few of the soldiers and some amirs, since all were in the service of the Sultan at Damascus (Dimašk)(6). And they were equipped, and they went out marching in succession in tens and fifteens, and more or less, and they were weak, (and) they had nothing (to eat) through the deficiency of their bakeries. And the price of cereals diminished, and the situation continued thus. And there entered the year nine hundred and fifty-three (7), and the blessed Nile (an-Nil) reached to eighteen cubits and eight fingers, and the prices decreased and good things were found in abundance. Then (it was) that a group of the archons (ἄρχων) assembled, and they went up to the father, the patriarch, at the Church Al-Mu`allakah, and they said to him: «Until when will you do these things by which you have made us an opprobrium among the nations and the peoples?». He said to them: «What are these (things)?»

(2) Cf. O.H.E. KHS-Buhmesteb, 'The Rif of Egypt', in Orientalia, vol. VIII, fasc. 1-2, pp. 96-119.

(3) I.e. the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum in Asia Minor.

(4) Cf. P.K. Hitti, History of Syria, map on page 165.

(5) Cf. R. Grousset, L'Empire du Levant, Carte 7.

(6) Cf. B. Meistermann, Guide de Terre Sainte, pp. 578-597.

(7) I.e. 953 A.M.= 1237 A.D.

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They said to him: «Your taking simony for the priesthood. And he said: «We have to acquit the money of the Sultan». And they said to him: «And what compelled you to be under obligation for the money to the Sultan?» He said: «(It was) you who decided the money for the king». They said: «It was not specified for you to incur it, nor what the patriarchate forced upon you, but you did exert yourself for it, and you did solicit it, and up to to-day you have striven for it twenty years, and you have ruined our Church». He said: «I have not ruined your Church, but I have built it up; and there did not remain in it a bishop, and there are in it to-day fifty bishops, and of priests, their number is not to be counted». And the conversation increased, and decreased between them, (and) the end of the affair (was) that he (the patriarch) swore that the sum which (was due) to the Sultan had not been paid off till now, and that there remained of it up to that hour three hundred dinars. They said to him: «And other bishops take simony». He said: «And who approves of this for the bishops? By God, it has not reached me that any bishop has taken simony, and these my letters go through the land to this (effect)». They said: «And you ordain the children of a second (marriage)». He said: «Show me a canon (kanw/n)in which they are excluded from the priesthood». They said: «(It is) the custom of our church and what is followed by the tradition of our fathers». He said: «I am in agreement with you about this, that it is a custom for you, not a divine law or a legislation». They said: «And we desire letters (to be sent) to the two districts, the southern and the northern (5) to forbid simonyand to stop the ordination of children of a wife of a second husband». He said: «I will write them and will send them to you». And the council separated without anything (having been done), and he (the patriarch)

(4) In the Coptic Church the children of a second marriage are excluded from ordination.

(5) I.e. Upper and Lower Egypt.

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did not write the letters, and he did not do anything. Then sickness befell the people and death, as in the Tax (year) (1), and more severe, and this continued, and many people died, and the patriarch became seriously sick and he drew nigh in it (the sickness) unto death, and God granted to him health. Then (it was) that the Sultan ----may God empower his victory! ---- returned from his journey to Cairo (al-Kahirah) the protected on the twenty-second of (the month of) Kihak (2), triumphantly supported, and he went out to the port of Damietta (Dumyat) the protected on the twentieth of (the month of) Amšir at which he stayed for a time. Then he transferred to the port of Alexandria, and he remained at it for a while, and it was his purpose to remain at it for a long time, because it is nice in summer, (and) he had arranged in it a house, the like of which not one of the kings had seen; but an affair occurred, and it compelled him to depart from it and to come to Cairo (al-Kahirah) the protected. And it was that his brother Al-Malik al-Ašraf, Possessor of Damascus (Dimašk) and Sinğar (Sinğar) (6), changed his heart (towards him) and hatred occurred between them, and he (Al-Malik al-Kamil) returned to arrange this affair. And a messenger of the Caliph (al-Khalifat) had arrived from Baghdad (Baghdad), and he was a jurisconsult of its notables, and he came to the Sultan to Damietta (Dumyat). And he assembled with him with the object of making peace with the King of the Rum (9) between both of whom there was warfare. And the Sultan sent with him a messenger on his behalf, and they both journeyed until

(1) Cf. P. Casanova, 'Makrizi: Description Historique et Topographique de l'Egypte, chapter entitled «Concordance de l'Annee Kharadji (Fiscale) des Coptes avec l'Annee Hilali (Lunaire) des Arabes», in Mem. Inst. Franc. Arch. Orient. du Caire, t. III, pp. 66-101.

(2) = December 18th, Julian Style.

(4) = February 14th, Julian Style.

(6) For Sinğar, cf. S. Lane-Poole, Saladin, p. 165. 

(9) This would be Kay-Kubad, Seljuk Sultan of Rum (Asia Minor), cf. S. Lane-Poole, A History of Egypt, p. 229.

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they reached Caesarea (Kaisariah) (1) and it is the seat (2) of the kingdom of the Rum (3) for the Muslims (al-Muslimin). And it happened on their arrival, that the mentioned King of the Rum (ar-Rum) (4) died, and they did not assemble with him, and there sat on his throne his son, and he set free the captives who were with him of the troops of Egypt (Misr) and Syria (aš-Šam) whom his father had taken captive at the mentioned time. Then (it was) that our Sire, the Sultan ---- may God empower his victory! ---- released the captives who were with him, all of whom he had taken from the fortresses which he had taken back from the Rum (ar-Rum). And the news was confirmed about the opposition of Al-Malik al-Ašraf to our Sire, the Sultan, and there agreed with him on this the Possessor of Emesa (Hims) and the Possessor of Hamah (Hamah) and the majority of the kings of the East to the extent that he (Al-Malik al-Ašraf) expelled his (the Sultan's) representatives who were at Damascus (Dimašk), and he took his stores which were in it and the stores of the son of his brother Al-Malik an-Nasir, the Possessor of Le Crac de Moab (al-Karak), because he was under obedience to the Sultan Al-Malik al-Kamil; and he (the nephew) came to serve him in Cairo (al-Kahirah) the protected on Friday, the second of (the month of) Abib (9) of this year. And the day of his passing through was a remarkable day, because the two cities (10) were decorated, and the walls from the Bab an-Nasr up to the Citadel the protected. And every amir took

(1) In Cappadocia. 

(2) I.e. the capital.

(3) This would be Kay-Kubad, Seljuk Sultan of Rum (Asia Minor), cf. S. Lane-Poole, A History of Egypt, p. 229.

(4) I.e. the Seljuk Sultan of Rum (Asia Minor).

(9) = June 26th, Julian Style. 

(10) I.e. Cairo (al-Kahirah) and Cairo (Misr).

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a tower and two or three curtains, and among them (were) those who took two towers according to their ability, and they decorated them with their equipment and their banners and their weapons and wonderful pictures and strange machines. And everyone was wishing to excel the other, and it was an admirable, wonderful affair. And as for the Citadel no one decorated it, except the Sultan and his attendants and his servants who were dwelling (there). And the enclosure of the church of the Island (2) had fallen down, and the river had taken away the garden which it had and some of the chapels of the upper part, and there was fear for the mosque (al-Ğama`) which was at it, and it is the Nilometer (al-Mikyas) And the order of the Sultan went out to the governor (al-Wali) of Cairo (Misr) that he should authorize the patriarch to build them. And he descended at them and he provided for them and (re-)built them. And it was said that he spent on them a thousand dinars, and their building (was) by his (the patriarch's) order; (and) a hall at the river with windows, and (it was made) with great eagerness, (and) we shall not see better than it. And he (the patriarch) celebrated the Divine Liturgy at it (the church), and he sat on the synthronus (σύνθρονος) and there was read on it the Prologus (πρόλογος) and he took it (the church) from the bishop of Gizah (al-Ğizah), and it became the patriarchate, and he resided at it. And, likewise, the monasteries in all the lands of Egypt (al-Misriyat), he made them all patriarchal, and he did not give to a bishop jurisdiction, except in the churches of the cities alone. Then (it was) that he consecrated a metropolitan (Mutran) for

(2) I.e. the Island of Rodah.

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Jerusalem, and the Littoral and Syria (aš-Šam) up to the districts of the Euphrates (al-Furat), and he despatched him thither. And some of the archons resented this, and they said: «This is what is not allowed, because these lands belong to the Throne of Antioch (Antakiah), and the two Sees(3) (are) one, and there will occur through this a division and it will not conform to custom». And the patriarch did not pay heed, but he consecrated him, and he gave to him jurisdiction in all those lands, even in the lands of the Franks (al-Afranğ), and he sent him. And when it was the Feast of the Holy Resurrection (6), Abba (Anba) Ignatius (Aghnalius), Patriarch of the Syrians (as-Suryan) (7), arrived at Jerusalem and the Catholicos, Patriarch of the Armenians (al-Arman). And when this news arrived, the patriarch(9) prepared for the Patriarch of the Syrians (as-Suryan) a gift of Egypt (Misr), and he sent with it the Bishop of Al-Khandak and one of the priests of Egypt (Misr). And when they reached Jerusalem the news came to the Patriarch of their arrival and he went out to meet them with gospels and censers and crosses, and he received them with him. And the Bishop of Al-Khandak went to the Patriarch of the Syrians (as-Suryan), (and) he assembled with him and he greeted him, and he gave to him the letter of the father, the patriarch (9), and his present. And it was aloe-wood incense and two hand-towels (μανδήλιον) and an ebony staff. And he kissed them, and he drew nigh to them (13), and he said to them: «The father, the patriarch

(3) I.e. the Monophysite Sees of Antioch and Jerusalem. 

(6) I.e. Easter.

(7) I.e. Ignatius II, Patriarch of Antioch, 1222-1253 A.D.

(9) I.e. the Patriarch Cyril III. 

(13) I.e. the bishop of Al-Khandak and the priest.

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Abba (Anba) Cyril (Kirullus), (is) my brother, but this devil (1) has cast (dissension) between us and he has divided the Church, and he has nothing to do with me», meaning the metropolitan (al-Mutran). And they departed from him, and he sent to them, and he asked them to lodge with him. And the bishop refused, and he said: «I am staying with the metropolitan (al-Mutran), and I am unable to depart from him, except with his permission». And the Patriarch of the Syrians (as-Suryan) was angered at this, and he returned the gift, and he interdicted the metropolitan (al-Mutran), and he did not see the bishop again face to face. And as for the metropolitan (al-Mutran), (it was) that he sought help from the Franks (al-Afranğ), and he made friends with a group of them, and he ministered in the churches of the Copts (al-Kibt), he and his people. And it was said that the Franks (al-Afranğ) obtained his signature that his confession (was) their confession and his creed (was) their creed, and that this was a custom for them, that no one of the races should minister except after this. And the Bishop of Al-Khandakand those who were with him separated themselves (from him) on bad terms. Then (it was) that the Sultan ---- may his victory be empowered! ---- equipped the troops in succession, and he began to send out troops and to follow them with others. And, in these days, news arrived that the Tartars (at-Talar) had descended upon Arbela (Irbil) and had taken it by the sword; and it is said that they slew in its mosque (Ğama`) seventy thousand souls, but the fortress remained impregnable for them. And they marched to the Possessor of Mosul (al-Mausil)and its possessor yielded to them, and he bore to them the ransom and supplies and provisions, because between them there was a distance of not less than a day. And the news from the East and the West indicated that conditions were confused. And the blessed Nile (an-Nil), came up to its

(1) I.e. the metropolitan consecrated by the patriarch Cyril III.

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measure, in this year, in the daytime of Thursday, the thirteenth of (the month of) Misra (1), and it was the Feast of the Transfiguration on Mount Thabor (Tur Thabur)(2). And it was an early Nile (an-Nil), and its increase came in succession, and prices were cheap and things were to be found and (they were) cheap to an extreme, and the people (were) in great prosperity with abundant good things. Then the year nine hundred and fifty-four (3) entered, and the water increased until it reached twenty-three fingers above ninteen cubits. And it was, when it reached eighteen fingers above nineteen cubits, (that) the Sultan ---- may his victory be empowered! ---- ordered that it (the news) should not be proclaimed, but individuals knew this from the reports which were sent to the Sultan every day. And the news arrived from Damascus (Dimašk) that Al-Malik al-Ašraf had died, but this was not authenticated until they came to offer condolence for him, and there was made for him a repast in his memory, and the affair was noised abroad. Then (it was) that `Imad ar-Rahib al-Miršad who was the cause for the consecration of the patriarch (8) and had become an enemy to him, when he dismissed him, assembled with a person called Al-Asa`d [A]bu 'l-Karam, the grandson of the sister of the late patriarch (10). And this patriarch had chosen him, and had made him his confident, and all what he (11) used to receive (was) through his (12) hand, and he acknowledged before the assembly several times that (he was) satisfied with his(12) words, and that all what he had received (was) through his (12) hand, and that there

(1) = August 6th, Julian Style.

(2) The traditional site of the Transfiguration of Our Lord, cf. B. Meistermann, Guide de Terre Sainte, pp. 510-518. 

(3) I.e. 954 A.M. = 1237 AD. 

(8) I.e. Cyril III. 

(10) I.e. John VI, 1189-1216 A.D. 

(11) I.e. Cyril III. 

(12) I.e. Al-Asa`d Abu 'l-Karam.

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remained owing by the patriarch three hundred gold dinars. And Al-Asa`d was informed of this and a quarrel occurred between the patriarch and him on account of a matter (which is) not known. And he agreed with this monk, and he made detailed lists, with the names of those from whom the patriarch had taken simonyand other than it through his (Al-Asa`d's) own hand during the period of his companionship with him up till he separated from him; (and) they (the lists) included (a statement of) nine thousand and two hundred dinars. And both of them took them (the lists), and they went up with them to the Citadel, and there were copies (of them). And the amir Nur ad-Din [I]bn al-Amir Fakhr ad-Din Uthman, the equerry of the House, received a copy and the judge Al-Asa`d al-Faizi, the wazir, received a copy. And both of them sent to bring the patriarch into the presence of Ar-Rahib and Al-Asa`d, and they set them face to face. And the matter was agreed on that the patriarch should arrange (to pay) a thousand dinars to the prosperous Treasury. And while he was arranging (to pay) it, (it happened that) there was a man, a goldsmith, known as Baha, and he was of the companions of the patriarch, and he (it was) who used to serve him and give hospitality to him in the days when he was a layman; and he had a shop in the Bazaar of the Goldsmiths in Cairo (al-Kahirah). And it happened that a slave stole from the Citadel gold, and he went down with it to the shop of this Baha, and he delivered it to him, and he received for it a sum (of money). Then (it was) that this mentioned goldsmith dealt with some of the gold and melted it down. And when it was known in these days about the slave that he had received the money, he was seized and he was beaten and he was put to the torture, and he confessed with regard to the mentioned Baha. And he (Baha) was taken, and he was put under surety, and he was dishonoured thereby, and the greater part of the gold was recovered from him; and he lost all what he had possessed, as a compensation for what was missing

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of it. Then, after that, they returned to the patriarch with the demand (1), and they said: «This (2) (was) your companion and you knew of that (3) and did approve (of it)». And the end of the matter (was) that they imposed on him five hundred dinars more. And it resulted (that) there was claimed from him one thousand, five hundred dinars, and he paid them off. And as for Baha, he remained under arrest for some days, until he should pay off what was claimed from him, so that (it was) that he, the wretched man reached the condition that he sought (money) from the people. And after that, when it was known that there did not remain to him anything, he was cast into the dungeon; and as for the slave, his hand was cut off. Then (it was) that our Sire, the Sultan, departed from Cairo (al-Kahirah), going towards Damascus (Dimašk), on Thursday, the eighteenth of (the month of) Babah (6) in this year, and he reached it, and he descended at it, and he besieged it, and the fighting was fierce for it from within and from without for some days. And the messenger of the Caliph (al-Khalifat) was a man called Ibn al-Guzi, and he mediated between the Sultan and (7) his brother who was in it (8), and he was Al-Malik as-Salih Ghazi. And they became reconciled on the condition that he (the Sultan) should give to Al-Malik (as-Salih Ghazi) together with Busra, his fortress which he had at Ba`albek (Ba`alabakk), and other lands. And he delivered up to the Sultan Al-Malik al-Kamil the city of Damascus (Dimašk) and he passed over to it in the daytime of Wednesday, the fourth of (the month of)

(1) I.e. for the thousand dinars.

(2) I.e. Baha.

(3) I.e. the theft.

(6) = October 15th, Julian Style. 

(8) I.e. Damascus.

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Kihal (1) and Emesa (Hims) and Aleppo (Halab) did not enter into the oath. And sickness again spread among the people, as in previous years, and many people died. And the Sultan resided at Damascus (Dimašk), and his power became great, and he resolved to go out to take Aleppo (Halab), and he equipped the troops for this, and he fell sick in the meanwhile, and he died on the eve of Thursday (7) the fifteenth of (the month of) Baramhat (8) which corresponded to the twenty-fourth of (the month of) Ragab exactly of the year six hundred and thirty-five (10). And the period of his sojourn at Damascus (Dimašk) was one hundred and one days. And the ministers were in charge of his affair and not one of his kinsfolk nor his associates of the amirs passed to him, and he did not bequeath anything. And they kept secret the matter of his death, and they feigned that he was sick, and that he had ordered that the amirs should swear allegiance to his son, and that the Sultanate (should be) for him after him. And he was the youngest son(11) who (was) in Egypt (Misr), and they all swore. And when their (swearing) allegiance was finished, they divulged the news of his death, and some of them repented. And he who did not swear allegiance, did not swear allegiance, and he was Al-Malik an-Nasir Ibn al-Mu`azzam who had been Possessor of Damascus (Dimašk), whom the sultan had caused to ride in Cairo (al-Kahirah) (in) the retinue of the Sultanate, (as) a commander (Atabak). And this (was) his son to whom allegiance had been given, and whom he (Al-Malik al-Kamil) had caused to ride in Damascus (Dimašk) after

(1) ---- November 30th, Julian Style.

(7) I.e. Wednesday night.

(8) = April 10th, Julian Style.

(10) I.e. of the Hiğrah = 1237-1238 A.D. 

(11) I.e. Al-`Adil II, 1238-1240 A.D.

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its conquest, likewise; and this affair was painful for him (1). And the inhabitants of Damascus (Dimašk) loved him out of their loyalty to his father, but this did not avail anything. And the senior amirs and the ministers took Al-Malik al-Ğawad Muzzafar ad-Din [I]bn Mamdud [I]bn Abi Bakr [I]bn Aiyub, and he was the son of the brother of the deceased Sultan, and they delivered up to him Damascus (Dimašk), and they made him a commander (Atabak) of Al-Malik al-Adil, Possessor of Egypt (Misr), in it (3). And they delivered up to him the treasures, and he gave both robes of honour and gifts, and he allotted fiefs. And he was generous (and) of good character, and he gained the hearts of the amirs and the soldiers, and the people loved him, only there was dearness at Damascus (Dimašk). And it was (that), when the news of the death of the Sultan reached Egypt (Misr), and the people were assured of it, everyone sought corn, and he was sparing of it, and they imagined that afterwards there would occur a siege. And prices rose, until the ardab (of corn) reached thirty dirhams, and barley, eighteen dirhams, and beans (al-Ful) like it. And the sale of corn was completely forbidden, except to the millers, according to the quantity of their grain. And the people remained in affliction, and wheat was not obtainable nor bread, and at every shop there was a crowd, so that no one was able to pass to it. And the bodyguards of the governors (al-Wulat) (were) at the shops of the bakers, and bread was not sold to anyone, except by ration, and this continued for the space of a week, until the corn was released for the people, (and) they bought it, and it became cheap; and imported merchandise multiplied, and the people were tranquillized from what they had been. And the patriarch had turned to Alexandria during Lent, some days before the arrival of this news. And after this, the troops from Syria (aš-Šam) arrived in succession, one after the other, and the treasures came with the ministers, after that Malik al-Ğawad

(1) I.e. Al-Malik an-Nasir. 

(3) I.e. Damascus.

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had taken from them what he needed. And the troops were completed in the lands of Egypt (al-Misriyah), and there did not remain at Damascus (Dimašk)except a few amirs whom Al-Malik al-Ğawad had chosen for his assistance and his attendance. And the Sultan Al-`Adil had caused to he brought the Bedouins (al-`Urban), in order to take from them oaths and fealty; and they had multiplied at Cairo (al-Kahirah) to such an extent that they were in it about two thousand horsemen, and the people were in dread of them until the troops arrived. And he (Al-`Adil) gave to them robes of honour and they swore and they departed. And he gave robes of honour to the amirs who arrived, and they arrived with the wealth, and engines of war in their divisions. And the people, after the death of the Sultan, detested the money and transactions with it, and in the two cities (3) there were two rates, a rate for the silver (dirhams) and a rate for the (paper) money, and this condition ended, that every paper dirham (was) at two dirhams (in) coinage, and the silver dirham (was) at six dirhams (in) coinage. And (some) of them (the people) were beaten and paraded ignominously, but they did not desist. Then, after this, they began to sell them (the dirhams) by the ratl at one paper dirham and a half paper dirham every ratl. And there occurred in the evening of Wednesday, the first of (the month of) Bau'unah (5), a great rain, the like of it had not been seen at such a time of the year, and it continued for a period of the night, and there was with it lightning and fearful thunder, and this was among all its wonders. Then (it was) that they returned to begin completing the construction of the wall at the two cities from the side of the river and the Canal, and they returned to force all the people to dig the foundations, from among the

(3) I.e. Cairo (al-Kahirah) and Cairo (Misr).

(5)= May 26th, Julian Style.

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Muslims (al-Muslimin) and the Christians (an-Nasara) and the Jews (al-Yahud). And they began to seize the priests who (were) in Cairo (al-Kahirah) and Cairo (Misr), those who (were) priests of the churches in it. And these wretched ones undertook to be either overseers or chiefs (of crews) of the fleet. And they used to take with them bodyguards from the overseers, and they used to come to the wretched owners of handicraftsmen and workers, and they caused them to go out to dig from early morning till night, and he who had a wage weighed out for himself (a sum of money) for the right of a substitute for the person who would dig for him according to what was stipulated for him, from three dirhams upwards. And there was a man, from the inhabitants of Tambadi, and he was an agent of the patriarch for the buildings of the inalienable endowments, and what was the worst for the Christians (an-Nasara) was because he excited the governors (al-Wulat) and the superintendents against them, so that he might cut off good relations with the Christians (an-Nasara), because he made it a livelihood. And the patriarch was absent, and the people (were) in affliction, and it fell on the lowly especially, because (as regards) the scribes and the notables, no one gainsaid them, and among them there was not he who had courage to help them (the lowly), nor he who had the power to deliver them, and they remained in this condition. And as for the Jews (al-Yahud) they formed a league, according to their custom, and their rich helped their poor, and he who was unable to dig provided a substitute for himself, and they achieved what was assigned to them and they devoted themselves to their works. And the elder (aš-Šaikh) as-Sani ar-Rahib, the aforementioned, was dismayed and pained by what had befallen the priests, and he did not find him who would support him nor him who would assist him, because he secluded himself at the Church of Abba (Abu) Sergius (Sarğah), and had left the services of the Sultan on account of Tahir Bey (Bek). And had he been employed, nothing of this would have

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happened, and he would have carried out (his) intention. Then (it was) that the monk `Imad al-Akhmimi who was the cause for the consecration of the patriarch, and it was he who had arranged with the Sultan for the three thousand dinars (to be paid) by the patriarchate, did not cease to seek pretexts, so that he might carry out the letter of the Sultan Al-Malik al-`Adil to the governor (Wali) of Alexandria to deliver up to him the patriarch, and to do with regard to him what the monk had said. And he carried out the letters from the notables of the State to the governor (Wall) of Al-Buhairah that he should despatch with him the bishop of Damanhur and the bishop of Fuah. And it was his purpose to prove against him (the patriarch) things (which) would necessitate excommunication with the presence of the two bishops. And the governor (al-Wali) did not permit him (to do) this, only that he should take with him mounted two sentries and two bodyguards with the letters which were with him, and he passed over to Fuah and Damanhur. He took the two bishops with him, and he entered the port (of Alexandria), and he delivered the letter to the governor (al-Wali), and the governor (al-Wali) commanded that the patriarch and his companions mentioned in the letters should be delivered up to him. And it was the night of Sunday (8), and the patriarch had finished the Prayer (9), and the people went out from the church, and the patriarch was borne to a storey at which he had descended (10). And he (the monk) took his companions (and) he committed them to the prison, and he purposed to make an assembly at the port (Alexandria), but he did not manage this, because the notables of the

(8) I.e. Saturday night.

(9) I.e. the Canonical Hours and the Service of the Evening Offering of Incense. 

(10) I.e. he lodged.

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city were friends of the patriarch. And they assembled with the governor (al-Wali), and they said: «The Sultan did not order, except with regard to his (the patriarch's) sending, (that) he should be sent to him, and he (the Sultan) will decide about him there». And he (the governor) took him (the patriarch), and he departed, and he caused to be taken out his (the patriarch's) companions in wooden fetters, and they were the scribe and the two disciples, and one of the two of them (had been) his slave whom he had made a monk and had ordained him a deacon at the Monastery of the Beacon (aš-Šama`). And he (the governor) arrived at Cairo (al-Kahirah) in the evening of Friday, towards the end of (the month of) Bau'unah (3). And the monk (`Imad al-Akhmimi) went up to the Citadel, and he announced that the patriarch had arrived. And he (the Sultan) ordered that he should be imprisoned, he and his companions, in the prison of the Citadel, and they passed that night in it. Then (it was) that a group of the controllers gathered on the next day, and it was Saturday, and they assembled with the amir As-Sarim, because he was the equerry of the House at that time; and they did not rest until they caused him (the patriarch) to be brought out from the prison, and they caused him to descend at the Church in the Harat Zuwailah at Cairo (al-Kahirah). And the monk (`Imad al-Akhmimi) came to As-Sarim, and he said to him: «The amir has been deceived, and this man (the patriarch) is sought for by the Sultan, bear him (to him)» (7). And he (the patriarch) sat, he and his companions, eating and drinking, and I went (8) to them, and they (the guardians) beat me and they vilified me. And As-Sarim sent to the governor (Wali) of Cairo (al-Kahirah) that he should take him (the patriarch) and should imprison

(3) = May 26th-June 24th, Julian Style.

(7) I.e. to the Sultan.

(8) I.e. the writer of this part of the biography.

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him. And the monk (`Imad al-Akhmimi) came from the governor (al-Wali) with a great multitude and tumult, and he took the patriarch barefooted, and he seized all whom he found with him. And he (the monk) rode his mule, and the patriarch was walking, and they calumniated him. And when they reached to the governor (al-Wali) on this wise, ---- and he was a very good man ---- this was too much (for him), and he honoured the patriarch, and he set free those who had been seized of the people, except the companions of the patriarch. And he ordered that he (the patriarch) should stay in a storey at the new building which (was at) the Bain al-Kasrain, under which were the counters of the changers, he and his companions, and with him guards (sent) from him, and he rebuked the monk and he disapproved of him. And the patriarch remained there, and as for the two bishops, they descended at the Church of Abba (Abu) Sergius (Sarğah) and the monk with the two of them at (the cell of) the elder (aš-Šaikh) as-Sani the monk. Then (it was) that the monk As-Sani agreed with the bishop of Fuah about the documents which they had prepared for obtaining the signature of the patriarch to them, if they kept him in the patriarchate (7). Among them the belief of the Copts (al-Kibt), and that he (the patriarch) should not take a gift for ordination (xeirotoni/a) to any of the orders of the priesthood, and that he should not give authority to the Metropolitan (al-Mutran) in Syria (aš-Šam) in the See of Antioch (Antakiah), but that it (the authority) should be confined to Gaza (Ghazzah) and what (is) in its neighbourhood of the districts of Egypt (Misr), and that he

(7) I.e. as patriarch.

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should excommunicate the children of a second wife (1) whom he had ordained to the rank of the priesthood, and likewise the slave whom he had ordained, and that he should restrict (himself) as regards dress according to what was the custom of the Copts (al-Kibt), and that he should not wear dresses which are the emblem of royalty, and that he should devote the rents of the inalienable endowments to the places to which they were endowed, and that he should begin with the erection of the mentioned buildings, then with the church and the poor of its priests. And from what was left over after that to make another new inalienable endowment, and that he should not take the contributions of the feasts which he receives from all the lands of Egypt (al-Misriyat), but he shall devote them to the upkeep of the churches which have the feasts and to him who has a share in them, such as a bishop or a head or other than these two, (and) what was left over should be for the poor and the wretched; and likewise the contributions (Diyariat) of the monasteries which he had created and made for himself in the lands of Egypt (al-Misriyat), he should devote them to the monasteries for their edifice(s), and to the monks for their needs. And that he should take from the contributions (Diyariat) for the tax on the lands, according to the custom, what was sufficient for his expenses, and it (should be) fifteen dinars every month, and that he should leave the remainder of it to him who was needy, not able (to pay) his tax, and that he should weigh it out for him, and that he should purchase therewith his religion (4); or (as regards) him who is deprived of his strength (5) and his clothing, let him (the patriarch) relieve him and clothe his body, or if a calamity occur such as an infiltration of the river and what is like it, let him (the patriarch) remove the burden of it from the paupers. And that he

(1) According to Coptic custom children by the wife of a second marriage are excluded from ordination to the priesthood. .

(3) I.e. the patronal feasts of churches.

(4) I.e. to prevent him from apostatizing. 

(5) I.e. who is an invalid.

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should defrock the priests who had become again slaves (mamalik), and that he should buy every year from the money of this church (1) a hundred ardab of wheat for the use of the nuns who resided at the Convent Al-Mu`allakah and that he should preserve their persons from apostasy and their condition from penury, and that his (the patriarch's) scribe should be an elder (Šaikh), a bishop without blame or affairs of this kind. The documents were despatched to him (the patriarch), and they were read to him, and he did not answer to anything of them. And the monk `Imad, who was mentioned before, was remaining at the Gate of the Sultan, endeavouring to form an assembly against the patriarch. And the collectors did not cease to aid in his (the patriarch's) affair until the amir Ğandar took him (the patriarch) (and) beat him atrociously and threw him into the special prison, and he made a collar for his throat and a fetter for his leg, and he was deprived of bread, and he encountered great affliction, to such an extent that they prevented him who would come into contact with him in the prison, and they sought for pretexts until they brought out the patriarch from the chamber. And they caused him to descend at the Church of the Harat Zuwailah at which he resided, and the condition did not cease to be thus until the twenty-fourth of (the month of) Abib (9); and the notables of the State became mediators, and they discussed concerning his (the patriarch's) deliverance, and he was delivered. And it was the eve of the Feast of Abba ([A]bu) Mercurius (Markurah), and he descended as he was to his church which (was) at Cairo (Misr). And in the morning, he vested according to his custom, and they took him in procession in the middle

(1) I.e. the Church of Saint Sergius, cf. page 153, note 2.

(9) = July 18th, Julian Style.

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of the church, and they set a throne for him, and he sat on it, and he was acclaimed, and it was a great, noteworthy day, and there assembled on it people not to be counted. And he (the patriarch) frequently visited the churches, and he acted according to his former practice. And as for `Imad, (it was) that he had taken his (the patriarch's) signature to pay to the prosperous Treasury four thousand, eight hundred dinars which he mentioned that he would reveal them with the companions of the patriarch. And the elder (aš-Šaikh) as-Sani and those who were associated with him did not cease to make endeavours until he was released and his signature was removed. Then (it was) that the patriarch did not cease to entreat until he passed over to the Sultan, and he presented to him a present, and he (the Sultan) accepted it; and he (the patriarch) heard from him that which strengthened his heart and released his tongue, and he prevailed thereby over the Christians (an-Nasara). And as regards what occurred in these days in the way of calamities (was) that Al-Malik an-Nasir [I]bn al-Mu`azzam repaired to the lands of the Littoral, and he reached to Gaza (Ghazzah) and he allotted as fiefs the lands, and he levied soldiers, and all his intention was Damascus (Dimašk). And he sent to the Sultan Al-Malik al-`Adil to inform him that the Possessor of Damascus (Dimašk) (was) with him (6), and that he had summoned him to his obedience, and that they should be together (as) one body, and he despatched his letters to him about this; and news of this reached the Possessor of Damascus (Dimašk). And Al-Malik al-Ğawad Muzzafar ad-Din [I]bn Mamdud had taken into his service a numerous, powerful army together with the troops winch were with him from Egypt (Misr), and he went out to him, in number and equipment, and they met in the neighbourhood of Ghorr (Al-Ghurr),

(6) I.e. on his side.

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and An-Nasir was defeated, and none escaped except himself, and he went to the Crac (al-Karak). And there were taken all his companions and his baggage and his provisions and his sentinels. And he (Al-Malik Ğawad) took as great booty the troops of Damascus (Dimaški), and his (An-Nasir's) flags were sent to Cairo (al-Kahirah) and they went around with them. And the blessed Nile (an-Nil) flowed impetuously in this year from the beginning of it (3). Then it stopped after that, and it came up on Saturday, the end of (the month of) An-Nasi (4) and on it the measure was completed and the Canal was cut. And in this year there happened wonders out of their time (6). An evident earthquake occurred (which) was felt by everyone in (his) house; and it rained during the days of (the month of) An-Nasi (7), and it was said that it did not occur except in a year of insufficiency of the Nile (an-Nil). Then there entered the year nine hundred and fifty-five (8), and in it the water reached to sixteen cubits and eight fingers. And most of the causeways were broken, because they had been cared for in the days of Al-Malik al-Kamil, but when he died, that fear (of him) ceased, and avarice entered the hearts of the governors (al-Wulat) and the administrators, and their neglected their state, and the majority of them was broken, and among them the causeway (which) was at Al-Gizah. And there was a large causeway (which) retained the water from the lands of Al-Bahnasa, and it was broken. And the amir Ğamal ad-Din [I]bn Yaghmur, the head of the prosperous diwans, went out to it, and he stayed at it for a period, and he spent on it a sum of money and material, but he was not able to dam it. And there befell the people in this blessed year an insufficiency of the Nile (an-Nil)

(3) I.e. the coming of the flood waters.

(4)  August 24th-29th (30th), Julian Style.

(6)  I.e. unexpected.

(7)  = August 24th-29th (30th), Julian Style. 

(8) = 1239 A.D.

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and a breaking of the causeways. And the lands were sucked dry on account of the Bedouins (al-`Urban), because they frequented Upper Egypt (as-Sa`id), and they plundered the people, and they took captive the inhabitants of some of the lands. And the prices became low, and wheat was sold for a dinar the ardab, and barley near to it, and it was never related (that) barley was at the rate of wheat, except in this year. And everything rose in price, and gold went down in price so that the exchange of the dinar into a silver (dirham) (was) twelve dirhams and a quarter and an eighth, and into paper, thirty-live dirhams and a quarter. And the cause for this was the abundance of what the Sultan had issued in the way of money, and had distributed among the amirs and the soldiers; and it was the major cause for the rise of prices, because the people had an abundance of money, and especially the soldiers. And they felt confident, so that (it was) that old wine was sold at four silver dirhams the jar on account of the great demand of the people for it; and fruit became dear, and clothing and jewelry and property also. And they were days (which) the people likened to the days of Al-Malik al-`Aziz ---- may God have mercy upon him! ---- in their goodness. Then (it was) that the bishops came from Lower Egypt (al-Wağh al-Bahari), and their number was fourteen bishops, and they assembled in the Church of the Harat Zuwailah and they discussed about the affair of the patriarch, and they mentioned that they did not approve of the things (which) resulted from him, and they enumerated them, and they confirmed them in a script (which) they wrote in his stead, and his signature was written at the head of it in the manner of what is above the «In the Name»(2), and his mark between the initial lines.«The brethren, the bishops ---- may the Lord bless them and their people and their sees! ---- write their agreement to this document and what is confirmed in it of the Faith, approved conduct and Church customs. And he who departs from it or deviates from its conditions is anathematized and rejected by the mouth

(2) I.e. «In the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, One God».

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of the Holy Trinity, the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, and by the mouth of the three hundred and eighteen (Fathers) assembled at Nicaea (Nikiah) (1), be he patriarch or bishop, I or my bishops, and he shall have no lot with the Faithful ---- may God preserve us from this!» And among its conditions were (as follows): after the Confession of the Orthodox Faith which was established at the Council of Nicaea and at the two holy Councils which assembled at Constantinople (Kustantiniah) (2) and Ephesus (Aufsis) (3), then the confession which is proper to the Jacobite (al-Ya`kubiah) Church, in the way of what we received from the father Cyril (Kirullus) the Great and the two Orthodox (ὀρθόδοξος) Fathers Severus (Sawirus) (4) and Dioscorus (Diskurus) (5); and it is the belief that Christ, God made man, (is of) One Nature, One Hypostasis, One Will, and (that) He is God the Word, and (that) He is man born of Mary (Mariam) the Virgin, and (that) thus it is right to predicate of Him all attributes divine and human. Then, after that, there is binding what is contained in the Divine Scriptures and the Canons of the Apostles, and the accepted Councils and the customs which are established in the Jacobite (al-Ya`kubiah) Coptic (al-Kibtiah) Church upon which (is) our reliance in our religion. And as for the sections which time has called for the mention of them with the object of preserving the peace of the Church, the first (is): a bishop shall not be consecrated from henceforth, except he who is educated, and a psephisma (Tazkiah) has been made for him, and his people have agreed to him. And simony shall not be taken from him, nor shall the Holy Spirit be sold nor bought. And, likewise, this injunction shall be executed with regard to the ordination of priests and deacons and of all the ranks of the priesthood. And none of the judges shall

(1) I.e. the First Oecumenical Council in 325 A.D.

(2) I.e. the Second Oecumenical Council in 381 A.D. 

(3) I.e. the Third Oecumenical Council in 431 A.D.

(4) Patriarch of Antioch, 512-538 A.D.

(5)Patriarch of Alexandria, 516-527 A.D.

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accept a bribe or what is equivalent to it in any judgment of all the judgments, be he patriarch or bishop or a deputy of either of them, nor show partiality in judgment on account of respect or mediation, and he who does this shall be suspended. Secondly, that the patriarch shall agree with the learned bishops to compile an epitome of the canons concerning what is unlawful and what is lawful with regard to marriages and other things besides them, and concerning inheritances and the orders of the ranks of the priesthood (1). And copies (of it) shall be written, and in them the signatures of the patriarch and the bishops with (their) approval, and they (the copies) shall be preserved in the sees; and any judgment which deviates from them (the rules) shall be null and void. Thirdly, (that) the bishops shall assemble at the cell (2) once in the year, and it shall be from the beginning of the third week of Paschaltide (al-Khamasin) and up to the end of the fourth week of it. And that rules established in the Coptic (al-Kibtiah) churches shall not be changed, such as circumcision before baptism, unless necessity prevents it, and such as the exclusion from ordination of children of concubines and slaves, with the exception of captives from the lands of Ethiopia (al-Habasah) and Nubia (an-Nubah), if their manner of life be good and they are fit for the priesthood. And he who is not a captive, but a son of a prostitute slave girl who has not been crowned, shall not be ordained to any of the degrees of Holy Orders, and likewise the children of women who have gone back to their families (6), from henceforth, shall not be ordained to any degree of Holy Orders, and likewise the children by a third marriage, even if she (the woman) was a virgin, shall not be ordained to any of the degrees of Holy Orders. And

(1) Cf. O.H.E. KHS-Burmester, 'The Canons of Cyril III Ibn Laklak, 75 Patriarch of Alexandria, A.D. 1235-1250 in BSAC vol. XII, pp. 81-130 and vol. XIV, pp. 113-150.

(2) I.e. the patriarchal residence.

(3) I.e. unmarried. 

(6) I.e. women whose husbands have died.

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he shall be excluded who has been crowned (1) secretly in houses, outside the church, and without the Eucharist (al-Kurban); and entrance of menstruous women into the churches shall be forbidden at the time of their menstruation. And that the scribe of the Cell (2) shall be he whom the patriarch shall choose, be he a bishop or a man of esteem. And that the signature of the Metropolitan (Mutran) of Gaza (Ghazzah), and what is contiguous to it (shall be required) for conformity to the aforementioned belief of the Jacobite (al-Ya`kubiah), Church, and for (his) conformity with him who conforms to it, and (that) he rejects those whom the Councils reject, and that, if he does not conform to this, let him be excommunicated. And that the rank (ta/cij) of the Metropolitan (Mutran) of Damietta (Dumyal) who now occupies it, shall be established according to the custom of those who preceded him at it. And that neither the patriarch nor the bishops shall ordain in other than their sees at all, nor shall they confer a rank (5) on anyone, except with the consent of the inhabitants of his see or of the majority of them, and with the consent of his bishop who ordained him. And the bishop of another see shall not accept him, except with the consent of thebishop who is in his see, even if he were living with him. And anyone who has transferred from his town and his church without a necessary reason to another see or to another church, let him be excluded from them both. The patriarch shall not interdict anyone of the people of the sees of the bishops, except for a legal reason, if it has been established by his bishop that he has not interdicted him. And the patriarch shall send to order him to interdict him, and if the bishop refuse for a reason which is not, and he persists in this, the patriarch shall interdict him. And that the patriarch shall not absolve him whom his bishop has interdicted,

(1) I.e. married.

(2) I.e. the patriarchal residence. 

(5) I.e. of Holy Orders.

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except if it has been established concerning him that he (the bishop) interdicted him out of caprice and without a legal reason. And the patriarch shall write to him once and twice on account of him; if the bishop persists in this, he (the patriarch) shall summon both of them, and both of them shall be judged according to what the law requires. And he who has been consecrated to a see of the bishops and its district, there shall not be taken away from him of it (any) town; and he who is established in a see with its towns up to the day of writing this, he shall not be removed from it. And as for the diyariyat (2) which is exacted by the bishops, which is for the patriarch, it shall not be exacted by means of compulsion nor (otherwise than) according to the ability of their sees and according to what is easy for them by way of a blessing. And that the patriarch shall not oblige the bishop to bestow a rank in his see or to ordain him to whom the bishop of the see or the majority of his congregation does not consent. And he (the patriarch) shall be impartial among the bishops with regard to what is free and forbidden to all of them. And that the patriarch shall not interfere with the income of the churches on their feast-days and their dues and their inalienable endowments, but they shall be under the supervision of the bishop and they shall not go out of his hands, unless it had been made a condition for him before his consecration that the income of the church should be in exchange for the diyariah of the see. And nothing shall go out from their hands from the monasteries of their (the bishops') sees, unless any (of them) undertook (to do) this before his consecration. And that the complaints of monks, one against another, shall not be accepted, except after a strict investigation and the taking (into consideration) of the report of the upright majority. Monks shall not be expelled from their monasteries without evident necessity; and people of the laity shall not be delegated to judge between the monks, but the heads of the monasteries and those who take their place among those who are esteemed (and) learned of the Faithful. A bishop shall not be interdicted

(2) I.e. the contributions of sees and monasteries to the Patriarchate.

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for trifling causes by the Cell (1) and when he commits that which is necessary for interdiction, the patriarch shall write to him once and twice, and he shall warn him about this, and after this he shall cause him to come to the Cell and he (the bishop) shall justify himself before his interdiction, if the interdiction be necessary for him. The hegoumenos (ἡγούμενος)---- his rank (is) the rank of archpriest (ἀρχιπαπᾶς) of the priests ---- shall have (the right) to say the Absolution over the celebrating priest and to offer incense after him, and he shall communicate after him and before the rest of the priests below him (in rank) who are not celebrating. And if he be present with the bishop, it shall be he who receives incensing from the hand of the bishop, and none of the priests shall receive incensing from his hand; and he shall not have (the right to do) anything other than this. And he of the Faithful who wishes to go to a festival of a church of any see whatsoever, his bishop shall not interdict him for this reason. And it was a document of lengthy explanation, and this is the essence of its contents, and we have abridged them for fear of prolixity. And its date (was) on the sixth of (the month of) Tut of the year nine hundred and fifty-five (3). And an abridgment of the Canons was made with regard to indispensable matters which occur in marriage, and their conditions, and inheritance and its divisions; and it is in the hands of the Faithful in a number of copies; and the patriarch and the bishops signed; then the bishops departed to their sees and they were contented thereby. Then (it was) that the Sultan (6) despatched an amir of his intimate friends, and he sent him away to Damascus (Dimašk) to Al-Malik al-Ğawad, son of his paternal uncle,

(1) I.e. the patriarchate.

(3) = September 3rd, 1239 A.D., Julian Style.

(6) I.e. Al-Malik al-`Adil II.

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summoning him to come to Egypt (Misr) and to take for himself whatsoever fief he wished, and he gave to him a choice in this, and (that) he should relinquish Damascus (Dimašk). And this was pleasing to him, hut he was suspicious that, if he reached Egypt (Misr), the choice would be against him and not for him. And he (Al-Malik al-Ğawad.) wrote to Al-Malik as-Salih, the Possessor of the East, Amid (Amid), and the fortress of Kaifa and Sinğar and other than these of what is beyond the Euphrates (al-Furat), to inform him that he was submissive to him, and that he would give to him Damascus (Dimašk) if he gave to him (parts) of the lands of the East which he prosposed to him. And he swore to him with regard to Sinğar and other lands with it. And when he had made sure of him, he sent to him that he should come. And it was said that both of them met in the desert, and they swore an alliance, and Al-Malik as-Salih Aiyub, son of Al-Malik al-Kamil, passed over to Damascus (Dimašk)and he received it. And Al-Malik al-Ğawad Muzzafar ad-Din departed to Sinğar and he received it. And Al-Malik as-Salih was established at Damascus (Dimašk), and there were with him troops called the Khawarizms (al-Khawarizmin). And the people were afraid of them, because they are corrupt upon the earth, of the raceof the Tartars (at-Tatar); only (it was) that they did not come with him to Damascus (Dimašk)but they were staying in the desert in the direction of the lands of Aleppo (Halab) and what is after it. And it was (that), before the entry of Al-Malik as-Salih into Damascus (Dimašk) he sprang upon the messenger of the Sultan Al-Malik al-`Adil (6), who has been mentioned before, and he was `Imad ad-Din, elder (Šaikh) of the elders (aš-Šiyukh), son of the elder (Šaikh) of the elders (aš-Šiyukh), and he was killed at the House of the Sultan at Damascus (Dimašk) And it was an innovation, the like of which had not been heard; and

(6) I.e. Al-`Adil II.

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(he was) the first messenger to be killed, only that they mentioned that he was not killed, except through guile (which) the Possessor of Emesa (Hims) wrought against him, and he killed him. And after that the Khawarizms (al-Khawarizmin) lorded over the lands of Syria (aš-Šam) and they ruined them. And they descended on Emesa (Hims) and they besieged it, and the Possessor of it gave to them much money, so that they departed from it. And Al-Malik as-Salih sent to the Littoral (and) he apportioned it in fiefs. And there was a dearth in Syria (aš-Šam); wheat reached to two hundred and thirty dirhams the measure, and the majority of the inhabitants of the lands departed to Egypt (Misr), although (prices) were high (there); yet they were less in proportion. And he (Al-Malik al-`Adil) ordered the departure of the troops to Bilbais and their remaining at it until they were commanded (to do) what they were intended (to do); and a group of them went out to spy on them, and they remained at it (Bilbais). Then (it was) that some people of the Muslims (al-Muslimin) (who) were staying at the prayer-house (al-Masğid) which (was) at the side of the Church Al-Mu`allakah, came to a wall between them and the church, (and it led) to a reception-room which the patriarch had made for his receptions beneath his upper Cell, and they destroyed of it (the room), the windows and the panels of the doors, and they claimed that it was a right of the prayer-house (al-Masğid); and there was agitation in the churches, because this was in the middle of Holy Lent, and at the Church Al-Mu`allakahmost of all, and it was deprived of the Divine Liturgy (al-Kuddas) and the Prayers (8) for many days in Lent. And the Muslims (al-Muslimin)

(8) I.e. the Evening and Morning Offering of Incense and the Canonical Hours,

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used to mount by the steps to the terrace of the upper Cellof the patriarch, and they called for prayer and they cried «Allah Akbar» (1) and they used to mention what they mention, according to what is accustomed to them. And thereby there occurred serious matters, and an amir of the bodyguards was sent. He caused to be brought some people of them, and he beat them with a severe beating and the governor (Wali) of Cairo (Misr) imprisoned twice a group of them, but this had no effect upon them. And the architects came, and they wrote a report that this wall belonged to the church and had nothing to do with the prayer-house (al-Masğid) nor with the reception-room which was contiguous to it. And the Possessor of the Diwan of the Ahbas entered into this (affair), and they discussed about placing half of a date-palm one side of the wall, and that the wall should be separated by (the other) half of the date-palm between the two places (3), but our friends (4) did not agree with anything of this. Then they discussed about filling up the wall which had been demolished at its extremity, according to what it had been before, and (that) the upper layer should be demolished. And the people of the Church refused this, and the affair remained for that period, and the Feast (5) came, and the affair (was) as before. And there entered the month of Ramadan of the year six hundred and thirty-six (7), and our friends did not suffer in this period a fine of great amount. And in these days, the Possessor of Amid (Amid) was brought out from confinement, because he had been in the Citadel, and he had been a long time (there), and he was given a robe of honour and there was

(1) I.e. 'God is greater'. Cf. A. de Biberstein Kazimirski, Dictionnaire Arabe-Francais, vol. IV, p. 6.

(3) I.e. the Church Al-Mu`allakah and the prayer-house.

(4) Probably, an ironical term. 

(5) I.e. the Feast of Easter.

(7)= 1238 A.D.

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returned to him all the cloths (which) had been taken from him, because they had been kept, deposited in security. And he was equipped together with his family and his company, so that he might go by sea to Antioch (Antakiah) to the service of his relative the King of the Rum (2), the Possessor of Iconium (Kuniah) and Coloneia (Aksara) (4) and this decision was among the great noble actions which this Sultan initiated. Then (it was) that corn decreased a little in its price, and wheat was from thirty to twenty-four dirhams the ardab, and barley from twenty-eight dirhams the ardab downwards, and beans (al-Ful) at twenty dirhams the ardab, and the people were contented by this decrease of prices, because corn yielded in this year a yielding, the like of which had not been heard of. And there was much rain, not as the custom is in Egypt (Misr) (6), and a great cold followed for a long time, and nothing in the two cities (7) was expensive, apart from cloth, except chopped-straw, and it was for six silver dirhams the loaded (8) rope-net, and fire-wood reached to ten silver pieces the load, and linseed oil was for fifteen dirhams the ten rails. Then he (the Sultan) ordered the departure of some troops to Bilbais and their stationing at it, and a group of the amirs. They were about three thousand horsemen, and among them was a senior amir known as Nur ad-Din [I]bn Fakhr ad-Din `Uthman. And it happened that there occurred an incidence between him and the governor (Wali) of Bilbais. And he began to write about him (the amir) to the Sultan, and he mentioned that he was corresponding with Al-Malik as-Salih, and (that) the messengers of Al-Malik as-Salih and his scribes were coming (to him), and there arose then suspicion of him, and the order

(2) I.e. the Seljuk Sultanate, cf. R. Gkousset, L'Empire du Levant, p. 596.

(4) Can also be Caesarea, cf. R. Grousset, op. cit., Cartes 1 and 21.

(6) 'Misr' can also he read as ' Misr (Cairo) '.

(7) I.e. Misr (Cairo) and Al-Kahirah (Cairo).

(8) I.e. the amount that a camel can carry.

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was issued that he should go to Rosetta (Rašid), and should be stationed at it alone. And this port (2) was among what was in the bounds of the mentioned amir, and he suspected that his despatch thither was because he wished to harm him, and that he would be seized and imprisoned. And he refrained from going, and he corresponded with the notables of the State, and he was dispensed from this, and there remained in the hearts what was in them. And a group of the amirs was in agreement with his opinion, and they (were): `Izz ad-Din Aibak the Kurd (al-Kurdi), and `Izz ad-Din Aibak al-Hamdu'l-illah known as Kadib al-Ban, and Saif ad-Din ad-Dinisri, and Sair al-Khawarizmi and his brother, and `Ala' ad-Din [I]bn aš-Šihab Ahmad, and Nur ad-Din `Ali [I]bn al-Akta`, and `Izz ad-Din Tilban al-Muğahidi, and Al-Rukn `Umar al-Faniri, and Iidkin al-`Azizi, and `Alam ad-Din Sahr al-Yamani. And they were dwelling all together in one dwelling, and their opinion (was) one and their word (was) one, and their affair was noised abroad and was divulged, and the Sultan sent to them the amir Fakhr ad-Din Ibn aš-Šaikh to appease their hearts and to assure them. And he wrote to them a letter in his hand-writing mentioning in it that he had no information of what they imagined about him, and that he would swear to them for all what they wished. And their hearts were appeased thereby, and they wrote a copy of the oath, and the amir Fakhr ad-Din [I]bn aš-Šaikh received it; and he returned to Cairo (al-Kahirah), so that the Sultan might swear to it, after the mentioned amirs had sworn to him, that they were in obedience to him, unless he should change anything against them, and unless he displayed anything unfavourable towards them. And the Sultan swore on the copy, and it came with the amir Šuğa` ad-Din [I]bn Abu Dhikri. Then (it was) that one of the mentioned amirs was detained at Cairo (al-Kahirah), and he was Tilban al-Muğahidi who was the governor (Wali) of Al-Bahnasa. And he departed from it, namely Cairo (al-Kahirah) without permission, and he came to this group,

(2)The port of Damietta at this period stood further to the north than the present town.

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(and) he descended at them, and the suspicion persisted also, and the oath did not avail anything. And Fakhr ad-Din [I]bn aš-Šaikh returned, (and) he went out to the troops, and there went out with him the amir Baha ad-Din Ibn Malkisu who had been once the governor (Wali) of Cairo (al-Kahirah) and had also been appointed once govenor (Wali) of Damascus (Dimašk). And they assembled with the amirs, and they talked much about this matter, and that the departure of Tilban al-Muğahidi without permission was not correct, and that «You agreed to this, and it was a breach of faith». And that day was Wednesday, the twenty-first of the month of Ramadan (in the) year six hundred and thirty-six (2) which corresponds to the second of (the month of) Bašuns (3). And it occurred on that day that a company of the men of the chain-mailed (soldiers), and they were Turks (al-Atrak), agreed that they should go out and encounter the aforementioned amirs, and they were about two thousand horsemen, and they assembled, and they dressed, and they departed from Cairo (al-Kahirah). And the amirs had scouts to inform them of the news, and a horseman came to them galloping, and he informed them that the chain-mailed (soldiers) had come out to seize them, and that the cavalier Khatulbah (was) their leader. And the mentioned cavalier Khatulbah had gone out to the mentioned group to bring them back himself, and another amir (was) with him, known as As-Sarim al-Mas`udi, and they (the amirs) seized both of them and they bound both of them with them. And the amirs had scouts and a horseman came galloping to Bilbais to the tents, (and) he informed that the chain-mailed (soldiers) had gone out to seize them (the amirs); and they arose and they dressed and they rode. And Ar-Rukn al-Hiğawi and the Kurds (al-Akrad), another group, heard about this, and they rode also, dressed in armour and with the equipment of war, and they attacked, and the aforementioned amirs were driven back before the group which was on the side of the Sultan, and they continued thus

(2) I.e. of the Hiğrah = 1230-1231 A.D. 

(3) =May 26th-June 24th, Julian Style.

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wavering one side and the other, until the hour of sunset, and they had reached up to the neighbourhood of Al-`Abbasah and night came (2) between them. And the troops of the Sultan returned to their position, and the amirs remained on guard, and there did not join them of their companions except a few, because the majority of them had returned to the service of the Sultan, on account of their houses and their fiefs. And it was (that) an amir of the group of the amirs, known as Ibn al-Akta`, fell, and he was taken captive. And the amir Fakhr ad-Din [I]bn aš-Šaikh and Ar-Rukn al-Hiğawi and those who (were) with them had won him over, and they mentioned that he had done this intentionally for the service of the Sultan. And he was brought to Cairo (al-Kahirah), and he was clothed with a robe of honour, and he was confirmed in his rank of informer. And as for the chain-mailed (soldiers), they did not overtake the amirs, and they did not pass by Bilbais but they leftit on their left, and they took (the direction) on its east leading to the desert, and the two captive amirs (were) with them. And they (the chain-mailed soldiers) agreed to release the two mentioned amirs; and they despatched from among their notables five men to the Sultan, that they might be reassured by him and cause him to swear, and (that) they should be returned to their fiefs, because for all there was nothing except fear for themselves and nothing else. And the two mentioned amirs came, and the five notables, and they discussed with the Sultan concerning what related to them, and he acceded to their supplication, and he bestowed robes of honour on the five, and he conferred favours on them, and he equipped them. And he sent with them one of his servants, and he was named Banan (7), and they went out until they reached to

(2) I.e. intervened.

(7) This name is written without diacritical dots.

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Ad-Darum, but they did not find them (the two amirs); but there was not a doubt that, in they meantime, they met the amirs, and they became reconciled to them, and they took them with them, and they journeyed, and the servants and the five returned, and they did not do anything. And there was in the lands trouble and agitation and fear, and a guard was set over the wealth of the amirs and their houses a second time, because they had released them, when they imagined that they (the amirs) would return. And, after some days, there arrived at Cairo (al-Kahirah) the Protected, Al-Malik an-Nasir, son of Al-Malik al-Mu`azzam, on Saturday, the nineteenth of (the month of) Bašuns (3) which corresponds to the eighth of (the month of) Sawwal (in the) year six hundred and thirty-six (4). And Cairo (al-Kahirah) and Cairo (Misr) and the Citadel were decorated for him, and he descended at the Government House (Dar al-Wizarah). Then (it was) that he interceded for the amirs and the men of the chain-mailed (soldiers), and it was arranged that he should journey to them, and that he should appease their hearts, and should bring them back. And his son arrived after a few days, and the decorations continued to be hung, but they were increased before he arrived. And after this, information reached them that Al-Malik as-Salih had gone out from Damascus (Dimašk). And the Sultan gathered together the amirs, and he caused to be brought Al-Malik an-Nasir, and he caused them to swear that they would be submissive (and) staunch, and that they would fight for him until they died before him, and the oath was the fourth. Then (it was) that two tribes of the Bedouins (al-`Urban), one of the two of them named Ğudham and the other, Tha`labah, and they were in the districts of (the Province of) aš-Šakiah, and there was an ancient

(3) = May 14th, Julian Style. 

(4) = 1238 A.D.

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blood-feud and hatred between them. When this trouble occurred there was envy between the one and the other, and from time to time they fought, and a great number among them was killed. And the Tha`labah were in favour of the King of Egypt (Misr) and the Ğudham, in favour of the King of Syria (aš-Šam). And the Tha`labah sought assistance from Sinbus, and he came to them from the land of the Arabs (al-cArab), and the Ğudham sought assistance from Mazatah and Zunarah, and they came from (the Province of) Al-Buhairah tlJ; and they were days of fear and Avar, and the roads were cut off. And the Sultan despatched a group from the amirs and the soldiers to settle Avhat (was) between them, and they made use of staves between them for a certain time, after there had been killing among them. Then a man, a servant, called Šibl ad-Daulah, a servant of the Prophet, and he separated himself from the people, and he pretended that he had seen their Prophet in a dream, and he (the Prophet) had said to him: «Take the Dhimmi (2), change their adornments, for they have overpassed their limits». And he began beating the people and he dishonoured them from among the Christians (an-Nasara) and the Jews (al-Yahud). And (as for) the Christians (an-Nasara), (he said): «We shall take them, (and) shall remove the fringes (of the turbans), and bind (on them) girdles, and (as for) the Jews (al-Yahud), make a yellow sign (on them)». And a certain group began to bind themselves with a girdle and to remove the fringes. And it ended that he cut off the fringe of a priest, a scribe of the Merchandise of the Inns (Khanah), because he had let it (the fringe) down and had bound on the girdle. And it was (that), if he did not find with anyone a girdle, he would cut off his turban and bind his waist with it. And it was proclaimed thus publicly at Cairo (al-Kahirah) and Cairo (Misr), on Saturday, the fifteenth of (the month of) Abib (3); and there befell the people affliction on account of this, and (it was) a burden upon them, because (it was) something (which was) twenty years distant from their time. And the majority of them who were able to remain in their houses, kept at home. And as for the high

(2) I.e. the Christian and Jewish minorities in an Islamic State. 

(3) = July 9th, Julian Style.

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officials, it was commanded not to apply it to them, and they remained in their condition. And without fail, the mentioned servant, if he met them, would follow them and dishonour them with words; and there adopted Al-Islam for this reason a man of the best Christians (an-Nasara), called An-Nifah [I]bn aš-Šamas, and he was possessor of the diwan of the Merchandise of the Inns (Khanah) and of the houses and the stables, and the Diwan of the Suite. And there gathered against him the servants, and they constrained him to bind on the girdle, and he bound it, and they constrained him to remove the fringes (of his turban) and he refused; and they multiplied against him, and they pressed him, and he threw away the girdle. And they said: «Adopt Al-Islam», and they testified against him, and he adopted Al-Islam. And the Christians (an-Nasara) were at this time in great tribulation and distressing contempt; and whosoever met them of the common people and the low classes insulted them and reviled them. Then (it was) that the order was revoked concerning the matter of fringes (of the turbans), and some people began to lower them; however, by the order of the Equerry of the House, there were (only) three persons who were ordered to lower the fringes and to bind on the girdle. Then (it was) that they assembled and wrote for a decision, and they took for it the signatures of the jurisconsults concerning the matter of the fringes of the turbans. And all of them gave a legal opinion that it was not necessary to remove them, but to bind on the girdle, especially for distinguishing between them (the Christians) and the Muslims (al-Muslimin). And among those who wrote for them (2) thus were: Aš-Šarif Šams ad-Din, judge of the troops, and he was the chief of the notables, and Baha ad-Din Ibn al-Humairi, the orator of Cairo (al-Kahirah), and Ğamal ad-Din [I]bn al-Buri who had been appointed wazir in the days of the Sultan Al-Malik al-Kamil, and Mubarak known as Ibn at-Tabbakh; and after this, they did not lower them (the fringes) for fear of the servant. Then (it was) that the Nile (an-Nil) rose and increased, and it reached the full measure on Saturday, the

(2) I.e. the Christians.

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twentieth of (the month of) Misra (1), and prices diminished, and wheat was sold at twenty dirhams the ardab and less than this, and barley, at sixteen dirhams, and the rest of the cereals in proportion. And the Sultan Al-Malik al-`Adil had gone out to Bilbais with his troops and his soldiers, when news came to him (that) his brother, Al-Malik as-Salih had advanced from Bilbais (and) he reached him. And he (Al-Malik al-`Adil) departed (and) he descended at Al-`Abbasah. And some of the group undertook an advantageous course with regard to the matter of lowering the fringes of the turban; and it was ordered to lower them on the condition that the girdle was bound on; and the majority of the people lowered (them). And the blessed Nile (an-Nil) came up (to its measure) on Saturday, the twentieth of (the month of) Misra; and the Sultan Al-Malik al-`Adil had entered the city on account of the level. And when it was the day of the level (of the Nile), it happened that the servant referred to was at the river, and it happened that some people of the Christians (an-Nasara) were in a boat on the river, and among them were those who were bound with the girdle, and those who (were) without the girdle. And the servant recognized them, and he went to them, and he bore them to the amir Ğamal ad-Din, the Equerry of the House. And he sent them to the Commander-in-chief at Cairo (Misr), and the accusation against them (was) that they were all without a girdle; and they were beaten, and they were led ignominously, through all Cairo (Misr), And it was a distressing affair for the Christians (an-Nasara), and the common people overpowered them, and there was a great tumult. And this (was) a judgment from God the Exalted, first, in leaving off the girdle and concealing (their) religion, and the other, that the mentioned group was deacons, and it does not behove

(1) = August 13th, Julian Style,

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deacons to witness this spectacle, and they should not be present at places of diversion, nor at assemblies outside the Christian (al-Masihi) Faith; except that they were enduring, and they gave thanks, and this was counted unto them for righteousness. Then (it was) that the Sultan, on the occasion of his entry into Cairo (al-Kahirah), received news that the troops were agitating against him, and that they had become a faction. And he went out at once, and he caused to be seized three amirs, one of them (was) Fakhr ad-Din [I]bn Šaikh aš-Šiyukh, and there was not among the amirs greater than he, and the other (was) Fath ad-Din Sulaiman, son of the brother of Aš-Šahab Ahmad, and he was the most intimate in the household of this Sultan, and God had given to him a great charge; and the third (was) Zain ad-Din Ghar. And as for Ibn aš-Šaikh Fakhr ad-Din, he was placed in a tower at the Citadel and this tower (was) that in which was the Possessor of Amid (Amid); and as for the two others, he caused them to be lowered into the dungeon which (is) at the Citadel. And the people were in these days in fear and expectancy and many vile things. And wheat and barley and grains were at their medium price, and (as for) wheat, its highest price was at thirty dirhams the ardab, and its lowest (was) at twenty dirhams the ardab, and barley and beans (al-Ful) (were) at nineteen dirhams the ardab, and chick-peas at forty dirhams the ardab, only that everything in the way of food and drink was expensive; and (as for) clothing and implements and building tools and other things beside them, they and all eatables were high in price. And wine (was) at four silver dirhams the jar, and wax for eight dirhams and a half the ratl, and nothing in the two cities (3) was cheap except sugar, and it was at a dirham and a half the ratl and it was cheap compared to other foods. Then (it was) that the Bedouins (al-`Urban) were emboldened, and they began to devastate the lands, and they would take all what (was) in them, and they would kill and take captives. And in these days they devastated twenty-five

(3) I.e. Misr and al-Kahirah.

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towns in the (Province of) al-Gharbiah And the Sultan caused an amir called the cavalier Khatulba to set out for them, and with him a thousand merciless horsemen and fire-ships on the river. And they set out for the Bedouins (al-`Urban), and they found that they had already departed to the desert, and had anticipated them. And they (3) came to the towns, and they began to pretend that (they were) the Children of the Bedouins (al-`Urban), and they began to pillage the property of the people and to take their women and their off-spring, as if they were people of the Bedouins (al-`Urban), and the matter was not thus, and the lands were ruined a second time. And the inhabitants of the lands came, (and) they stood before the Sultan, and he commanded the restitution to them of what had been taken from them. And they remained in uncertainty from whom they should take and to whom they should apply, and what happened to their womenfolk they do not know; however, the Nile (an-Nil) was increasing and conditions were in a good state. Then the year nine hundred and fifty-six (5) entered, and the patriarch (was) Abba (Anba) Cyril (Kirullus), known as David (Daud) Ibn Laklak, and he was the seventy-fifth (6). And the Sultan (was) Al-Malik al-`Adil Abu Bakr (7), son of Al-Malik al-Kamil Muhammad, and the judge (was) Šaraf ad-Din al-Iskandari, known as Ibn `Ain ad-Daulah, and the master of the affairs of the Sultan (was) Badr ad-Din Yunis amir Ğandar. And the Sultan had gone out to Al-`Abbasah with the troops and the soldiers. And the Nile (an-Nil) reached to fifteen fingers above eighteen cubits. Then (it was) that the men of the bodyguard who had been dissemblers, turned towards Syria (aš-Šam) to the service of Al-Malik as-Salih, brother of the Sultan. They wrote to the Sultan

(3) I.e. the thousand horsemen. 

(5) = 1239 A.D.

(6) I.e. of the number of the patriarchs of Alexandria.

(7) I.e. Al-`Adil II.

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Al-Malik al-`Adil, and they sent their chiefs informing him that the reason of the war against his brother necessitated for him to send to seek for the troops which were at Gaza (Ghazzah) with his two uncles Muğbar ad-Din and Taki ad-Din, but they (2) refused to go with them (3), and they implored him to come. And they (the chiefs) sought troops to go to Gaza (Ghazzah) to take possession of it, because those (4) had left and had gone away. And the Sultan gave robes of honour to their messengers who were from them, and he gave a grant to them and gifts; and they began to arrive from fifteen to twenty, and everyone who arrived was given a robe of honour and a grant, until they were completed. And Al-Malik an-Nasir Ibn al-Mu`azzam, and he was the son of the uncle of the Sultan, had taken troops, about a thousand horsemen, and among them amirs, leaders such as Ibn Kalh and others than he. And he (Al-Malik an-Nasir) went to Karak (5), his fortress, and in the meanwhile, Al-Malik as-Salih Isma`il who (was) the brother of Al-Kamil (and) who was representative of Al-Malik al-Ašraf, governed in Damascus (Dimašk). And when Al-Malik al-Ašraf died, Al-Malik al-Kamil departed to Damascus (Dimašk)and he took it from him (As-Salih Isma`il), and he gave to him Ba`albek (Ba`alabak) with Bosra (Busra), because it had belonged to him. And he governed with its chiefs at Damascus (Dimašk) because he was beloved of them. And there was in the Citadel the son of Al-Malik as-Salih Aiyub Ibn al-Kamil, and the mentioned Al-Malik as-Salih was at Sichem (Nablus), and he was stationed at it, and he sojourned at it, and the amirs who had come to him and the chiefs of

(2) I.e. the two uncles. 

(3) I.e. the troops.

(4) I.e. the first troops. 

(5) I.e. the Crac of Moab, cf. R. Guousset, L'Empire du Levant, Carte 5 and B. Meistermann, op. cit., p. 392.

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Damascus (Dimašk) delivered up the mentioned city to Al-Malik as-Salih Isma`il who had been with them at first. And the son of Al-Malik as-Salili Ai-yub, and he was the son of the son of his brother, departed from the Citadel in flight. And Al-Malik as-Salih Isma`il remained at Damascus (Dimašk), and the good news came to Al-`Abbasah to the Sultan, Al-Malik al-`Adil, about this. And the good news about this was proclaimed among the troops, and in Cairo (al-Kahirah) and Cairo (Misr) and at the Citadel and the two cities (5) were decorated for many days. And the troops which were with Al-Malik as-Salih disbanded until there did not remain with him except his confidants, and until the Arabs (al-`Arab) were on the point of plundering him. And he sought protection with Al-Malik an-Nasir, the Possessor of the Crac of Moab (al-Karak) and he protected him, and he caused to be borne to him provisions and rations. Then he caused him to be borne to the Crac of Moab (al-Karak) and he remained at it, because he was the son of his uncle. Then (it was) that the Franks (al-Afranğ), when the days of the truce were accomplished, evacuated the Noble Jerusalem (al-Kuds), so that there did not remain at it except one knight and seventy foot-men (who) dwelt in the Tower of David (Daud). Then (it was) that the Sultan collected about two thousand horsemen from a number of amirs, and he despatched them to Gaza (Ghazzah) to guard the lands. And the Franks (al-Afranğ) had departed to Ascalon (`Askalan) and had descended upon it (and) they had intended to rebuild it. And they rode, and they assembled, and they came to Furbia and they fought with the troops of the Muslims (al-Muslimin) who were at Gaza (Ghazzah), and they prevailed against

(5) I.e. Cairo (al-Kahirah) and Cairo (Misr).

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them from the beginning of the day until noon. Then the troops of the Muslims (al-Muslimin) revived according to their custom. And the infantry of the Franks (al-Afranğ) became weary, and they (the Muslims) charged at them again, and they took captive a group of them. And the Franks (al-Afranğ) had also killed a group of the Muslims (al-Muslimin), and they had taken captive a group among whom (were) amirs and leaders. And the two parties (1) became equal. And as for the Sultan, he returned with the remainder of the troops to Cairo (al-Kahirah). Then he went out hunting, after he had commanded that the possessions of the amirs who had been dissimulators should be taken and their houses pillaged; and he who had anything belonging to them it should be taken from him. And the people began to lie to one another, and the people on account of this fell into severe calamity, and they demanded what they did not have, and some of them were mulcted and some of them were imprisoned. And as for prices, they became cheap and they decreased, and everything returned to its limit, with the exception of olive-oil and linseed-olive and sesame-oil and meat and poultry and eggs and chick-peas and rambling-vetch. And olive-oil, because of the cutting off of the ways, was at three dirhams the ratl, and linseed-oil at a dirham and a quarter the ratl, and sesame-oil at a dirham and a half, and meat at one dirham and a half, and poultry at two dirhams for a chicken, and chick-peas for fifty dirhams the ardab, and rambling-vetch for twenty-five dirhams, and wax at eight dirhams and a half the ratl, and bees-honey at two dirhams the ratl, because all the bees had perished in this year. And as for wheat, it decreased to fifteen dirhams the ardab, and barley to nine dirhams the ardab. Then after that, the conflict between the Muslims (al-Muslimin) and the Franks (al-Afranğ) came to a close by reason of the overcoming of the Franks (al-Afranğ) by the Muslims (al-Muslimin). And this (was) that those who went out with the Franks (al-Afranğ) were from the Arabs (al-`Arab) who did not know the locality of the land nor the ruse of the Muslims (al-Muslimin) in fighting nor their stratagems. They (the Franks) set out and they separated and they went deep into the lands,

(1) Lit. 'tribes'. I.e. the Franks and the Muslims.

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because they pushed forward from Ascalon (`Askalan) towards Gaza (Ghazzah). And no one of the inhabitants of the Littoral who were accustomed to the lands accompanied them, but they (4) left them as food, according to their custom of treason and collusion with their enemies to the people of their faith. And the Muslims (al-Muslimin) had rushed on before them and had drawn them into an ambush, until they became bold and they dispersed. And the Bedouins (al-`Urban) surrounded them (the Franks) on all sides, and a great Count (Kund) of theirs was taken from them, and about fifteen knights, and of the infantry what was over five hundred men, and the double of them was killed. And there was not killed of the Muslims (al-Muslimin) troops, except Ibn Khalkan and those of no importance. And the mentioned captives arrived at Cairo (al-Kahirah), and the day of their arrival was a notable day (5). And the Count (al-Kund) and the horsemen rode on mules, and the infantry on camels, and there was with them a priest, and he rode a mule also. Then (it was) that the Sultan showed kindness to the Count (al-Kund), and he did not fetter him, but he left him in a tower alone, and he allowed to him all what he needed. And as regards the priest and the horsemen, they fastened on their legs fetters (attached) to iron balls. And as for the infantry, they fettered them, and they employed them at the Citadel. And Al-Malik an-Nasir, the Possessor of the Crac of Moab (al-Karak), descended to Jerusalem (al-Kuds) after this defeat, and he took it, and he slew all who were remaining in it of the Franks (al-Afranğ) (8). And he preached in it a magnificent sermon

(4) I.e. the Arabs.

(5)This was an incident in the Crusade of Thibaut IV, Count of Champagne, cf. R. Grousset, L'Empire du Levant, pp. 260-261 and L'Epopee des Croisades, pp. 345-346.

(8) This occurred about three years later, on August 23rd, 1244 A.D. Cf. R. Grousset, L'Empire du Levant, p. 261, L'Epopee des Croisadcs, p. 348, and S. Lane-Poole, A History of Egypt, p. 231.

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according to the direction of the Coran (al-Kur'an). And Al-Malik as-Salih, son of Al-Malik al-Kamil, remained under the protection of the son of his paternal uncle, this Al-Malik an-Nasir, at the Crac of Moab (al-Karak) And the conditions were unsettled, and the Khwarizmians (al-Khawarizmiah) returned, and they crossed over the Euphrates (al-Furat), and they came to Emesa (Hims), (and) they besieged it for some days, and they devastated its lands, and they took from its Possessor money, and they returned. And the Bedouins (al-`Urban) in Upper Egypt (as-Sa`id) (were) as before, as regards discord and dissimulation, on the plea of what (was) between the one and the other. Then (it was) that corn again fluctuated (in price), and wheat of excellent quality reached to thirty dirhams the ardab, and barley, to thirteen dirhams the ardab. And there was not in these days anything cheap, neither corn nor other than it, nor clothing, nor implements, because the soldiers had been enriched by the gifts of the Sultan, and they caused everything to be expensive. And in this year most of the wine of the people spoiled, so that there was not found a house in which there was not spoiled fermented-wine or (that) sun-exposed. Then (it was) that the monk `Imad al-Miršad who had made endeavours for the consecration of the patriarch by a gift (4), and had trampled on the Canons of the Church, and had done that alone, without (that) the opinion of anyone participated with him in it, either bishop or archon, God caused enmity between them(5), because the intention was corrupt. And the patriarch began to persecute him (the monk) in every place, and he interdicted him, because he was a priest, and he used to oppose the declarations of the patriarch; and he (the monk) used to follow up his (6) faults and to oppose him. at every time, and he wished to excommunicate him, as has been explained before. And he (the priest) came at this time and he made

(4) i.e. a bribe.

(5) I.e. the monk and the patriarch. 

(6) I.e. the patriarch's.

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endeavours until an order of the Sultan was issued to one of the amirs called As-Sarim al-Mas`udi, that he should see into the affair of the patriarch and hold a Council for him with the Christians (an-Nasara) in the presence of prominent Muslims (al-Muslimin) and their judges and their governors and their reliable witnesses, and this was begun. And the patriarch had gone up to the Church Al-Mu`allakah at Cairo (Misr) to consecrate a nun at it. And it was a long time (that) he had not gone up to it, since he had departed from it, when the Muslims (al-Muslimin) had taken possession of a part of it, on account of what had happened between him and them in the way of strained relations and on account of the belvedere (4) of which he had determined the limits, and it had been arranged according to what was said before. And when he was vested and had gone out into the middle of the church, with candles before him and priests chanting eulogies for him according to the custom, there was there an insane man known as Israel (Israyil) [I]bn al-Muhandis, dwelling at the top of the church. And when he heard about this, he came to a place overlooking the place in which (was) the multitude; and he insulted and he uttered obscenities, and he said: «Take him away! Take him away!» and he did what did not befit a sane man, but he was deprived of reason. And some of the multitude became furious, and they went up to him, and they beat him, and they broke open his head, and his blood flowed upon his garment. And he went out to the Minister of Works seeking shelter, and he (the Minister) was from among the mamluks (Mamalik) of the Sultan. And the monk `Imad had come to him (the minister), and he had come with an order of the amir As-Sarim to seek the patriarch. And the patriarch went out, and with him (was) the warrant, and ho delegated (his affairs) to the son of his brother and to the treasurer whom he had, and he was known as Abu'l-Farag [I]bn Khalbus. And they came with the patriarch to the

(4) A large room, generally on the upper storey of a house, in which the master of the house sits during the daytime and receives guests.

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house of the amir As-Sarim, and with him (were) two bishops, Abba (Anba) Joseph (Yusab), bishop of Fua (Fuah) and Abba (Anba) Paul (Bulus), bishop of the Fayum (al-Fayum), and they caused them to descend in a chamber at the side of the house of the mentioned amir. And he (the amir) had a Christian (an-Nasrani) friend known as An-Nağib, a scribe of As-Salah, and he conversed with the amir and he (An-Nağib) transferred them to his house, and they remained thus from the sixth Sunday of Lent until the Wednesday of the seventh week (5), and this was the ninth of (the month of) Baramudah (6) of the mentioned year (7). And the Council was held on the mentioned day, and there was present a group of the notables of the Christians (an-Nasara) of those who were summoned, and among those who were summoned not one of them was present by intention, and some, on account of work. And there was present at the mentioned Council As-Sarim as representative of the Sultan ---- may God empower his victory! ---- and the judge, the jurisconsult Ğamal ad-Din [I]bn al-Buri, administrator of the prosperous Egyptian (al-Misriyah) diwans, and the judge Al-Muhri, representative of the honorable judge at Cairo (al-Kahirah) the protected, and the jurisconsult Šaraf ad-Din as-Sabki, the inspector of weights and measures at it. And he was the spokesman at the Council, and fourteen assessors according to what was reported by those who were present of the trustworthy ones of our friends. And the patriarch and `Imad came forward and they sat in front of the presidents of the Council. And they (the presidents) said: «He who has a word (to say) or a plaint to bring against his companion, let him speak». And `Imad came forward and he said: «I bring a plaint against this David (Daud) that he gave

(5) I.e. Holy Week. 

(6) I.e. April 4th, Julian Style. 

(7) I.e. 1238 A.D.

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bribes for the consecration, and he has taken them, from him whom he has consecrated from the ranks of the priesthood, and it is contrary to our religious law. And they said to the patriarch: «What do you say?» He said: «I did not take (bribes)». `Imad said: «And did you not order anyone to take (bribes) for you?» He (the patriarch) said: «I did not order anyone to take (bribes) for me». They said: «And who will witness for you to the taking (of bribes)?», speaking to `Imad. He said: «These two bishops». And they both said: «We shall not witness to anything, and we have not seen anything.», for the two latter (were) of those who had given the bribe at his consecration; because there was not anyone of all these bishops who had been consecratedin the time of this patriarch, who had not given a bribe, except two, and they (were) the metropolitan (Mutran) of Damietta (Dumyal), and the bishop of Al-Khandak, and none other. And all the rest of them had given (the bribe) in advance, and had written their signatures for a deferment until they had departed to their sees, and they greeted him and they screened him. And their bribe was from two hundred dinars ---- and they were the majority ---- down to fifty dinars, and they (were) the minority, and this was beside what used to be paid to the son of the brother of the patriarch, and it (was) a fixed amount and (was) beside the gifts in the way of goods and beasts of burden and other than these, of kinds particular to the various districts. And it was said to `Imad: «Whom have you to witness beyond these two?» And he said: «These priests of the Mu`allakah (Church)». And there was summoned the priest Abu'l-Makarim, because he was the senior in rank and age. And he arose, and it was said to him: «What will you witness?», and he hesitated and he was dilatory in the matter, (and) he said: «He (the patriarch) took (a bribe) out of necessity», and he was disconcerted,

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and it was said (to him): «Sit down», and he sat down. And there was summoned the surnamed «Coffer of learning», the priest Abu'l-Ma`adi [I]bn as-Sani, his companion. And he witnessed and he said: «I testify-that this patriarch gave bribes for the priesthood, and he took them himself from those whom he consecrated; then he sat down. Then they began with a monk known as the father Michael (Mikhayil), and he was known before his monasticism as Fakhr ad-Daulah Marga, and he was dwelling with this patriarch for thirteen years. And he arose, and they said: «What will you witness?» He said: «I testify that this patriarch took bribes for ordination and gave them». And the patriarch said: «This is a single monk: his word against me is not to be accepted». And the patriarch, when the priests were summoned to witness against him, had said: «Their word against me is not to be accepted». It was said to him: «They (are) just (witnesses)». He said: «Just (witnesses), except against me, because for the patriarch there is not accepted, except the words of the bishops». They said: «Write (this)», because all what occurred they wrote in due form, and they wrote all what occurred. Then, after this, the judges said to the patriarch: «And if the bishops witness against you?» He said: «If two bishops were to witness against me that I have taken a bribe from him whom I consecrated to one of the ranks of holy orders, or (that) I ordered anyone to take it (for me), I should be excommunicated from holy orders». And the monk said: «Will you swear?» The patriarch said: «I am not able to swear, because, if patriarchs were to swear, they would be deprived of their rank». They (the judges) said to him: «If an accuser were to accuse you of what you have not (done), would you remain quiet and not swear?» He said: «I would suffer loss or be imprisoned, but I would not swear, and the rule is established that he (the patriarch) should not swear under any circumstance». He (the president) said: «Let him (the patriarch) swear by the munificence of the Sultan ---- may

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God perpetuate his kingdom! ---- that, if two bishops witness against him that he has taken a bribe for a consecration, or (that) he permitted anyone to take it (for him), he should be cut off from his holy orders», and they wrote this down. Then the judges said to `Imad: «Is there another accusation?» He (`Imad) said: «Yes. This David (Daud) consecrated for Jerusalem (al-Kuds) and the lands of the Franks (al-Afranğ)(5) a metropolitan (al-Mutran) (who) has hindered the Copts (al-Kibt) from (observing) their religious practices and has prevented them from circumcision and the marriage of near relatives (6), and letters of the Franks (al-Afranğ) have begun to come to him, and his letters to go to them, and this is not according to custom». The patriarch said: «I did not consecrate him, except for Gaza (Ghazzah), and not other than it, and if he (the metropolitan) has encroached on other than it, I have not ordered him (to do) this». And it was said to him (the patriarch): «Did those who preceded you do this?» He said: «They had there priests». `Imad said: «There were priests when Jerusalem (al-Kuds) was in the hands of the Muslims (al-Muslimun), but you did make the metropolitan (Mutran) while Jerusalem (al-Kuds) (was) in the hands of the Franks (al-Afranğ), and the metropolitan (al-Mutran) (is) other than the priests. And here (is) one who will witness that this metropolitan (al-Mutran) used to go about in the Frankish (al-Afranğiah) lands (9) by your command, and his belief has become their belief». And they said: «And who is he?» And there was summoned the priest, the monk, Gabriel (Ghabryal), the son of the priest Makarim [I]bn Kalil. And he arose and he witnessed that he had separated from him (the

(5) I.e. the Littoral of Palestine.

(6) Marriage between first cousins is allowed and is also frequent.

(9) I.e. the Littoral, cf. page 182, note 2.

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metropolitan) at Acre (`Akka)and this was written down. Then there was said: «Is there another complaint?» And `Imad arose and he said: «Yes, he (2) took a Muslim (Muslim) man known as Abu'l-Fakhr al-Kala, since he was selling fuller's-earth with which linen is bleached, and he gave to him the Holy Communion». And the patriarch denied (this), and there was one among the group to witness, and he was restrained, and he forbore, and no one witnessed against him (the patriarch) concerning this. And they wrote all this in order that they might inform the Sultan about it and extract his injunction on which they could rely. And mention was made of the inalienable endowments of the churches, and that he (the patriarch) receives their revenue, and (that) he does not deliver to the owners of the inalienable endowments anything of them. And the talk concerning it increased and decreased, and the final decision was written down, and the Council broke up, and the Muslims (al-Muslimun) had no praise for the Christians (an-Nasara) nor for their chief. As for their chief, how was it that he had not sufficient control that he might dominate their minds and endear their hearts to him. And as for the Christians (an-Nasara), how (was it that) they conducted themselves with their chief to this extent. And as for the intelligent Christians (an-Nasara), they did not consent to this Council nor did they approve of what occurred at it, and they said: «It was requisite to gather together the bishops and the archons, and that they should assemble with the patriarch and should reprove him among themselves with regard to all what they abhorred in him in the way of what was contrary to their religious law and disagreed with their judgments. And if he desist from this, it will be the goal, but if he persist in it, it will be for them not to follow him nor mention him in their Liturgies, on the condition that all of them are agreed on this, or most of them. And after this the talk was stopped, and of the document about this no trace appeared and no information was known about it. And the order against the patriarch and his companions was lifted, and it was said that he was mulcted on

(2) I.e. the patriarch.

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this occasion of three hundred dinars. And as for `Imad, (it was) that, when he saw that nothing would be done for him, he departed immediately from the house of the amir As-Sarim, and he followed the patriarch to the places in which he was, and he kept close to him, but nothing occurred from him. And the patriarch had sent to the bishops that they should come to hold a Council, thinking that he might delay till they came. And they reached Kaliub after the Council, on the Saturday of Lazarus (2). And the patriarch wrote to them that they should return to their sees, and that God had dispensed them from their trouble, and that it was the turn of him who had stirred up trouble for him and had opposed him. And they returned, because he had sought them for something which concerned him and nothing else. And there were among them, as was mentioned, those who wished to witness against him that he had taken bribes. However, they did not find a way, and they did not meet with an opportunity. And the patriarch remained neither well-disposed to the assembly, nor were they well-disposed to him, either outwardly or inwardly. Then (it was) that the patriarch went at the Feast of Olives (3) to the church of Saint ([A]bu) George (Girg) of Al-Hamra and there was staying at it an elder, an archon, known as As-Sanfah, brother of As-Sani, and he was an accountant of the Diwan of the prosperous Treasury, to whom all the diwan had recourse. And it was the intention of the patriarch to appease his heart, because he was a learned man, intelligent, influential and free from caprice, and he passed the night with him, the night of the Olives (5). And he wrote for him (As-Sanfah) his signature that he would deliver up the inalienable endowments which belonged to the churches to a good man from among those whom the assembly should select, and that

(2) I.e. the Saturday before Palm Sunday. So called in both the Creek and Coptic Churches from the fact that on this day there is made commemoration the raising of Lazarus, cf. Jh. xi, vv. 17-44.

(3) I.e. Palm Sunday.

(5) This would be the night of the Saturday preceding Palm Sunday.

---- 206 ----

their (1) revenue should be spent first on their (2) repair, then on the repair of the churches and their combustibles (3) and their oblations (Karabin)(4), and what remained over from them should be distributed to the poor, and (that) he (the patriarch) had nothing (to do) in this, except the supervision and nothing else, and he should not receive from them a dirham. And that he should establish for Cairo (Misr) a bishop, and likewise for Al-Khandak, and likewise for all the vacant sees, from among those to whom the congregation should consent and witness to his being upright. And that he should establish at Cairo (Misr) a teacher, and at Cairo (al-Kahirah) a teacher, who should instruct the people in what escapes their understanding, and should explain to them what is complicated for them, and should write the books and the commentaries, so that nothing in them should cause him who reads them to pause. And that any monastery, the chiefs of which desire that it should be under the supervision of the bishop of that see in which is that monastery, should be placed (under) his supervision on the condition that he (the bishop) should bear the contributions (Diyarat) of the mentioned monastery to him (the patriarch). And (there were) many things of this kind among which that he (the patriarch) should appoint with him two bishops to be present with him for all judgements and decisions, and (that) no order should be issued without them. And the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani`ah took the mentioned document, and he came with it to the Church of Abba (Abu) Sergius (Sarğah) to the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani, the monk, because he was residing at it. And he informed him of it, and there was with him a group of the priests and

(1) I.e. that of the inalienable endowments.

(2) I.e. the buildings belonging to the inalienable endowments.

(3) I.e. oil, candles and charcoal.

(4) I.e. the bread and wine for the Holy Eucharist.

---- 207 ----

the archons, and he (As-Sani) did not assent to it, and he said: «If he (the patriarch) consecrate a bishop for Cairo (Misr), the Church of Abba (Abu) Sergius (Sarğah) shall not be his, and I desire that he (the patriarch) write a copy of this document». And he brought out a copy of a document with the signature of Abba (Anba) John (Yuhanna) Ibn Abu Ghalib, the deceased (3), ---- and in it (there was) an exposition of the Faith and the blessing of the Fourth Council (4), and many chapters about the matter circumcision and the arrangement of the hair and such like things. And the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani`ah said: «Let us write this document, for (there is) nothing wrong in it». He (As-Sani) said: «And I desire that he (the patriarch) should write that he will send away the monks in the towns and the Rif, and that he should discontinue to marry a bride on the Carnival (ar-Rifa`) of (the Fast of) Nineveh (Ninawa) (7), and not on the Carnival (ar-Rifa`) of Lent (8) on account of the beginning of the fast for them; and that he should (re-)build the Church al-Mu`allakah and the Monastery of Abba (Abu) Macarius (Makar), and things resembling these matters». And the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sanfah took a copy of these (things), and he guaranteed that he would do them, and he departed, and this was on the Sunday of Olives (12). And after this, an order was issued to demolish

(3) I.e. the preceding patriarch.

(4) This is the Council held at Ephesus in 449 A.D. and known among the non-Monophysites as the Latrocinium.

(7) I.e. Septuagesima Sunday.

(8) I.e. Sexagesima Sunday.

(12) I.e. Palm Sunday.

---- 208 ----

the mansion of the amir Nur ad-Din [I]bn al-amir Fakhr ad-Din `Uthman, which (was) at the mansion of Ad-Dibag. And he was the chief of the amirs who had acted hypocritically, and had gone to Syria (aš-Šam) to Al-Malak as-Salih Isma`il in the preceding year. And a start was made on its demolition in the middle decade of (the month of) Baramudah (1) of the mentioned year, and they were on the point of demolishing the other mansion of [I]hn aš-Šaikh which was in the Lane Mulukhiah, and they did not do this, hut (it was) that its marble and weapons were stripped off and borne to the protected Citadel. And in these days there arrived the messengers of the Commander of the Faithful, the Calif (Khalifat) of the period, who resided at Bagdad (Baghdad) at the Mosque (al-Gama`), and the investiture of the ministry for the Sultan Al-Malak al-`Adil ---- may God empower his victory! ---- and with them (was) the messenger of the Sultan referred to, whom he had sent thither sometime before. And the Sultan wore them (3) on Friday, and it was Good Friday, the eighteenth of (the month of) Baramudah (5) of this year (6). And he went up to his protected Citadel and it was a remarkable day, and all the denominations went out in his honour, the Christians (an-Nasara) and their patriarch, and others beside them. And on Wednesday, the twenty-third of the mentioned (month of) Baramudah (8), there rode out the son of the mentioned Sultan with the robe of honour of the Caliph (Khalifah), the heir-apparent after his father, and he was a young child of three years of age, to the surroundings of it (the Citadel), and there was a servant riding behind him. And the robes of honour were all black, because this was the distinctive mark of the

(1) I.e. April 6th-April 15th, Julian Style.

(3) I.e. the robes of investiture.

(5) April 13th, Julian Style.

(6) Probably 1240 A.D.

(8) April 18th, Julian Style.

---- 209 ----

`Abbasid State and its banner. And it was a remarkable day, except that it was inferior to the first day, because the Great Sultan did not ride, neither (did) the messengers of the Diwan, but the amirs were walking in his train. And, after this, the patriarch discarded a man, a priest, known as Al-Makin, namely Al-Baha from the inhabitants of Miniat `Umar (2), and he was of the companions of the patriarch, and he used to go for him to collect (the contributions) of Lower Egypt (Al-Wağh al-Bahari). And the patriarch had ordained him priest for the port of Alexandria, and he had become angered with the patriarch on account of what he used to see of his sayings, his judgments and his conduct. And he went to As-Sarim al-Mas`udi who had been charged with the affair at first. And he said to him, that the patriarch says that you took money from him, and (now) you abandon him, and that, if this news reaches the Sultan, we shall not be safe from him (3). And the Council did not separate, except disgusted at the coming of the bishops and their testimony. And the bishops had arrived at Kaliub, and the patriarch sent them back with his letters. And he (5) stirred him (6) up against the patriarch, and he dismissed him (5) until he had caused the patriarch to be brought again, and he appointed a guarantor for him (the patriarch), and he caused him (7) to reside in the Church of the Harat Zuwailah. And he (5) caused to be brought the son of his (6) brother, Abu Sa`id and his (9) agent Abu'l-Farag [I]bn Khalbus, and his (10) scribe, the priest Simeon (Sama`an),and he confined them. And he sent and he caused to be brought Abba (Anba) Joseph (Yusab), bishop of Fua (Fuah),

(2) Unidentified.

(3) I.e. the patriarch.

(5) I.e. the priest Al-Makin. 

(6) I.e. As-Sarim al-Mas`udi. 

(7) I.e. the patriarch.

(9) I.e. As-Sarim al-Mas`udi. 

(10) I.e. the patriarch's.

---- 210 ----

because they had produced his signature against the patriarch for acts which were proved true with regard to him. He had written it in the days of his quarrel with him, when he (the patriarch) took from him the hamlet known as the D----(1); and he confined the latter with them.

And As-Sarim sent his letters to the bishops that they should be present, and eleven of them, the bishops, came, and among them (were) nine who had written their signature. And they (were): Abba (Anba) John (Yuannis), bishop of Samannud, and Abba (Anba) Mark (Markus), bishop of Talkha, and Abba (Anba) John (Yuannis), bishop of Bana and Abba (Anba) John (Yuannis), bishop of Lakan, and Abba (Anba) Michael (Mikhayil), bishop of Al-Baramun, and Abba (Anba) Gabriel (Ghabriyal), bishop of Sanhur, and Abba (Anba) Michael (Mikhayil), bishop of Sanša, and Abba (Anba) Ephraem (Afraham), bishop of Nastarau, and Abba (Anba) Mark (Markus), bishop of Sinğar. And among them (were) two (who) had observed (this), and they were the bishop of Fua (Fuah) and the bishop of Ašmun. And all of them had written their signatures that the patriarch had taken gifts for the orders of the priesthood and had given them. And among them (was) he who had written that he had come under excommunication, because he had written his signature to stipulations, but had departed from them. And there did not remain among them of those who had not written their

(1) The word following 'known as' is written without the diacritical points.

---- 211 ----

signature, except the Metropolitan (Mutran) of Damietta (Dumyat), and the bishop of Ašmun. And (it was) that they did not agree to anything of this, and there occurred disputes between the patriarch and this priest. And he (the priest) enumerated to him things among which (was) that he had excommunicated the bishop of Al-Khandak (4) for having taken six dinars as the price of a tomb at the Monastery of Al-Khandak, (and) afterwards he took it from him for himself. And that he had given judgment against a woman, that she should restore the bridemoney (al-Mahr) to its owner in double, if she wished (to become) a nun, (and) afterwards he contradicted the judgment for others than her; and (that) he had ordained the sons of slaves priests, and things, the explanation of which and the explanation of their meaning would be long. And he (the patriarch) would say: «I did not do this, except for the sake of God and in the interest of the Church of God». And the affair did not cease to vacillate and hatred was confirmed. And the scribe of the patriarch wrote his signature giving in detail the names, (and) that which reached the patriarch in the way of gifts (to obtain) holy orders, and such like things, (and) that it (9) (was) seventeen thousand dinars, and it was said fifteen thousand dinars and fractions. Then (it was) that the elder As-Sani, the aforementioned, was among those who supported the priest Abu'l-Baha, because he considered (that) this was among the causes of righteousness and divers recompenses.

(4) Cf. E. Amelineau, op. cit., pp. 220-221, and O.H.E. KHS-Burmester, A Guide to the Ancient Coptic Churches of Cairo, p. 87. The new Cathedral of Saint Mark, the Church of Saints Peter and Paul, the Church of Anba Ruwais, the Coptic Patriarchate, the Coptic Orthodox Theological College, the Coptic Institute and the Society for Coptic Archaeology are all built on this site which was formerly a cemetery.

(9) I.e. the amount of money received.

---- 212 ----

And he sent to him and he requested of him that he should write his signature on a copy of a document found with the signature of Abba (Anba) John (Yuannis) [I]bn Ghalib who had been before this patriarch (1). He (2) had written it at the beginning of his patriarchate in his (declaration) of the Orthodox Faith, and he excommunicated him who takes anything in the way of gifts for any order of the orders of the priesthood or (who) gives it; and the chapters of the sentences (judgments), and the repudiation of the Council of Chalcedon (Khalkiduniah) (5), and he wrote all in the handwriting of his scribe, and he wrote his signature to it, and that it was issued from him (6), and that he accepted what was in it, and that he agreed to it. And the mentioned elder (As-Sani) said that he (the patriarch) should not write anything at all, except with his (7) signature, and (that) we should add to it that the children of second marriages (8) should not be ordained, and (that) a woman shall not enter the church, except five days after her purification from menstruation; and he wrote all with his signature, and he wrote the additions which he had added. Then (it was) that an affair constrained the Sultan to go out, and he went out to Bilbais, and the amir As-Sarim went out with him, and he terminated that Council. And the bishops assembled with the patriarch, and they expressed their excuses, but he (the patriarch) did not speak to them a word, only (it was) that their signatures to what they had written were in the hands of the people, (in) a number of copies. And after the departure of the Sultan Al-Malik al-`Adil to Bilbais, the troops agreed

(1) Patriarch of Alexandria from 1189-1216 A.D.

(2) I.e. Abba John.

(5) I.e. the Fourth OEcumenical Council.

(6) I.e. the patriarch.

(7) I.e. the patriarch's.

(8) For ordination in the Coptic Church the candidates must be children of a first marriage only.

---- 213 ----

on seizing him, and that they should send to his brother Al-Malik as-Salih, that he should come and take possession of the kingdom. And they assembled in the night, the dawn of which started the day of Friday, the ninth of (the month of) Dhu'l-Ka`adah (in) the year six hundred and thirty-six of the Lunar (Year) (3) which corresponds to the seventh of (the month of) Bau'unah (4) of this year. And those who assembled were men of the guards, and their leaders (were) three of the ministers Šams al-Hawas Masrur and Šibl ad-Daulah Kafur and As-Safi Ğahar the Nubian (an-Nubi) and the notables, and their leader was the mamluk known as Atabak al-Asmar. And they marched round the tent of the Sultan, dressed in chain-mail (and with) arms, from the evening until the morning. And when it was the morning of the day, they entered to him, and they took him out, and they placed him in a pavilion, a fine tent, and they entrusted him to men of the guards to protect him night and day. Then they went round the camp of all the amirs of the Kurds (al-Akrad) and those of mixed race, and they pillaged it, and there were pillaged many dwellings in the city of Bilbais. And the scribes and the judges and the jurisconsults and the masses were pillaged, and it was a great calamity, except that no blood was shed in it. Then they turned to the intimate companions of Al-Malik al-`Adil, and they put a guard over them and over their possessions. And they wrote to the Sultan Al-Malik as-Salih Aiyub (7) that he should come, and their messenger reached him, and he was at Jerusalem (al-Kuds), (and) was resolved on returning to Al-Karak, because he was too weak to remain at Gaza (Ghazzah), since the troops of Egypt (Misr) (were) in front of

(3) = 1239 A.D.

(4) June 13th, Julian Style.

(7) 1239-1249 A.D.

---- 214 ----

him, and behind him (were) the Franks (al-Afranğ), and with them the Possessor (1) of Damascus. And the intention of Al-Malik an-Nasir, the son of his uncle, (was) that, if they returned to Al-Karak, he would place a guard over them, as it was at first, and there came to him relief, or rather a kingdom from where it was not expected. And he rode, and he came to the troops at Bilbais, and he reached (them) on Monday, the nineteenth of (the month of) Dhu'l-Ka`adah (in the) year six hundred and thirty-seven (5) which corresponds to the seventeenth of (the month of) Bau'unah (6). And he gave to the leaders considerable wealth and he vested them with robes of honour, and he crossed over to Cairo (al-Kahirah) the Protected in the daytime of Saturday, the twenty-fourth of the mentioned (month of) Dhu'l-Ka`adah which corresponds to the twenty-first of (the month of) Bau'unah (7). He passed through the city, and he went up to the protected Citadel. And he removed the amir Ğamal ad-Din [I]bn Ba`ur (9) from the office of equerry, and he made him governor (Wali) of the Port of Alexandria, and he removed Badr ad-Din Yunis. from the military amirs, and he made him governor (Wali) of Cairo (al-Kuhirah) the Protected, and he employed Al-Mu`ain [I]bn aš-Šaikh (as) his wazir, and he delivered to him (the Ministry) of Finance. And he levied troops for Upper Egypt (as-Said) on account of the Bedouins (al-`Urban), and he set over them the amir Zain ad-Din [I]bn Abu Dhikri. And there were among them amirs and notables, and a number of amirs and a company of the bodyguard which exceeded a thousand horsemen. Then (it was) that a group of Christians (an-Nasara) hastened to appose their signature to a document of theirs, that the Church

(1) I.e. As-Salih Isma`il.

(5) I.e. of the Hiğrah, = 1239 A.D.

(6) June 23rd, Julian Style.

(7) June 27th, Julian Style.

(9) The first letter of this name is without diacritical points.

---- 215 ----

Al-Mu`allakah should return to what it was (before), and they came to the governor (al-Wali) to consult him, and he commanded them (to do) this. And they arose at night, (and) they closed up the doors which the Muslims (al-Muslimin) had opened, and they acted as though they were the occupiers of it (2). And they had an enemy called [I]bn Haulah, and he was a mu'ezzin (al-Mu'adhdhin) in the locality, and he came to the places which had been closed up, and he opened them, and he restored them to what they were (before). And he went up to the jurisconsult `Abbas, the preacher at the Citadel, and he charged him with the case, and he said to him: «This (is) a prayer-house (Masğid), and the Christians (an-Nasara) have taken possession of it, and they have annexed it to their Church». And he took with him `Alam ad-Din Šama'il, amir of the bodyguard, and he came to the church; and there came with them of the mob of the Muslims (al-Muslimin), multitudes not to be counted, and there came with them the architects, and they were not able to say the truth which they knew, on account of the multitude. And they departed on the assumption that they would inform the Sultan of what they had seen, and this (was) Thursday. And when it was Friday, at the time of the Prayer (5), and they stood in the middle of the mosque (al-Ğama`), he (6) said: «O Muslims (Muslimin), he who (is) of Islam and (who is) fervent in his belief, let him come (on) the morning of the morrow to the Church Al-Mu`allakah». And when it was morning, they went up to it, and they broke its sanctuary lamps and the screens of its sanctuaries (7), and they took all the vessels (which) were in it. And it is said that they found under one of the altars (8)

(2) I.e. the place. 

(5) I.e. the general reunion for prayer in the mosque on Fridays. 

(6) I.e. the preacher of the Citadel, `Abbas.

(7) I.e. the wooden screen which separates the sanctuary from the nave. For examples, cf. the plates in O.H.E.KHS-Burmester, A Guide to the Ancient Coptic Churches of Cairo.

(8) The word 'haikal ' is strictly applied to the sanctuary, but, sometimes, also

---- 216 ----

ancient vessels from the days of old, of which none of the people of this (1) time had (any) knowledge, and they had great value. And they passed beyond in the direction of the sanctuary of Severus (Sawirus), and all that western side was in their possession. And the Church remained closed, and neither was the Divine Liturgy celebrated in it, nor were the Prayers (2) (recited). And as for Al-Malik al-`Adil, his brother Al-Malik as-Salih went up with him to the Citadel, and he placed him in a place, where no one could reach him, and no one saw him again. And the Christians (an-Nasara) remained undecided about going up to the Citadel or standing before the Sultan, and nothing was done for them. And there entered the year nine hundred and fifty-seven (4) on the day of Wednesday, the ninth of the reckoning of (the month of) Safar, (in the) year six hundred and thirty-seven of the Arabs (5). And the Sultan (was) Al-Malik as-Salih Aiyub, and the wazir (was) Mu`ain ad-Din [I]bn aš-Šaikh, and the kadi (was) Šaraf ad-Din [I]bn `Ain ad-Daulah of Alexandria, and the governor (Wali) of Cairo (al-Kahirah) (was) Badr ad-Din Yunis who had killed the military amir, and the governor (Wali) of Cairo (Misr) (was) `Izz ad-Din Muhammad, son of the wife of Aš-Šihab Ahmad, and the patriarch (was) Abba (Anba) Cyril (Kirullus) known as Ibn Laklak. And the rise of the water (6) in it (7) reached to twenty-three fingers above seventeen cubits. And the water had ceased rising from the Feast of the Cross (8), and the people were troubled at

to the altar. Here it seems that we must understand the meaning 'altar', and that the vessels in question were concealed in the cavity which is found in many ancient Coptic altars, cf. O.H.E.KHS-Burmester, The Egyptian or Coptic Church, p. 22.

(1) I.e. at the time when this history was composed.

(2) I.e. the Canonical Hours and the Service of the Evening and Morning Offering of Incense.

(4) I.e. 1241 A.D. 

(5) I.e. of the Hiğrah. 

(6) I.e. the Nile. 

(7) I.e. this year.

(8) I.e. September 27th, Gregorian Style.

---- 217 ----

this. And wheat reached to thirty dirhams the ardab, and barley, to twenty, and beans (al-Ful), to seventeen, and clover (Birsim), to sixty dirhams the ardab. And the rise regained to two fingers, and price(s) lessened a little, and the people were reassured, and most of the lands were watered. And the news arrived that the Franks (al-Afranğ) had gone out to Sichem (Nablus) and Ghor (al-Ghurr), and they had come to Gaza (Ghazzah), (and) they had besieged it, and they had taken the Noble Jerusalem (al-Kuds) (4) and they had begun on the building of Ascalon (`Askalan) (5), and that this (was) with the approval of Al-Malik as-Salih Ghazi, the Possessor of Damascus (Dimašk), paternal uncle of the Sultan. And (it was) that he had given to them (the Franks) a pledge to the effect that he would be in agreement with, and would aid them. And the Sultan levied about four thousand horsemen to go to Gaza (Ghazzah), and they departed, and they were seen at Bilbais. Then (it was) that the Christians (an-Nasara) returned to what they had been (before), with regard to the dispute about the patriarch. And some of them submitted an account to the Sultan, that he (the patriarch) intended (to do) what was not becoming to him and to depart from the religious law, and (it was) that he was in debt to the Sultan for a large sum (of money) which he had taken in his name; and that if he (8) brought the bishops and held a Council with regard to him (9), he would be assured about (this) report. And he (the Sultan) ordered that the bishops should be brought from the Lower (al-Bahari) and the Upper (al-Kibli) Lands,

(4) Jerusalem had been in the possession of the Franks from 1229 A.D. by reason of the treaty signed by the Emperor Frederick II Hohenstaufen and Al-Malik al-Kamil, cf. S. Lane-Poole, A History of Egypt, pp. 226-227.

(5) This relates to the Crusade of Thibaut IV, cf. R. Grousset, L'Empire du Levant, pp. 260-261.

(8) I.e. the Sultan.

(9) I.e. the patriarch.

(10) I.e. Upper and Lower Egypt.

---- 218 ----

and he sent an order to the patriarch, and he (1) was staying at the Church of the Harat Zuwailah according to the usual custom. Then the Council was held before Al-Mu`ain, the wazir, and those who addressed him were the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani, the monk, (and) Abba (Anba) Peter (Butrus) and the bishop of Fua (Fuah) who was known before his monasticism as the continent Joseph (Yusif), and the bishop of Asyut, and the bishop of Samannud, and a body of the bishops. And there occurred between them serious troubles and disputes, the last of which (was) that they said: «We have for the Sultan three thousand dinars, and he shall make a patriarch in place of him (7)». Then the wazir said to certain of those who were present: «Is this permitted with you?» (One) said: «No, O our sire, it is not permitted». He (the wazir) said: «But we shall not do what is not permitted, only (it is), that this one (the patriarch) has taken a considerable amount of money (which is due) to the Sultan, and he has not conveyed it to him, and I desire it of him». And they discussed about what they should do, and they reached to the amount of one thousand, five hundred and ten dinars, and the sons of the brother of the patriarch and the sons of his sister wrote their signatures for it. And they departed, and the heart of the patriarch was embittered against the bishops, and the hearts of the bishops against him. And he (the patriarch) began to occupy himself with raising the sum of money, and the bishops departed to their sees. Then (it was) that the Sultan levied troops to go to the Yemen (al-Yaman), and their strength (was) one thousand horsemen, and among them (was) the majority of the important (and) notable amirs, and they provided themselves with camels and

(1) I.e. the patriarch.

(7) I.e. Ibn Laklak.

---- 219 ----

dromedaries and banners and water-skins. And he (the Sultan) provided for them on the sea warships about forty units made in the shipyardsat Cairo (Misr), and they were mounted and carried on the backs (of camels) up to Al-Kalzam to be assembled there, and they journeyed from there. And their crews were taken from Cairo (al-Kahirah) and Cairo (Misr) the Protected and their regions. And the prisons and the hostels at Cairo (Misr) were full of men of the fleet, and a great sum of money was spent on them, and he (the Sultan) gave magnificent robes of honour to the leading amirs, and the Sultan comforted their hearts to an extreme degree, and he bestowed on them every good thing. Then (it was) that Al-Malik al-Ğawad Muzaffar ad-Din [I]bn Maudud ---- and it was he who was the Possessor of Damascus (Dimašk) and had delivered it up to the Sultan Al-Malik as-Salih, and he (6) had given to him Sinğar, and there is no doubt that, with regard to it, he was overcome by a ruse which the Possessor of Mosul (Mausul) had planned against him, and had taken it from him, and there did not remain to him except `Anah, and he had sold it to the Caliph (Al-Khalifat) ---- reached the dwellings of Egypt (Misr) through the desert, because he was not able to pass through the lands of Syria (aš-Šam) on account of the Possessor of Damascus (Dimašk), and the Possessor of Karak (al-Karak). And he was not able to cross over to Cairo (al-Kahirah), but he remained at Al-Abbasah, and there was with him, according to what was reported the young son of the Possessor of Emesa (Hims), and the son of the Possessor of the Fortress of Ğa`abar And they were provided with

(6) I.e. the Sultan.

---- 220 ----

provisions and money and clothing and live-stock and horses and mules, and all what they were in need of. And he (Al-Malik as-Salih) ordered them to go to Montreal (Šaubak), and they went towards Syria (aš-Šam) in the direction of Gaza (Ghazzah) and its surroundings. And prices were high, and wheat reached to forty dirhams the ardab, and barley exceeded thirty dirhams the ardab, and meat and poultry and oil and sesame oil and all kinds of eatables (were) expensive, as was mentioned before, and nothing in the lands was cheap at all of any kind. And as for buildings, they multiplied to a limit which allowed of no increase, until the wages of the builder were for four silver dirhams every day, and plaster (was) at a dirham and a half the waibah, and lime at six dirhams the kantar-ardab, and no one was able (to obtain) it. And the multitude of buildings was on account of the many comers from Syria (aš-Šam) and the East; because there came from them in these days (4) people not to be counted, and they built for them many dwellings outside the city, and in all places and ways, so that the city became as regards capacity like ten cities, and this was the reason for the dearncss of things and the wages of the workers. And the dearness, outside Cairo (Misr), was more than double the double that of Cairo (Misr). And the Sultan ---- may God perpetuate his kingdom! ---- had set up a place, and he called it the House of Justice, and he appointed in it three persons of the army, known as Al-Iftakharia Kut al-Ğamali al-Yamani, and the noble judge of the troops, and he was of the chief of the people, and another man known as the jurisconsult `Abbas, and he was the preacher at the Citadel. And the people used to submit to them their wrongs, and they signed for them for the governors (al-Wulat), and the place of the signing was for the names of the three of them, and by this the Sultan was relieved. And he gave himself up to his pleasures

(4) I.e. at the time in question.

---- 221 ----

and his rides and his hunting and what was related to it. Then (it was) that the messengers of the Franks (al-Afranğ) came frequently to our Sire, the Sultan, to seek for a treaty for keeping the lands which Al-Malik an-Nasir [I]bn al-Mu`azzam had given into their hands, and that they (1) should deliver up their captives whom they had taken in the recent conflict, on condition that they (2) should return to them also the Muslim (al-Muslimin) captives who (were) with them. And the wazir Kamal ad-Din [I]bn aš-Šaikh, the elder of the elders, went frequently to them (the Franks) for this purpose, and the affair was decided between them concerning this. And they swore to the Sultan and the Sultan swore to them, and he released the Count (Kunt) who had been taken captive and the knights (horsemen) who were with him (3), and he gave to them all robes of honour, and they passed through Cairo (al-Kahirah) riding, and they returned to their lands in (the month of) Baramhat of this year. And the news arrived that the judge of Sichem (Nablus) had received the Muslim (al-Muslimin) captives and that robes of honour were also bestowed on them, and they were treated well. And the lands which the Franks (al-Faranğ) had retaken were the Noble Jerusalem (al-Kuds), and Bethlehem (Bait Lahm), and Ascalon (`Askalan) and its districts, and Eleutheropolis (Bait Gibril), and its districts, and the district of Gaza (Ghazzah) except for the city, and Tiberias (Tabariah)and its districts, and Magdala (Magdaliana), and its districts, and Mount `Amalah, and Safad, and Beauvoir (Kaukab) and Tor (at-Tur),

(1) I.e. the Muslims. 

(2) I.e. the Christians.

(3) The reference is, it seems, to the captives taken in the campaign of Thibaut IV. 

(4) = 27th March-25th April, Julian Style.

---- 222 ----

and Toron (Tibnin), and Chateau-Neuf (Hunin), and As-Sakikan. And, in general, all the lands of the Littoral (3), (and) of these nothing was taken away from them (the Franks), except Sichem (Nablus) and Hebron (Al-Khalil), and the city of Gaza (Ghazzah), and nothing else. And it was said, that the treaty was only between the Arabs (al-`Arab) and the Asnariah, nothing else, and that the Templars (8) did not swear. And in those days, the Sultan ---- may God perpetuate his kingdom! ---- ordered that all the houses and what was with them and all what (was) on the Island of Cairo (Misr) (9) should be demolished, and that a fortress should be built; and he ordered to be bought from their owners the houses which were in it, and to be demolished, and to be built in their place towers and a wall. And he began on this, and he caused the foundation to be dug, and the work was arranged with regard to it, and the price of materials and the wages of the workers doubled for this reason. And it was recorded that, what was decided on to do with regard to these buildings, (was) seventeen towers, and every tower needed twenty-one piles besides shafts to be nailed and to be rammed down (and) afterwards built upon. And the Frankish (al-Afranğ) captives were sent to Egypt (Misr) to work on the mentioned fortress, and they caused them to lodge in the Church of Saint Mercurius (Abu Markurah) which is on the bank (12), because it was near. And the Christians (an-

(3) I.e. the Plain of Palestine, cf. R. Grousset, op. cit., Carte 9.

(8) I.e. the Knights Templar, a military order. 

(9) I.e. Rodah.

(12) Since this period the Nile has retreated some 600 metres, cf. O.H.E. KHS-Burmester, op. cit., pp. 40-4l.

---- 223 ----

Nasara), on account of this, fell into affliction and. cares, and they were, because there had happened (to) the Church Al-Mu`allakah what had happened; and this Church (2) (was) in this state, although ruin had fallen upon it. And (as for) the Church of the Island (3) we did not learn what became of it with this new wall in it. And all these churches (belonged) to the patriarch which he had chosen, and (they were) the places of his dwelling and rest. And, in these days, the bishop of Sandafaembraced Al-Islam, and he was called Ibn as-Sandubi, and he was taken round Al-Mahallah, riding on a horse. And the governor (al-Wali) vested him with a fur-mantle (Farut) and a triangular cap (Surbus), and (it was) something new, the like of which had not been witnessed; and the reason of it was that he had departed from what was obligatory, and he had fallen into the sin of fornication. And the patriarch wished to interdict him, (but) the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sanfah, the chief of the State accountants, did not allow him (to do this), for fear of what had happened. And the cause for this was (that) a man, a deacon of the church of Sandafa, had been interdicted by the bishop, and he had been prevented from acting (as deacon). And he did not cease to watch him (the bishop), until the sinful woman, and she was a Muslim (Muslimah entered to him. And he went to the governor (Wali) of Al-Mahallah (and) he informed him of this, because Sandafa was in the neighbour hood of Al-Mahallah, nothing separated them except the riverAnd it was then (that) the governor (al-Wali) sent two witnesses with male slaves, and they brought the bishop with the woman, and he was beaten very severely until it resulted that he departed from his belief.

(2) I.e. the church Al-Mu`allakah. 

(3) I.e. of Rodah.

---- 224 ----

And (as for) these crimes, these (are) their results, because they alienate from Christ entirely, and assistance is removed from those who commit them, and they fall into these difficult traps; and we ask God the Exalted that He may guard us against such things, and not to withdraw from us His assistance, for we have nothing beyond it. And, in these days, there came a woman from the East, and with her her husband, and she had a round beard and a moustache, like the beards of men, and she mentioned that she had children, and that they were in her country. And all the people used to visit her and see her, and she did not refuse (to be seen) by any, either men or women, except (it was), that no one was able to enter to her until he had given to her husband something, and he obtained in this way a great sum. And the Bedouins (al-`Urban) who had come from the Upper Sa`id (as-Sa`id al-A`la) (1) with the troops which had gone to them, fixed eighty thousand dinars as a ransom which they would bear to the Prosperous Treasury for the crime of their transgression; and they departed to their lands, that they might collect the money and bear it. And the Sultan ---- may God empower his victory! ---- had exacted a considerable sum of money, and he had delivered it to jurisconsult Baha ad-Din [I]bn al-Ğumaizi for the purpose of repairing the prayer-houses (al-Masağid) at Cairo (al-Kahirah) and Cairo (Misr) the Protected and what (was) between them. And he (the jurisconsult) occupied himself with them, and they were well repaired, and they were whitewashed, and there was engraved over their doors the name of the Sire, the Sultan, Al-Malik as-Salih Aiyub, and the date of their renewal and their (re-)building, and it was the year six hundred and thirty-eight (4). And the Sultan had ordered to build a bridge over the Canal (5) in place of the dam, so that he might pass over it in the days (of the inundation) of the Nile (an-Nil) to his garden known as the Bustan al-Khaššab. And it was made and finished before the days (of the

(1) I.e. from the southern part of Upper Egypt. 

(4) = 1240 A.D.

(5) I.e. the Canal of Cairo, cf. S. Lane-Poole, The Story of Cairo, pp. 145-146.

---- 225 ----

inundation) of the Nile (an-Nil), and he (the Sultan) passed over it. And the prices were in all these days high, (and) they did not diminish at all. Wheat did not go down more than a dinar the ardab, and barley (was) for thirty dinars the ardab, and nothing was more expensive than linseed-oil, and it was for two dirhams the ratl and two dirhams and a quarter the ratl. And as for wax, (it was) that it reached eleven dirhams the ratl, and fuel (was) for ten dirhams the load (1), and the people were in affliction on account of this and on account of the building of the fortress of the Island (2), when all kinds of building became expensive. And the Sultan ---- may God perpetuate his kingdom! ---- had learned of a conspiracy by Atabak al-Asmar and Kafur al-Faizi the minister, and Atabak was at Alexandria and Kafur (was) in Bilbais unarmed; and he sent to each of them an amir, and he seized both of them, and he placed a guard over the possessions of both of them. And he imprisoned Atabak al-Asmar at the Port (4), and (as for) Kafur, he went up with him to the Citadel, (and) he imprisoned him in it. Then he (the Sultan) pursued everyone whom he suspected of the bodyguards and the soldiers, and he seized them and he imprisoned them. Among them wore those at Alexandria, and among them were those at Cairo (al-Kahirah), and among them were those at the Citadel, and the majority of these were of those who had conspired against Al-Malik al-`Adil and had removed him. Then (it was) that a body of the Turks (al-Atrak) who were called «The Most Noble», bound themselves on oath that they would pillage the Kurds (al-Akrad) who had been levied for the Yemen (al-Yaman), and would take their possessions and would kill them and would decamp, because they (the Kurds) were staying altogether at the Pool (Birkat) known as the Birkat al-Hubb (8). And the

(1) I.e. a camel-load.

(2) I.e. Rodah.

(4) I.e. Alexandria.

(8) the MS. reads thus. Cf. page 97, note 8.

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Kurds (al-Akrad) were warned of this, and they sent to the Sultan to inform him, and he commanded them to cross over to Cairo (al-Kahirah), and they came at night. And when it was morning, the gates of Cairo (al-Kahirah) were closed, and the reason was not known, but the reason was to seize «The Most Nobles», and they were seized everywhere And some of them were dressed with the dress of women, and when he went out, he was recognized and seized. And among them (were) those who placed themselves in sacks of onions and carrots and what was like to them, (and) they were not afraid, because there was at every gate an amir with his companions and his large sacks. And Cairo remained thus for some time, and the first day and the second was the most severe of them; and this was in the seventh week of the Holy Lent (4), and it was at the very end (of the month) of Baramhat. Then the case of seizing everyone who was suspected continued. And the prisoners of the amirs, great and small, and the soldiers multiplied, and, for the most part, (they were) Turkish (al-Atrak) mamluks (al-Mamalik). And the Sultan seized Badr ad-Din Yunis whom he had made governor of Cairo (al-Kahirah), and the other two great ministers, and they were Masrur and Ğauhar the Nubian (an-Nubi). And. they were unarmed at the Port of Damietta (Dumyat) the Protected, and he brought them both to the Citadel, and he imprisoned them in it, and he placed a guard over the possessions of both of them. And in these days the Franks (al-Afranğ) departed from the Church of Saint Mercurius ([A]bu Markurah), when the majority of them went to their lands, and they were those who had been taken in this recent time with the Count (al-Kunt); a few people of them remained, (and) they were transferred

(4) = 27th March-25th April, Julian Style.

---- 227 ----

to another place. And troops were despatched to Gaza (Ghazzah) and Alexandria and Damietta (Dumyat), and they departed one by one, and the detachment for the Yemen (al-Yaman) was disbanded completely. And there did not journey, except three or four hundred horsemen of the Turks (al-Atrak) whom they sent to Mecca (Makkah) (3), with the intention to isolate them. And it was said that, when they departed to the desert, they seized the Arabs (al-`Arab) who were with them, (and) they bound them, and they said to them: «If you do not show to us the way to Syria (aš-Šam) and depart with us to them (4), then we shall kill you», and (it was) that they did this. Then (it was) that the Sultan ---- may God empower his victory! ---- prepared the troops for Syria (aš-Šam), and it was their intention, (as regards) Sichem (Nablus), to take it from Al-Malik an-Nasir [I]bn al-Mu`azzam. And they departed to Gaza (Ghazzah), and they were about three thousand horsemen, and their leaders (were) Kamal ad-Din [I]bn Šaikh and `Ala 'd-Din Karasankar as-Saki, and with them was a large group of the Arabs (al-`Arab). And Al-Malik al-Ğawad Muzzafar ad-Din [I]bn Mamdud who had been at first Possessor of Damascus (Dimašk), and had delivered it up to the Sire, the Sultan Al-Malik as-Salih Aiyub, (who) gave to him in exchange Sinğar and he sold it to the Caliph (al-Khalifat), had readied to Al-`Abbasah, in the service of our Sire, the Sultan Al-Malik as-Salih, and he purposed crossing over to Cairo (al-Kahirah), and to meet with our Sire, the Sultan, and to take with him troops and to go Damascus (Dimašk) to conquer it. And he was not able to cross over to Cairo (al-Kahirah), and he did not meet the sultanate dignity. And there was with him his young son, the Possessor of Emesa (Hims), and the son

(3) Sa`udi `Arabi.

(4) I.e. the Turks.

---- 228 ----

of the Possessor of the Fortress of Ğa`bar And he (the Sultan) caused to be sent out to them cattle, money, robes of honour, horses and provisions, and he ordered them to stay in their place. And it coincided with the going out of the troops, and they (the troops) suspected that (it was) with the object to seize them. And they decamped, and they progressed with difficulty on the way until they met with Al-Malik an-Nasir; and they agreed with him that they were of one accord with those who were friendly to them and against those who were hostile to them. Then (it was) that the Egyptian (al-Misri) troops were emboldened against those who (were) in front of them, and they rode, after they had put on their cuirass, and they sought the troops of Al-Malik an-Nasir, and their leader was Al-Ğawad, and they were, according to what was mentioned, three hundred horsemen, not less. And they had taken the route of the troops of Egypt (Misr) which was difficult. And they (the Egyptian troops) preceded them to Ras al-`Akabah which is in the districts of Jerusalem (al-Kuds), which was on the way to Bait Tubah. And the skirmishers came up to the troops of Egypt (Misr), and their leader (was) `Alam ad-Din Sinğar al-Fakhri and with him (was) the courageous al-Akta`and the amir Ahri and Al-Masa Bak, and these (were) amirs. And as regards those of their soldiers, they were many, and they(the Syrian troops) captured all of them, after the slaying of those who were slain. And when this was seen by those who were behind them, of those who were seeking (them), they did not resist them, but they turned back in rout, and they did not go up to Al-`Akabah (5), but they continued in (their) route up to Gaza (Ghazzah), and they did not remain in Gaza (Ghazzah), but they went out from it, making for Egypt (Misr). And when the troops of Al-Malik an-Nasir learned of this, they pursued them. And the

(5) I.e. Al-`Akaba, a port on the Red Sea.

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Bedouins (al-`Urban) who had Been with them and others than they, came out upon them, and they pillaged them, and nothing was left to them; and he who saved himself from them returned headlong on foot. And the troops of Syria (aš-Šam) reached to the place of the treasury, and Kamal ad-Din [I]bn aš-Šaikh was at it, and the treasury was taken in its entirety, and Kamal ad-Din was taken prisoner, and he was led to Al-Malik an-Nasir, and it was a defeat, the marvel of which had not been seen, that three hundred defeated three thousand or more. And the troops of Egypt (Misr) reached to Bilbais, and there was sent out to them rations and provisions. And it was ordered that they should cross over to Cairo (al-Kahirah), and the Sultan did not blame them for anything of what had happened, and they retained their bread-supply, and likewise for those who were captives, their bread-supply was retained for them, and there was not cut off, except the bread of Fakhr ad-Din [I]bn Ğaldak, and of none other. And it was said that it was on account of injustice towards the soldiers together with his flight without fighting. And, after that, there occurred between Al-Malik an-Nasir and Al-Malik al-Ğawad a difference, and he suspected him of a plot against him, and he was afraid of him for himself. And he commanded him (al-Ğawad) to be arrested, and he was arrested. And he (Al-Malik an-Nasir) wished to turn to Al-Karak to imprison him (al-Ğawad) in it, and he was counselled that this one was a courageous king and of the family of their house, and that it was necessary that he should exile him from the lands and drive him into the desert which goes towards the East and Bagdad (Baghdad), and that he should go with his goods and his luck. If he were saved, it was to be, if he perished, Al-Malik an-Nasir would not be blamed for it in anyway, and he commanded this. And when he (al-Ğawad) went towards the desert, he directed his return towards Syria (aš-Šam), and it is said that he (al-Ğawad) supplicated the Bedouins (al-`Urban) who were with him, until they conducted him

---- 230 ----

(thither). And it is said that, when they left him, he was released, and he went to Syria (aš-Šam), and he met Al-Malik as-Salih, his paternal uncle, the Possessor of Damascus (Dimašk), and they came to an agreement. And messengers travelled between our Sire, the Sultan Al-Malik as-Salih, Possessor of Egypt (Misr) and Al-Malik an-Nasir (3), and they were reconciled, and each of them swore to his companion. And Al-Malik an-Nasir sent the captives who were with him, Kamal ad-Din [I]bn aš-Šaikh and the amirs who were with him, after he had bestowed on them robes of honour and had treated them well. And before this, they had been in disgrace and intimidation and abasement; and there was not put to death of them except the courageous al-Akta`. It was said that he killed him because he had acted hypocritically towards him and had played him false twice. And it was said that he placed him in a dungeon in Al-Karak, and God knows (best). Then (it was) that Al-Malik as-Salih, the Possessor of Damascus (Dimašk) went out with him who was his host, and he came to an agreement with the kings of the parties, such as the Possessor of Emesa (Hims) and the Possessor of Sarkhad (7) and Al-Malik al-Ğawad who had sought refuge with him, and he came to Sichem (Nablus). And he provisioned himself there, and he fell upon a band of the troops of An-Nasir, and he overcame them, and he took captives from them, and he pillaged. And they arrived at Gaza (Ghazzah), and the Egyptian (al-Misri) troops decamped from it, but they delayed. And the Franks (al-Afranğ) departed with them, because they had given to them all the Littoral, and had promised to them something else, if their purpose succeeded. And our Sire, the

(3) I.e. Al-Malik an-Nasir Ibn al-Mu`azzam.

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Sultan ---- may God empower his victory! ---- began again to equip the troops, and he took out his tent and his audience-tent, and he set them up at Al-Khandak, and he provided for the journey, and the troops went out singly, and some of them arrived at Al-`Abbasah. Then (it was), that the news came that the Syrian (aš-Šami) troops had delayed (from departing) from Gaza (Ghazzah). Then the news arrived that they had returned and had stopped their march, and that our Sire, the Sultan, had become reconciled with Al-Malik an-Nasir. And in these days the Nile (an-Nil) increased greatly, and it went up to the building which was constructed at the Island, and the work at it ceased, except for the house and the new apartments of the Sultan, and the building of them continued. And, in these days, a man from the soldiers, and he was an inspector of works of the Island, lodged in the hall which the patriarch had built at the church of the Island, and he remained at it for some days. And the patriarch was pained on account of it, and he spoke with the people, (saying), that this was what he feared and had taken precautions against, because, if this (hall) had been, as it should have been, in the interior of the church(7), it would have been a place to which no attention would have been paid to it, and no one (would) have been opposed to it. And (now) it was a matter (which) would lead to the destruction of the church, and pave the way to other hands to it. Then (it was), that the mentioned man departed from it (the hall), and he was known as Saif ad-Din Burna as-Sahmi. Then (it was) that the blessed Nile (an-Nil) reached to sixteen cubits in the daytime of Monday,

(7) If this hall had been within the enclosure of the church, it would not have been considered a new building, and, consequently, have been allowed. A case of this is recorded by B.T.A. Evetts, The Churches and Monasteries of Egypt, p. 106.

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the nineteenth of (the month of) Misra (1) which corresponds to the third of (the month of) Safar (in the) year six hundred and thirty nine of the Lunar (Year) (2). And there was an order to construct a bridge from Cairo (Misr) to the Island, and it was constructed, and there were in it twenty-one boats; and its width was large enough for two loaded camels, one of them coming and the other going, and they would not press together, and the people found in this great facility. And when the days of the new year (an-Nairuz) (4) drew nigh, our Sire the Sultan, came to the Island, and he stayed at it, he and his attendants. And there was above the building of the Nilometer a chamber which was borne beyond it on columns, and it was he who made it, and it was not before, because there was not there (anything) except a upper court, and the chamber was within it. And this Sultan made this chamber, and it turned out a fine innovation, and of all what he ---- may God perpetuate his days! ---- was wont to do or to suggest nothing could turn out in the world more successful than it, or finer or more balanced. And one of the ministers, known as Rašid as-Saghir, lodged in the hall which belonged to the patriarch, which was at the church of the Island mentioned before; and the patriarch had departed from it, and had gone to the Monastery of the Beacon (5), and it was a chance coincidence. Then he (the Sultan) ordered to construct a bridge on the water from the Island to Al-Gizahand he provided for it. And he who was in charge of all the constructions (was) the amir Ğamal ad-Din [I]bn Yaghmur. And the mentioned minister departed from the hall, and he did not pass in it except one night. Then the mentioned bridge was cancelled through lack of boats which were suitable for it; and it was said, that it was delayed until the blessed Nile

(l) = August 12th, Julian Style.

(2) = 1241 A.D.

(4) This is the name given to the first day of the Coptic year. It is August 29th, Julian Style and September 11th, Gregorian Style. It is one day later in Leap Years.

(5) For this monastery, cf. B.T.A. Evetts, The Churches and Monasteries of Egypt, pp. 192-196.

---- 233 ----

(an-Nil) decreased, and what would he needed for it in the way of boats would (then) be less. And the Nile (an-Nil) was increasing, and price(s) were increasing, and (there was) dearness for all (what was) on earth (1). And Egypt (Misr), as regards scarcity, suffered less than (countries) other than it, and it was better, because it was mentioned that wheat at Damascus (Dimašk) cost three hundred silver dirhams a bag, and it (the bags) (was) of two Egyptian (al-Misri) ardabs, and the cost of the grinding (was) sixty silver dirhams, because its (5) rivers had dried up. And the majority of the people from among the wage-earners and the wretched and others than them of the East and Syria (aš-Šam) and the rest of the confines had left for Egypt (Misr); and there was in it, in the way of people, what was not to be counted and not to be described, and this was the chief reason for the dearness. Then there entered the year nine hundred and fifty-eight (7), and (at that time) the Sultan ---- may God perpetuate his kingdom and empower his victory! ---- (was) Al-Malik as-Salih, and the wazir, Mu`ain ad-Din [I]bn aš-Šaikh, and the judge, Šaraf ad-Din [I]bn `Ain ad-Daulah al-Iskandari, and the patriarch, Abba (Anba) Cyril (Kirullus) known as Ibn Laklak. And the water (of the Nile) increased, and the prices were soaring, and the news arrived (that) the troops of Syria (aš-Šam) had been overcome, and (that) they had returned to Damascus (Dimašk) defeated, (and) the troops of Al-Malik an-Nasir [I]bn al-Mu`azzam had overcome them. And messengers of the Franks (al-Afranğ) came to seek a truce from our Sire, the Sultan ---- may God empower his victory! ---- and they were the messengers of the Templars (9), apart from the Westerns, the possessors of Ascalon (`Askalan), and

(l) I.e. the part of the world known to the writer.

(5) I.e. Syria's.

(7) = 1242 A.D.

(9) I.e. the Knights Templar, a military order.

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others besides them from the notables of the Franks (al-Afranğ). They made a truce with our Sire, the Sultan, and those who were with the Possessor of Damascus (Dimašk) when they saw their defeat and the victory of the Possessor of Egypt (Misr) over them, (and) they returned to submission and peacefulness, and a truce was sought with regard to what (was) in their hands. Then (it was), that our Sire, the Sultan ---- ---- may God empower his victory! ---- discovered treason on the part of some of the amirs ---- may God thrust their plot in their throats! ---- and he seized one of them called Ibn Falah, and he was of the nobles. And our Sire, the Sultan, had shewn extreme goodness, but he had repaid him with what was evil. Then he seized two senior amirs of the Kurds (al-Akrad), and they (were) Baha ad-Din [I]bn Malkisu and Nasir ad-Din [I]bn Burlas, and he caused the three to be sent to the Fortress of Sadr under guard, after he had taken possession of all their wealth. And the blessed Nile (an-Nil) reached in this year to eighteen fingers above eighteen cubits, and it came (up) very well, and it was stabilized on the lands with good stability, only that prices were increasing for every thing in the way of eatables and other (things) than them, even clothing and buildings. And people were multiplying in the Egyptian (al-Misri) lands from Syria (aš-Šam) and the East and the Irak (`Irak) on account of the dearth which (was) there. Then (it was), that our Sire, the Sultan ---- may his victory be empowered! ---- seized a senior amir of the Turks (al-Atrak) of the mamluks (Mamalik) of his father, known as Sinğar al-Yamani, and it was said, that he exiled him from the lands, and a group of the bodyguard known and unknown, and he dismissed Al-Kadi Šarif ad-Din, the judge of the judges, from the jurisdiction of Cairo (Misr), and he restricted him to the jurisdiction of Cairo (al-Kahirah) and Lower Egypt (al-Wağh al-Bahari), and he employed for the jurisdiction of Cairo (Misr) together with Upper Egypt (as-Sa`id) a man (who) had

---- 235 ----

been judge at Sinğar, and he was of the companions of the Sultan ---- may his victory be empowered! ---- and he had sent to him a letter to bring him, because he had served the Sultan ---- may God perpetuate his kingdom! ---- in the days, (when) he was at Sinğar, and he had expended effort in his service. And prices rose until wheat reached to fifty dirhams the ardab, and barley, (to) thirty-five dirhams the ardab, inferior linseed, (to) eighty dirhams the ardab, and turnips like it, and linseed oil, (to) eighty-eight dirhams the jar, and all in this proportion; in general, there was nothing in the lands really cheap, and also any kinds of buildings, they were impossible for them (the people). Though the people, even with the dearness, did not cease from (erecting) buildings, together with the buildings of the Sultan, the like of which had never been. And the sun was eclipsed at the ninth hour of the daytime of Sunday, the ninth of Babah (2) of this year, and the eclipse hid it to such an extent that the stars appeared at that time, and the people lighted lamps in the shops and the baths. Then, after that, the eclipse cleared away gradually, until the sun returned to its condition, and the light appeared as it had been. And it was said, that (as regards) this eclipse, no one could recall the like of it; and some of the aged people said that the like of it had occurred in the days of Al-Malik an-Nasir Salah ad-Din, (in the) year (when) Jerusalem (al-Kuds) was taken from the Franks (al-Afranğ) (3); and for this event fifty-five years had passed (4), and the people were greatly awed by this event of to-day, and they said: «What will result from this event?» And the messenger of the Emperor (7) arrived at Alexandria, and with him a great (sum of) money and considerable merchandise and precious gifts. And it was said, that the ship in which he arrived held a hundred sailors, and that its name (was) 'Half the world', and his

(2) = October 6th, Julian Style. 

(3) I.e. October 2nd, 1187 A.D.

(4) I.e. from 1187-1242 A.D. 

(7) I.e. Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, 1194-1250 A.D.

---- 236 ----

(the messenger's) arrival at Cairo (al-Kahirah) was postponed. Then it was permitted to him to come, and he was brought by land, and he was delayed on the way, and he was made to go round by the Fayum (al-Fayum) and he came to the Pyramids, and he crossed over (the river) from Gizah (al-Ğizah). And he had with him about one hundred men, and the day of his arrival was a great (day), and the two cities were decorated for him. And all the troops rode (out), and they received him, and all the people went out. And the mentioned messenger and his companion were both on mares from the horses of Nubia (an-Nubah) which belonged to our Sire, the Sultan ---- may God empower his victory! ---- And they came with both of them, and they caused both of them to lodge at the Sultan's Palace which (is) in the vicinity of the House ad-Dibag (4) known as the dwelling of As-Sahib [I]bn Šukr. And the elder of the two of them, on whose body, it was said, (was) a robe of wool, in the Large Palace, and the younger, in the Palace which is at the Gate (al-Bab) of the Barb aš-Šaikh, known as the dwelling of `Izz ad-Din Ibn as-Sahib the aforementioned. And he (the Sultan) bestowed on them in the way of grants, and gifts of hospitality and liberalities and benefits, the like of which had not been heard of. And the two messengers remained for some days without meeting with our Sire the Sultan ---- may God perpetuate his kingdom! ---- Then he (the Sultan) summoned both of them, and he sent to both of them horses of Nubia (an-Nubah), but to their companions (he did not send, because) they were not riding, for they had arrived by river. And the day of their going up to the protected Citadel was as the day of their arrival. And they remained in the country on account of the winter, with hospitality and honour and invitations and joy and hunting and the shooting of the arbalest. Then (it was), that the news arrived, that the troops which had been

(3) I.e. Cairo (al-Kahirah) and Cairo (Misr). 

(4) Merchants of coloured silk stuffs, cf. R. Dozy, op. cit., vol. I, p. 241.

---- 237 ----

levied at Kos (Kus) and they were Turks (al-Atrak), and their leader (was) a man called Tafarbal al-Hağafi az-Zahid, had revolted, and they made this Tafarbal a sultan, and they seized the governor (Wali) of Kos (Kus)and they exacted the import duties, the capitation taxes and the tribute, and they made free us of the stores. Only none of the Bedouins (al-`Urban) followed them in this through fear of the Sultan. And he (the Sultan) levied about two thousand horsemen against them, and their leader (was) Ar-Rukn al-Hiğawi on the eastern bank, and he (the Sultan) sent the notables on the western bank, and they gathered from their clans and their tribes what exceeded two thousand horsemen, and they journeyed until they arrived at Miniat Bani Khasib. And there arrived a man from Upper Egypt (as-Sa`id), continent, (and) extolled among the Muslims (al-Muslimin), and it was said, that he possessed prestige. And he had arrived at Cairo (al-Kahirah), and he was honoured by the Sultan and the wazir and the rest of the Muslims (al-Muslimin). And he came now to seek security for this dissembling: group and to close the door of sedition, and to spare blood-shed. And his dwelling (was at) Damamin (4) of Upper Egypt (as-Sa`id), and he was known as Aš-Šaikh Mufrag, and he came in a fire-ship in four days, and he came together with (5) our Sire, the Sultan, and he obtained security for them (6), and he returned at once in his fire-ship. And the troops had reached to the boundaries of Akhmim, and he gave to them security. And they desisted from what they had been, and they obeyed, and they entered the service of the amir Ar-Rukn al-Hiğawi, and all returned to Cairo (al-Kahirah) the Protected. And when they arrived, they did not see the face of our master, the Sultan. And, after some days, he ordered to be seized a certain group of them; and it was said that they remained

(4) Read, perhaps, Damamil, cf. Dictionnaire Geographique de l'Egypte, p. 160. It is at distance of 1 hour and a half from Kus.

(5) I.e. he met.

(6) I.e. the troops which had mutinied.

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(free), and it was said, on the contrary, that they were imprisoned in some cities. And as for the remainder, he ordered them to go out to the Rif to dwell in it, on condition that none of them should have a mare nor bear arms, but should be a husbandman or a merchant, and, if he wished for his family, they should go out to him, and this was not forbidden to him. And they dispersed in the lands, and our master the Sultan, spared their lives, although the jurisconsults had given the decision that the killing of them was licit because they had revolted, and had broken their oath, and had proved themselves treacherous to their Sultan and had raised a sedition, and he pardoned them for all this. Then (it was), that he (the Sultan) ordered the departure of the troops to Syria (aš-Šam), and they equipped themselves, but they did not depart. And the news arrived that Al-Malik al-Ğawad [I]bn Mamdud had come to terms with the Franks (al-Afranğ), and had descended with them, and that they had come to Gaza (Ghazzah) and had taken all what was in it. And they returned (and) descended at Caesarea (Kaisariah), and they remained unsettled in the Littoral, (going) from place to place, and Al-Malik al-Ğawad (was) with them. And after the departure of the Franks (al-Afranğ) from Gaza (Ghazzah), there came Al-Malik an-Nasir [I]bn al-Malik al-Mu`azzam, and he descended at it, he and his troops. And, in these days, there was at the prosperous Treasury a man, an overseer, known as Šihab ad-Din, judge of Darau, and he was prompt in what he dealt with, (and) very assiduous in the service of the Sultan, and he discovered that there remained of the sum (with) the signature of the patriarch (8) five hundred and ten dinars; either (it was) that he had come to know of it by himself, or (that) it

(8) I.e. acknowledging his debt.

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had been reported to him. And he sent to summon the son of his (the patriarch's) brother and the son of his sister in whose names was the signature, and he demanded from both of them the amount, and he enjoined on them (the payment). And the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani`ah who was called chief surveyor of state accounts was he who had full authority, and in him (was) the fear of God. And he was from among those who detested the patriarch; but he contrived to charge some senior soldiers (with collecting) this amount, and he succeeded with them to reconcile them about it; and it was said, that the patriarch did not weigh out of this sum beyond three hundred dinars. And he (the patriarch) took the receipts and his relatives were saved. Only (it was) that there occurred for him (the patriarch) affliction on this occasion and straitening of breast and complaint of the lack (of money), the like of which had not occurred, and had not been heard of in the time of the great imposed tax. And he (the patriarch) went to the Harat Zuwailah, (and) he took what (was) at it in the way of wax and other things beside it, and he asked help from a priest at it, and he was named Abu Šakir, and he used to serve at the single Gate (Bab) al-Maisim for civil and military appointments (Ğamkiat al-Bardariat). And he was prosperous, and it was said that he had taken the price of a mill which was inalienably endowed to the church (4), and God knows (best). And he (Abu Šakir) wrote to Upper and Lower Egypt (al-Wağhain al-Kibli wa'l-Bahari) for this reason, and he asked help from the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani`ah, the aforementioned archon, to the same effect. And he (As-Sani`ah) wrote for him (Abu Šakir) to the representatives and the employees for help. And as regards the prices, they rose greatly: wheat reached to seventy-five dirhams the ardab, and barley, (to) forty-two dirhams the ardab, and poultry (was) at one silver dirham the hen, and meat,

(4) I.e. the Church at the Harat Zuwailah.

---- 240 ----

at one dirham and a half and an eight the ratl, and sugar, at three dirhams the ratl and wax, at a dirham the aukiah (1), and honey from bees, at three dirhams the ratl, and olive-oil, at three dirhams the ratl, and all what (was) in the land was in this proportion. And there was affliction, no greater and no stranger than which had been related, because the water (of the Nile) in this year reached to eighteen fingers out of eighteen cubits, and these prices (were) in this manner. And it was the usual custom that, if the crops were productive every thing was cheap, such as Hour and live-stock and cloth and furniture. And in these days all what (was) in the land (was) expensive, even building-tools and the wages of craftsmen. And as for the fortress of the Island, the work on it was continuous, and (there was) effort and perseverance to complete it. And every house (which) was in it was demolished, and the building reached to the places which were before the church and the mosque (al-Ğama`), and they were demolished, and the place became a great square and an open space. And one of the companions of the Sultan came, and he was Master of the Ceremonies (al-Mihmandar), and he was known as Akhi Al-Hağib `Ali, (and) he descended at the hall of the patriarch which was at the side of the church of the Island, and he placed in it his baggage, and he took the key of it. And the patriarch came, (and) he descended at the room which he had built out from the side of the church, (and) he had made it at the side of this hall, intending thereby to protect it (the hall). And (it was), that, when this man went out from this hall, he (the patriarch) returned to it, and there befell him through this place soreness of heart and evil trouble. And as regards the pavilion which was constructed on the platform of the Nilometer

(1) = 1,321 ounces.

---- 241 ----

(al-Mikyas) which everyone approved of, it was demolished and there was built in its place a great tower (pu/roj) at the head of the apex (of the Nilometer). And as for the western side, all of it was completed (as) a belvedere for our Sire, the Sultan, gardens and reception rooms, from the church to the end of the building. Then (it was), that the Sultan ---- may God empower his victory! ---- levied troops for the Yemen (al-Yaman), their number (being) two thousand horsemen, and among them a company of the amirs and the leaders, such as As-Sarim al-Mas`udi, and the nobles and `Alam ad-Din Sama'il and others besides them. And he spent for every eunuch thirty dinars, and he gave to the amirs according to the number of the eunuchs, for every eunuch, ten dinars. To him who had with him fifty, he gave five hundred dinars apart from what the eunuchs took for themselves; and he ordered them to equip and to journey to the Yemen (al-Yaman), and they started on this. And they began to sell the horses and the cows and the water-buffaloes (al-Ğamus) and the sheep. And they journeyed with the camels and the dromedaries and the equipment of the water-carriers and the objects for travelling to the Higaz (al-Hiğaz) and the Yemen (al-Yaman). And horses became cheap to an excessive degree, and camels became very expensive as well as the pots and the large water-skins and the water-skins , and buckets and all things of this kind. And Mosol (Mausili) thin unleavened bread was bought at fifty dirhams the kantar and at fifty-five, and ring biscuits (al-Ka`k) the same, because it happened in (these) days that the price fluctuated, and wheat reached to seventy dirhams the ardab, and bread (was) at a quarter and an eighth of a dirham the ratl. And the condition was serious, and the crews of the fleet were seized by command of the ships for the Yemen (al-Yaman); and importation was little, and the times were hard to an extreme. Then (it was), that the Sultan ---- may God empower his victory! ---- levied other troops for Gaza (Ghazzah) of

---- 242 ----

about three thousand horsemen, and their leader was Ar-Rukn al-Hiğawi, and among them was a group of the amirs; and they departed, and they descended at Gaza (Ghazzah). They assembled with Al-Malik al-Ğawad Muzzafar ad-Din [I]bn Maudud, and the intention was to reconcile him and to journey to Damascus (Dimašk) to take it. And they remained there, and the troops for the Yemen (al-Yaman) were preparing for departure, and there did not remain among them except those who resolved on this. And, lo, news arrived that Fakhr ad-Din, son of the messenger of the Possessor of the Yemen (al-Yaman) had come to Mecca (Makkah), (and) had taken it by ruse from the troops which were in it; and the resolution to occupy the Yemen (al-Yaman) weakened and came to an end. And barley went down on Holy Saturday, and it reached to forty dirhams the ardab, and bread (was) at six ratls a dirham, and flour, at sixty-five dirhams the measure; and the people rejoiced at this exceedingly, and it was a blessed Feast. And the troops levied for the Yemen (al-Yaman) rejoiced at the cancelling of the resolution (to go) there. And they sold again what they had bought, and the greater part of the provisions was lost for them. Such as the ring biscuits (al-Ka`k) and the thin unleavened bread and the fat and what was like it; and the prices for horses again became expensive, because they returned to buy them. And the news arrived that Ar-Rukn al-Hiğawi who was the leader of the troops of Gaza (Ghazzah) had left the troops, and had separated himself from them, he and Al-Malik al-Ğawad, for a matter which they both suspected. And as regards Al-Malik al-Ğawad, he joined the Franks (al-Afranğ), because they were in alliance with him; and as for Ar-Rukn,

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he turned to Damascus (Dimašk). And it was said, that he did not go there, except to arrange an affair and to settle a dispute, though his departure was out of fear for his life, but deceit and treachery and breach of faith were not known to him at all. Then (it was), that the Franks (al-Afranğ) began to sally out from Bethlehem (Bait Lahm) and other (places) than it, and they pursued people to kill them on the way and to confiscate their wealth. And news reached Al-Malik an-Nasir [I]bn al-Mu`azzam, and he was the Possessor of the Karak (al-Karak) and Sichem (Nablus) and the Mountain of the Friend (Hebron) and Beisan (Bisan) about this, and he marched against Bethlehem (Bait Lahm), and he killed all who (were) at it of the Franks (Farangi) and the Christians (Nasrani), and he took their possessions, and he took captive the guards, and they were days of trials, troubles and fears. And some of the pilgrims who had gone to Jerusalem, departed from it to Acre (`Akka); among them (were) some who went on business, and among them (were) some who went to their relatives there; and they were seized on the way, and a group of them were killed, men and women. And as for the patriarch, his principal place (of residence) was at the Monastery of the Beacon (Dair aš-Šama`), because there did not remain for him a place to reside in, except it. And when it was in the daytime of Friday, the twelfth of (the month of) Bau'unah (11), and it was the Feast of the glorious angel Michael (Mikhayil), which corresponded to the fifth of (the month of) Dhu'l-Hiğğah (in the) year six hundred and thirty-nine of the Islamic (Year) (12), there stood up a

(11) = June 6th, Julian Style. 

(12) I.e. 1241 A.D.

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man of the Sufis (as-Sufiah) who were named Calandars (al-Kalandariah) (1) in the mosque (al-Ğama`) at Cairo (Misr), after the prayer of Friday, and after the end of the sermon, and he cried out at the top of his voice: «O Muslims (Muslimin), he among you who desires the holy war (al-Ğihad) for the sake of God, the Church Al-Mu`allakah is your concern». And all who were in it went out from the mosque (al-Ğama`), and they (were) people not to he counted, and they came to the church. And the governor (Wali) of Cairo (Misr) was in the mosque (al-Ğama`), and he was a man well-informed, learned, and having experience, (and) he was called Al-Muğahid Sulaiman. And he heard the tumult, and he despatched his slave (Mamluk) and ten of the captains to protect the church. And he (the Mamluk) came to it, and he found (there) peoplewhich (were) not to he counted. And some of them had gone up to the prayer-house (al-Masğid) adjoining it which had been taken from it; and if salt had been thrown, it would not have fallen on the ground (4). And he (the Mamluk) bore down upon these people with an iron-headed club and the ten captains with staves, and great fear of the Sultan arose, (and) they were dispersed from the door of the church, and the door which was at it was closed, and it was one of the doors of the Fortress of Babylon (Kasr aš-Šama`), and it was known as the Lane of the Mu`allakah. And he (the Mamluk) called for the heads of the sedition, and they had gone up to the prayer-house (al-Masğid), and their number was five or six souls, the Calandar (al-Kalandri) and those who agreed with him on this. And he began to beat everyone of them in turn a number of times with various instruments of chastisement of which

(1) There is also the spelling (Karandaliah). A monastic order founded by the Šaikh Karandal, cf. R. Dozy, op. cit., vol. II, p. 340. 

(4) I.e. the people were so densely packed together.

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there was not mentioned what he found, then (with) staves and rods and various instruments of degradation. Then he took them, after this, bound with ropes, and he went with them to the house of his companion, and he was dwelling in the neighbourhood of the Hamman al-Far. And the governor (al-Wali) took them, and he renewed for them chastisement and degradation, and he ordered them (to be sent) to the prison, and this was for them an ignominy to them. And the city calmed down, and the insurgents were repressed. And the wise of the nobles of the Muslims (al-Muslimin) and the whole of the Christians (an-Nasara) and the Jews (al-Yahud) invoked (blessings) upon this governor (al-Wali), because he had put an end to matters which were about to ramify, and he bit the leaders of the sedition, while the people were looking on. And the judge Šaraf ad-Din of Alexandria known as Ibn `Ain ad-Daulah who had been appointed specifically for judging Cairo (al-Kahirah) and what comes after it of Lower Egypt (al-Wağh al-Bahari) died, after he had been a judge of all the districts, and he was replaced by the judge Badr ad-Din, judge of Sinğar, who had been a judge of Cairo (Misr). And Cairo (Misr) remained for some days without a judge, until the affair of judging, was entrusted to a man from the inhabitants of Damascus (Dimašk) known as [I]bn `Abd as-Salam. And he was chief of the preaching in Cairo (Misr) before that; and preaching and judging were combined for him, and he was a good man, of good reputation (and) magnanimous. And the prices were fluctuating, and wheat (was) on the increase rather than on the decrease, from fifty dirhams the ardab and thereabout, and everything (was) expensive. Then (it was), that some factors concealed in the judge [I]bn `Abd as-Salam, the mentioned, were made manifest, and he rejected the witnesses brought against him, and. he pursued the traces of the deceased judge. And he summoned his son, Muhi ad-Din,

(5) I.e. the son of the deceased judge.

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and he wished to demolish a storey (which) he (1) had built over a prayer-house (Masğid) in Cairo (Misr) in the quarter of the Bab al-Kantarah, and As-Sahib Mu`ain ad-Din withstood him as regards this. And he straitened the people in divers matters, and he was severe in judgments, and he summoned the copyists from the shops (3), and he ordered them to sit before him in the portal which (was) at the mosque (al-Ğama`). Then (it was), that the Sultan ---- may God perpetuate his kingdom! ---- ordered that a college (Madrasah) should be built at Cairo (al-Kahirah) in front of the Goldsmiths' (Bazaar), in the place in which were dwelling the farriers, in front of the Palace (Kasr) (6), and he (the Sultan) began on this, and he transferred the farriers from there. And they were removed to the neighbourhood of the Bab al-Bahr, in the direction of the Bukn al-Muhalak, and he demolished that side of the Palace (Kasr), and it was that which comes after the Bab az-Zuhumah (8), towards the north, for a length of a hundred cubits, doing the same in width. And he (the Sultan) provided for this, continuing (also) his solicitude for the building of the fortress of the Island and its belvederes and the building of the Fortress at the Mountain (10), and the building of the belvederes at the Bustan al-Khaššab and others than them of the buildings of the Sultan. And building-materials became unobtainable and

(1) I.e. the deceased judge.

(3) I.e. the shops which sold books which were copied there. 

(6) This would have been what remained at this time of the Fatimid 'Western Palace'.

(8) I.e. ' of bad smells '. This gate was near the kitchen wing of the 'Western Palace', cf. D. Russell, op. cit., p. 154.

(10) This would most probably have been the Kal`at al-Kabs, 'Castle of the Ram', built at this period, cf. S. Lane-Poole, The Story of Cairo, p. 90, note 1 and the illustration on p. 177.

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craftsmen were not to be obtained: the builder, (except) at ten dirhams every day and a dirham for his food, and the labourer, at four dirhams and three-quarters, (and) a dirham for his food, and the rest in this proportion. And bread was not found, except with ration; nevertheless, people used to build, and buildings multiplied and ramshackle houses were (re-)built, and the wealth of the people was increasing, in spite of the dearness, and it was in contradiction. And the beginning of the blessed Lunar Year came, and it was the year six hundred and forty of the Hiğğah (2) and he (the Sultan) ordered the extraction of the taxes, and they were extracted with an extraction of great harshness. And a man had been appointed for them (who) was called [I]bn Ğaradah, and he did what none had done, and he incited the mobs against the people; and he did not confine himself to the taxes of Cairo (Misr) and Cairo (al-Kahirah), but whatsoever he found, he weighed out, and he made the heads of the master-craftsmen bring those who were under their hands of every craft, and the owners of the quarters would take those who were dwelling in their district for collecting the tax. And in these days it was proclaimed in Cairo (Misr) that which said, (that) the religious law ordered that the Christians (an-Nasara) should bind the girdles, (zwna/rion) on their waists (3). And it was said, that the cause for this (was) from [I]bn Ğaradah, the aforementioned, because he had insinuated to the judge that the Christians (an-Nasara) were no longer distinguished from the Muslims (al-Muslimun), because they did not bind on the girdles, and that the tax-collectors, perhaps, seized the Muslims (al-Muslimin) for the tax. So he (Ibn Ğaradah) ordered this proclamation, and the people began to bind the girdles on their waists: the elders (aš-Šaikh) among them, and those who feared for their honour; and the mobs showed effrontery according to their custom. Then the Sultan ordered that the troops should depart towards Syria (aš-Šam), because the messenger of the Caliph (al-Khalifah) had

(2) = July 1st., 1242 A.D.

(3) A distinguishing mark frequently imposed on Christians.

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arrived at Tall al-Agul; and the troops were equipped, and they departed successively, and they descended at the outskirts of Cairo (al-Kahirah), from the prayer-house of At-Tib to the Lake Al-Hubb. And there arrived the messenger of the Caliph (al-Khalifah) who had been sent from Bagdad (Baghdad), and he crossed over to Cairo (al-Kahirah), and he descended at the House of the Wizarah, and the Sultan had gone out to receive him, because he was a distinguished man, a chief, of rank and dignity. Then (it was) that a body of the Muslims (al-Muslimin) known as Ibn Hainan and Ibn Sabbah, and a group which took their part ---- and it was they who rose up in the affair of the Church Al-Mu`allakah and (who) did in it what was mentioned before ---- came against the Church of Saint (Abu) Sergius (Sarğah) (5) in Cairo (Misr), and they came to two houses of the houses of its inalienable endowments, which were adjoining to it (the church). One of the two of them (was) at the east of it, its street (being) at the highway, and the other on the west of it, inside the lane in which are the gates of the church. And they claimed that each of the two houses had been a prayer-house (Masğid), and that they knew it, since a period passing forty years. And the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani, the monk, known as Ibn al-Tha`ban, was staying at the mentioned Church, and (he was) an overseer of its affairs. And he had (re-)built it, and had built its dwelling-places, and he had renewed a number of places in place of the dwelling-places which he added to its alienable endowments, and he acted therein after the manner of the angels. And these mischievous claimants raised up some people from among those who brought an action against the mentioned elder (aš-Šaikh) before the religious law, before this judge [I]bn `Abd as-Salam, after they had met him, and he had arranged with them what

(6) I.e. the Church of Saint Sergius.

---- 249 ----

they should do, and had made known to them the way they should take. And one of them, a Muslim (Muslim), known as Abu'l-Hasan [I]bn Makin al-Kazzaz, made a claim against (the elder), and there was between him and the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani a dispute, because he had lodged in a chamber of the buildings of the church, and he did not pay rent for it. And the elder (aš-Šaikh) used to demand it from him, because he did not consider that he should leave it to him, and there was not a reason for leaving it. And this person was blameworthy in his way(s), deviating from the truth. And he (the Muslim) claimed against the elder (aš-Šaikh) that he should deliver up the single external house and what was due from its rent for more than forty years. And he (the elder) denied it, and he (the Muslim) demanded of him an oath, and the judge said to him: «Swear», and he (the elder) said: «Yes». And he (the judge) said: «Say: 'By the truth of Him Who caused to descend the Gospel on the heart of Jesus (`Isa)'»(2). The elder said to him: «This is not my belief nor my religious conviction, and a man does not swear, except according to his religious conviction, even as those who were before of the judges accustomed us». And he (the judge) said to him: «If you do not swear according to what I have said to you, I shall punish you», He (the elder) said: «Whatsoever you will, do. We have never heard of a judgment of this kind». And he (the judge) was wroth with him, and he punished him in front of him, and he ordered him to be imprisoned, as it happened to the pure Apostles. Then (it was), that the biased Muslims (al-Muslimin) made a written report with the opinion of the judge, that this place (had been) one of the prayer-houses (Masağid) of the Muslims (al-Muslimin), and that the Christians (an-Nasara) had encroached upon it, and had made it a house from the days of the dearth in the year five hundred and ninety-seven (4). And they summoned the elder (aš-Šaikh) from (his) imprisonment on the third day, because the beginning of his being brought (5) was the afternoon of the daytime of

(2) Cf. The Noble Kuran, Surat of the Iron, 27.

(4) I.e. of the Hiğrah, = 1200 A.D.

(5) I.e. before the judge.

---- 250 ----

Tuesday, the nineteenth of (the month of) Misra (1) of this year, and they renewed the case against him, and he denied (it). And they produced the written report, and eight of this group witnessed to it, and they testified; and among them (was) one who had not reached to forty years, and his witnessing (was) to more than forty years. And the mentioned judge accepted it, and he sanctioned two of them, and they were Ibn Haulah and Ibn Sabah, because they were two personalities, but (they were) as the two elders (Šaikhain) of Susanna (Susannah). And he confirmed the written report, and he returned the elder (aš-Šaikh) to imprisonment, after the discussion had taken place between himself and him (the elder). And he said to him: «If you have a proof, bring it». He said to him (the judge): «O my sire, whence have I a proof, being in imprisonment?» And he (the judge) said to him: «Charge one for you». He said to him (the judge): «O my sire, I have not an agent; leave the order with me until I bring my proof». He (the judge) said to him: «This is not allowed», and he commanded him (to be taken) into prison, on the eve of Friday (4), the twenty-second of (the month of) Misra (5). And after that, they made a written report about the other house which (was) inside the lane. And the priest al-Mu`tamud [I]bn al-Kasis Ma`ani, priest of the mentioned church (6), was dwelling in the house concerned; and they summoned him, and they claimed against him that he should deliver it up. And they did with him, as they had done about the first house, and he made known that he had inhabited it for a period of twenty years. And he (the judge) commanded him to evacuate it immediately, in that hour, and a guarantor was appointed for him for the rent of the twenty years, and he commanded the other external house to be evacuated of its dwellers, because there were dwellers in it, and they (the houses) fell into the hands of the adversaries. And

(1) = August 12th, Julian Style.

(4) I.e. Thursday evening.

(5) = August 15th, Julian Style.

(6) I.e. the Church of Saint Sergius.

---- 251 ----

he (the judge) was informed that the priest Al-Mu`tamud was poor and was not able (to pay) anything. And he (the judge) said: «We shall set up for him a guarantor, and there shall be made a written report about his indigence»; (and) his people guaranteed him, and he went out on account of the written report. And when it was the eve of Monday (1), the twenty-fifth of (the month of) Misra (2), the judge summoned the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani, because he used to summon him every three days, and he said to him: «What have you done?» He said to him: «O my sire, what (is it) that I (can) do, being in prison, and I have no one?» He said to him: «Find a guarantor for you, and go and see to it for yourself». And a group came, and they guaranteed his person. And he came to the church, to the cell (kelli/on) which belonged to him; and the group came to him, and they made efforts, except that they had no power, because the notables of the Muslims (al-Muslimin) and their elders (Šiyukh) and their chiefs were certain that this testimony was false, and that this matter had never been, only they were not able to testify, and their satellites and the followers of them who know this, were afraid of the judge. However, the written report which (concerned) the first house near to the lane, contained (the statement) that this prayer-house (al-Masğid) had three doors, (and) their intention thereby (was) that they should take in its place two other houses. And these two houses were shared with a Muslim woman (Muslimah) who had a quarter (share), and the church had three-quarters. And this woman came with her documents to the judge, and she made an uproar and she shouted, and she was a Muslim woman (Muslimah). And he (the judge) ordered that there should be no interference in the two houses in which the woman had a share. And they confined themselves to the one house which was adjoining the Church, to the intent to dominate the church, and to take what was neighbouring to its mentioned houses, in the measure that they were able, as they had done concerning (the Church) Al-Mu`allakah. And there were in the lane Muslims (al-Muslimin)

(1) I.e. Sunday evening. 

(2) = August 18th, Julian Style.

---- 252 ----

neighbours, and they had property neighbouring to the external house, and (there were) with them the documents, the date of which (was) from ninety years, which testified that the limits of one of them (1) reached as far as this house, and they testified that the house was an inalienable endowment for the Christians (an-Nasara). And if it (3) had been a prayer-house (Masğid), as they mentioned, it would have been mentioned. And another, a Christian (Nasrani), known as Abu Isaac (Ishak) [I]bn al-A`ma, had a house within the lane opposite to the other house about which was the dispute; and with him (were) documents of its date, one hundred and thirty-one years, and he testified to the limits likewise, and the limit which reached to this house mentioned in it (4) that it reached to the house (which was) an inalienable endowment to the Christians (an-Nasara), the dwelling-place of the elder (aš-Šaikh) Abu Ghalib. And the mentioned documents were brought to the judge, and he read and understood them, but he did not pay heed to them. And the mentioned elder (aš-Šaikh) continued making endeavours at Cairo (al-Kahirah) and Cairo (Misr), and seeking proofs, on Tuesday and Wednesday, and nothing was done for him. And when it was the eve of Thursday (5), the twenty-eighth of (the month of) Misra (6), the judge came to the church, and with him a group of witnesses, and others than they, and the governor (Wali) of Cairo (Misr), and he entered into the external house, and he caused As-Sani to be brought, and he said to him: «What thing have you done?» He said to him: «O my sire, I have done nothing». He (the judge) said to him: «O elder (Šaikh), this house has been proved to me to have been one of the prayer-houses (Masğid) of the Muslims (al-Muslimin), and you have not renovated (it) and have not changed (it),

(1) I.e. the houses.

(3) I.e. the house.

(4) I.e. the documents.

(5) I.e. Wednesday evening.

(6) = August 21st, Julian Style.

---- 253 ----

but it was Ibn Abu Giialib (1) who was patriarch (who did this). And as for you, there will not be charged to you, except for the period of the thirteen years which you have acknowledged that you have made use of it in this place, its rent being incumbent on you». He said: «O my sire, this rent I have spent for the taxes of the Christians (an-Nasara) and on its (2) alms, as a condition of the inalienable endowment. He (the judge) said: «This is of no use». He said to him: «O my sire, if this place had been according to what was said, a prayer-house (Masğid), whence are these buildings for it and this storey, and these objects which have given to it this value?» He (the judge) said: «Evaluate the rent of the place (as) a prayer-house (Masğid) from a period of thirteen years, and the value of these timbers and the objects and the buildings which (are) at it now». And they said: «There will remain to the elder (aš-Šaikh) eleven dinars». And he (As-Sani) said to them: «You are dispensed from them», and they departed on this wise. And he (the judge) moved to the other house, and there was not in it except the higher (storey) in which the priest was dwelling, because its lower (storey) was a store. And the elder (aš-Šaikh) had closed up its door on the side of the lane, and he had opened it on the side of the church, (and) he had made it a store for esparto-grass (3). And it was neighbouring to the offices of the Church, and he (the judge) passed over to the church, and he entered from the door of the offices, and it was the door of the offices and the stairway, and he came to the place of the latrines and the lamps (fana/rion), and they said: «This is the place of the prayer-niches (al-Maharib)». He (the judge) said: «It has been proved to me that this also was a prayer-house (Masğid). Seek the priest who dwells in it». The elder (aš-Šaikh) said to him: «O my sire, what do you desire of him? I am his guarantor». He (the judge) said: «We desire the rent». He said to him: «O my sire, whatever is incumbent on him (we shall pay). Either he should prove his indigence, or he should pay». And

(1) John VI, 74th, Patriarch of Alexandria, 1189-1216 A.D. 

(2) I.e. the church's.

(3) Haifa-grass which is used for making mats, etc. 

(4) I.e. As-Sani.

---- 254 ----

he (the judge) went out on this wise. And when it was Sunday, the first of (the month of) An-Nasi (1), he (the judge) sent the witnesses and the architects, and they went over to the external house, and they set about to evaluate (it), and they began with demolishing the closed door, thinking thereby that it led to the church, and to take by it a part of it (the Church). And they finished (the demolishing) from the bottom to the top, but they did not find behind it, except earth from ancient years. Then they betook themselves to the internal house, and they came to the place of the latrines, and they said to us: «The bottom and the top of this place (are) four cubits in circumference, apart from the ten by ten (cubits) which we have in the store». And they had not mentioned at first, except the ten by ten (cubits), because they had measured it from the outside. And it was, (that) the elder (aš-Šaikh), while they were measuring and evaluating, had gone to the judge, and had sat with him. And they went out and they fixed for the two places (the sum of) three hundred and forty dinars, and he (the judge) accepted it. And the judge arose, and the elder (aš-Šaikh) came to the church without procuration, only affairs (were) confused. And when it was the end of the daytime, he (the judge) summoned him (As-Sani), and he spoke with him kindly, and he appeased his heart and he said to his representative: «Read and understand these documents, and inform me of what is in them». And he (the judge) went up to Cairo (al-Kahirah), and when it was in the morning of Monday, the representative sent to him (As-Sani) a messenger whom he had sought, and he went to him (As-Sani) and with him the aforementioned documents. And he (the messenger) said to him: «These (are) useless tombs» (2). And he said to him (As-Sani): «What is it that you have done?» He (As-Sani) said: «O my sire, I have done nothing»; and he (the messenger) appointed for him a guarantor for the sum, and he caused him to pass the night under watch. And when it was on the morrow of that day, he (the messenger) sent (and) he summoned him. And he (As-Sani) said: «I am sick, I am not able to move». He (the messenger) sent and he

(1) = August 24th, Julian Style.

(2) I.e. the documents are without value.

---- 255 ----

said: «Let him be borne in a cage of a camel-driver and he brought». And there was brought to him a cage (made) from sleeping-beds (1) and he was borne in it, and they brought him to him. And he (the messenger) said: «O Sani, what thing have you done?» He said: «O my sire, there is nothing that I can do». He (the messenger) said: «They shall bind you immediately». He said: «O my sire, do as you wish». He (the messenger) said: «Let him be led to confinement», and he (the messenger) went with him to the confinement. And he became indebted for what was necessary for the two houses, on account of his guarantee for the priest, and the priest had concealed himself. Then there entered the year nine hundred and fifty-nine (2) on Friday, at the beginning of Rabi` al-Akhar (in the) year six hundred and forty (3). And the Sultan ---- may God perpetuate his kingdom! ---- (was) Al-Malik as-Salih, and the judge of Cairo (al-Kahirah) (was) Badr ad-Din who had been judge of Sinğar and the judge of Cairo (Misr) (was) `Izz ad-Din [I]bn `Abd as-Salam, and the patriarch (was) Abba (Anba) Cyril (Kirullus), known as [I]bn Laklak. And the Nile (an-Nil) came up in this year to eight fingers above seventeen cubits, and the completion of its increase (was) on Monday, the fourth of (the month of) Tut (5). And it began increasing and decreasing, but it did not increase anything more beyond the eight above seventeen. And the prices fluctuated, and they rose, and wheat was sold at seventy dirhams the ardab, and barley, at forty dirhams the ardab. And as for clover (al-Birsim), (it was) sought to the last degree on account of the scarcity of water and the few crops which are reserved for Spring, and it (clover) was sold at ninety dirhams the ardab, and linseed oil rose in price also, and there was not anything cheap in the lands at this period. And the patriarch was abiding at the Monastery of the Beacon, and he did not have anything to do with

(1) I.e. a bed made from the split branches of the palm-tree.

(2) I.e. A.M. = 1242 A.D.

(3) I.e. A.H. = 1242 A.D.

(5) = September 1st., Julian Style.

---- 256 ----

the people in the way of their affairs and he was, as if he were not one of them. And he had come at the outset, and he had passed one night at the Church of Saint (Abu) George (Ğurğ) of Al-Hamra, and some of the group had advised him to return to his place, and he returned to the Monastery of the Beacon and he did not come back from it during this period; and he was to be excused, because he was fearful. Then (it was) that the judge at Cairo (Misr) sought for the priest Al-Mu`tamad until he found him, and he committed him to confinement, and it was (that) he and the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani were in the prison. And the group had written the legal decision to the jurisconsults, that they might ask their legal opinion concerning the Muslim (al-Muslimin) people, (and) they signed the testimony against a right of the rights of God ---- praised be He! ----from a long period. Then they took it at once, (asking) if the delay of the mentioned testimony would be harmful for the justice of their case or not. And they all gave their legal decision that their casewas invalidated by reason of the delay of the testimony of the petition. And some of them were excepted, those who said that they had a valid excuse, and those against whom it was protested that they had made it clear that the excuse was unacceptable in a land in which the rule of Al-Islam was established, and governors (al-Wulat) and judges. This also availed nothing, and it was not approved, though it was a rule of their religious law and was the practice of that time. And after this, the elder (aš-Šaikh) Šams ar-Riasat Ibn Hiblan wrote a document to our Sire the Sultan ---- may his victory be empowered! ---- concerning the Christians (an-Nasara), entreating him therein that he should convoke a council with their opponents (6) in the Council of Noble Justice, and that the monk should be present to defend himself. And he (the Sultan) commanded this by the tongue of an amir called Badr ad-Din, brother

(6) I.e. those who testified against them with regard to the two houses.

---- 257 ----

of the chamberlain `Ali. And the council was held on Monday, on the morning of the Feast of the Cross And there was present a group of the notables and the chiefs, and the presidents of the Council were Aš-Šarif al-Armawi, judge of the troops, and Badr ad-Din, the judge of Cairo (al-Kahirah) and Lower Egypt (al-Wağh al-Bahari), and the jurisconsult `Abbas, and the governor (Wali) of Cairo (Misr), and the representative of the judge of Cairo (Misr), because he was not present, and there was a group of witnesses. And there were brought Ibn Haulah and Ibn Sabah, and the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani and the priest from the prison, and they came with their written reports. And the speaker was the judge of Cairo (al-Kahirah), and he called for the written reports, and he read and understood them. And he said to those witnesses: «What delayed you with regard to the testimony, and it is a testimony of the rights of God the Exalted, for the period of fifty years?» They said: «We have said it». He (the judge) said: «To whom did you say it?» They mentioned a dead person. He (the judge) said: «This is a pretence of yours and a non-existing matter». And many discussions occurred, the last of which (was) that they said to As-Sani; «Have you an evidence?» He said: «Yes». They said: «Produce it». He said: «O my sire, (and I am) in prison?» They said: «No, but permission may be asked for him from the judge and a surety for him, and he should go out (from the prison) and bestir himself». And they asked permission for him of the judge. And he said. «There is no way for this, unless it be without my command». And he (As-Sani) was returned to the prison, he and the priest. And the group had made a written report testifying that these two houses (were) an inalienable endowment for the Christians (an-Nasara), and had been in their hands for a period of more than fifty years up till now. And an honourable man, esteemed, a leader in the mosque (al-Ğama`), wrote for them in it (2). And a body of his honourable companions, companions of the judge, learned of it (2), (and) they came upon him with threats and reproaches and intimidations and impulsion, until

(1) 17th Tut = 14th September, Julian Style, 27th September, Gregorian Style. 

(2) I.e. the written report.

---- 258 ----

they brought witnesses against him (to say that) he renounced his testimony. And there had testified also a man from the neighbouring lane, an esteemed elder (aš-Šaikh) known as Ibn Abu't-Tayib, and he had become aged, and he had not the power to act. And two upright witnesses were charged (to go) to him, who had heard his words, and they testified on his behalf. And after this, they went to the latter (1), and they chided him and they intimidated him, (saying): «You have been dwelling in a prayer-house (Masğid) for a period of years, and go out from it immediately, and you will be required (to pay) the rent for these years». And they caused witnesses to testify against the other (2), that he had renounced the testimony. Then (it was) that these opposers took builders and workmen and plaster, and they came one night to the mentioned houses, and they purposed to build in them prayer-niches (4); and some of the group went to the governor (al-Wali) and they informed him about this, and he sent (and) he forbade (it). And on the morrow, there assembled a large group, and they stood before our Sire, the Sultan. And he commanded that there should be no opposition to this place until judgment had been established. And the two priests, the elder (aš-Šaikh), the saintly As-Sani Abul-Ma`ani known as Ibn Kams, and the elder (aš-Šaikh) Ar-Radi [I]bn Abu't-Tayib, both occupied themselves with this affair, (and) who paid all attention to it; and they were in great toil and strenuous efforts, (and) they did not separate by day nor rest by night, and they would pay from their money; and may God ---- praised be He! ---- do good to them both and reward them both with a like reward. And they (5) brought to the Council of Justice witnesses, other than those, and they (were) the judge Al-Mu`ain `Abd al-Hakam, [I]bn Muhammad [I]bn Abd al-Hakam and the judge Al-As`ad [I]bn Maisar and the elder (aš-Šaikh) Al-Hakim Abu Sa`id

(1) I.e. the priest Al-Mu`tamad, cf. page 256.

(2) I.e. the aged man.

(4) I.e. the mihrab or kiblah which indicates the direction of Mecca to which a Muslim must turn, when praying.

(5) I.e. As-Sani and the other priest.

---- 259 ----

[I]bn Tammam, and they gave the testimony at the Council of Justice, according to what was contained in the written report, and they remained on the roll of those who approved, because the witnesses were not just. And during the long period they used to bring a witness of these who approved, but they wished for four, not two as those (1) had done, and the period was prolonged, and the judge sent to bring the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani from the prison. And he said to him: «Until when will you endure? If you do not pay the amount, then I shall punish you with a punishment of the religious law». He said to him (the judge): «O my sire, whatsoever God has directed you, do it». He (the judge) said: «Did you do nothing?» He said: «O my sire, is there not then any delay?» He (the judge) said: «Two or three days». The elder (aš-Šaikh) said: «Five or six», and he was standing. And he said: «O my sire, I cannot stand». He (the judge) said: «Sit down», and he sat down for a while. Then he said: «O my sire, I will not go to my place!» He (the judge) said: «Go!», and he returned to the confinement. Some days after that, those crowds spread a false report on Friday that the judge used to bring out As-Sani and to parade him publicly with ignominy and this (report) reached him (the judge), and he was greatly troubled And a man, a Christian (Nasrani) known as Ibn al-Haša went to the Citadel and he informed the group concerning this. And as for Al-Hakim ar-Rašid known as Abu Khalifah, he assembled with Badr ad-Din, brother of the chamberlain `Ali, and he sent two of the bodyguard from him to the governor (Wali) of Cairo (Misr), saying to him: «Have you not learned that our Sire, the Sultan ----may his victory be empowered! ---- has held for the Christians (an-Nasara) a council, and the affair concerning it concluded in confirming (their rights). And they brought their evidences, and they (were) those who approved it. And God does not empower anyone (to act) against this man, (As-Sani)

(1) I.e. the other party.

---- 260 ----

nor against the places». And as for the revenue officers ---- may God preserve them! ---- they wrote a document to our Sire, the Sultan ---- may his victory he empowered! ---- about the matter of the case, and they sent it by the hand of the chamberlain. And his (the Sultan's) order went out that he (the chamberlain) should go to the governor (al-Wali), and should disapprove of his negligence in such (a matter) as this; and beware and beware lest anyone oppose this monk or disturb the peace in these places. And another of the bodyguard from the Sultan went concerning this, and the people of obstinacy who endeavoured (to make) disorder in the world were repelled. And as for the judge, he denied that this (thought) had come to his mind or (that) a conversation about this had taken place. And the governor (al-Wali) said to him: «Then write your signature to this (effect) to the Sultan, otherwise, I shall lose my life». And the judge wrote a document, saying in it: «the Christians (an-Nasara) have grossly defamed me with regard to what I have not said nor intended; however this man (As-Sani) is imprisoned on account of a right of the religious law». And it was despatched to our Sire, the Sultan, and he read it, and he left it, and he did not answer it. And there had occurred to this judge before this a case with a man, a Christian (Nasrani), a drunkard, of the inhabitants of Miniat Ghamr, called Makram [I]bn Mahasin. And this (was) that his (the judge's) son had raised a dust over his (Makram's) kitchen, and he (Makram) was standing without a girdle, and he was quarrelling, he and a man, a seller of esparto-grass. And the seller of esparto-grassmade a complaint to him (the judge) that this Christian (Nasrani) would not go with him to the court. And Makram did not know

---- 261 ----

that he (the boy) was the son of the judge. And he (1) had said to his young male slave: «Go over and take him (Makram) away». And the young male slave struggled with the kitchen-workers, and the son of the judge went over to the kitchen, riding, and he beat the lads, and he stood at this place. And he sent to his father, and he (his father) rode himself, and he came to the kitchen which (was) at the Dar al-Fadil opposite to the date-factory. And he took out this wretched man dragging him on the ground, bareheaded, his garments torn; and there gathered against him people beyond count, none of whom but did beat and revile him, and he was patient. And the news reached the governor (al-Wali), and he came and he said: «Let him be imprisoned until the command of the Sultan comes». And he (the governor) imprisoned him, and he wrote to our Sire, the Sultan, concerning what had occurred. And the judge did not wait patiently until the answer of the Sultan came; but he (the governor) said: «Send to me the Christian (an-Nasrani), so that I may do with him what is necessary», and he sent him to him. And he (the governor) said to him (the judge): «Will you cause this one to ride among these crowds, and (he may be) killed, and you do not know what (answer) will come from the Sultan?» And he took him (the Christian) and he did not cause him to ride, but he treated him ignominously by walking, he being reviled until he passed through the city, and he brought him to the prison of the governor (al-Wali), he being patient, thankful and committed to God. And he was wealthy, and he was of high esteem, and he remained in the prison for some days. And the governor (al-Wali) took him out, after he had written as regards himself a declaration that he would not go out from his house, except with a girdle. And if he had been in the prison of the judge, perhaps, it would have been difficult for him to go out. And as to what was concerning the affair of the Church Abba ([A]bu) Sergius (Sarğah), since the case was delayed for the judge, he was assured that

(1) I.e. the son of the judge.

---- 262 ----

nothing would be done for the Christians (an-Nasara) and that no one would be approved, because he had closed the ears of everyone for them; and whomsoever he heard that he would witness or approve of a witness, he would send to threaten him and to menace him. And the wretched ones (2) were in severe affliction, and how could they withstand the judge, except with the aid of the Creator. And he (the judge) sent to the governor (al-Wali) in the evening of Wednesday, the fourth of (the month of) Babah (3), (a message) with a man from his witnesses, called Ibn Zidan, and he said to him (the governor): «I have met with the Sultan, and he ordered me, that we should do about these two places (4), according to what is required by the religious law ». And it resulted that he helped these people (5) in the subject under discussion. And the governor (al-Wali) said to him: «Whatever you desire, do (it)». And he (the judge) enabled them (to do) all what they wished. And they arranged by night with the workers and the surveyors and for pick-axes (TWRI). And when it was morning, at dawn, (they went) to the internal house, and they demolished its facade and the balcony of the storey on which the priest used to dwell. And it resulted in frustration for our companions (6), and they were (there) on this day, namely on Thursday, the fifth of (the month of) Babah (7), and it corresponded to the fifth of (the month of) Rabi` al-Akhar (in the) year six hundred and forty of the Lunar (Year) (8). And they had taken with them Ibn Tammam to call for prayer for them, because his son had written on his behalf, with his permission, his inability to write on account of his great (age), and (that) he did not understand (the matter). And after this affair (which) occurred, it displayed their mind and darkened their sight, until God the Exalted vouchsafed that

(2) I.e. the Christians.

(3) = October 1st, Julian Style.

(4) I.e. the two houses. 

(5) I.e. the Muslims. 

(6) I.e. the Muslims. 

(7) = October 2nd, Julian Style. 

(8) = 1242 A.D.

---- 263 ----

the Sultan ---- may God perpetuate his kingdom! ----rode on that day and went to Cairo (Misr). And the governor (al-Wali) assembled with him, and he (the Sultan) said to him, at the very beginning, words not to be understood, except that they indicated that the governor (al-Wali) had gone to the House of Justice and had assembled secretly with the notables who (were) at it and had said: «Find for me a messenger to go immediately to Cairo (Misr) to prevent the demolition, and to say to them: «Do not do anything, until I come». And he called the Christians (an-Nasara) and said: «Carry out your work to-day, for the Sultan has ordered this». Then (it was) that when he did not find a messenger to send, he sent his son Aš-Šarif to Cairo (Misr) with haste, and he stopped the demolition. And here came Ibn Tamam and he produced his testimony, and Al-Hakim Ibn az-Zubair came, (and) he confirmed him in the council. And the Public Prosecutor for the other side came, and he confirmed Ibn `Abd al-Hakam. And the people took courage, and the matter became easier, and there remained the need for two other witnesses to complete the vindication of the evidence of the written report, and it would be confirmed. And they returned to Cairo (al-Kahirah), alter they had asked permission of the group, to the effect that the vindication should be completed in the house of the judge at Cairo (al-Kahirah), since they could not assemble at the House of Justice, except on a Monday and a Thursday, and it would be difficult on these two days to find witnesses, and time would be lacking and drawn out; and they gave permission that the vindication should be completed in the house of the judge at Cairo (al-Kahirah). And a witness, a physician, known as Ğamal ad-Din ar-Razi, went over to the judge at Cairo (al-Kahirah), early in the morning of Friday, the sixth of (the month of) Babah (2), and he vindicated Ibn `Abd al-Hakam, and the vindication of him was completed by two just witnesses, and there remained Ibn Tammam (who) was in need of another witness not more, and the written report would be confirmed. And in the middle of the day-time of Friday it was rumoured

(2) = October 3rd, Julian Style.

---- 264 ----

that the judge [I]bn `Abd as-Salam had been dismissed, and some people said (that) he himself had resigned on account of the affair of the Christians (an-Nasara), and (that) his judgment had been invalidated. And in the early morning of Saturday, the seventh of (the month of) Babah (1), another witness, an arbitrator known as Ğamal ad-Din `Abd ai-Mu`ti, and he was a preacher of the Citadel for a time, vindicated Ibn Tammam, and the written report was completed. And the news was confirmed that the judge of Cairo (Misr) had resigned from the office of judicature, and it was testified against him to this effect; and there was written on account of it a document to our Sire, the Sultan, and an answer was not given to it. And it was in these days (that) a wonderful change (6) occurred, and it was that, when it was on the eve of Saturday (7), the end of (the month of) Tut (8), there came a mighty wind, so that it rooted up the palm-trees by their roots and cast them down on the ground, and many houses fell down, and there died beneath them many people. And it was a disturbing night, and the sun was eclipsed from the eve of the mentioned Friday (9), from the end of the eve, and it rose eclipsed, except that it did not appear eclipsed, because it was under the aurora. And it was not like (that of) the Tax Year, because that eclipse was greatly terrifying at the time of the afternoon, as has been explained before. And in the daytime of Saturday, the seventh of (the month of) Babah (10), it was verified that the judge [I]bn `Abd as-Salam had resigned from the judicature, and there testified against him to this

(1) = October 4th, Julian Style.

(6) I.e. a change in the weather.

(7) i.e. Friday night.

(8) The last day of the month of Tut is September 27th, Julian Style.

(9) I.e. Thursday evening.

(10) = October 4th, Julian Style.

---- 265 ----

effect a number of just witnesses. And Cairo (Misr) remained without a judge or a delegate, because the delegates had resigned on account of the resignation of their chief. And it was the Feast of Saint Bacchus (Wakhus), Sunday, the eighth of (the month of) Babah (3) which is the day of his martyrdom; and Tuesday, the tenth of it (4) (is) the Feast of Saint Sergius ([A]bu Sarğah). And that which happened was a wonderful sign of these two Saints on their feasts, because it was something not in the power of anyone of the Christians (an-Nasara) to do it, and he would have been unable to do it. And everyone began to say (that) this (was) for the sake of the Christians (an-Nasara) and their uprightness; and it was a miracle the like of which had not been related. Then (it was) that the two priests mentioned before came to the House of Justice on Thursday, the twelfth of (the month of) Babah (5), and with the two of them (was) the written report and a copy of it which had been transcribed from it by the order of the judge, because he had written in the written report to copy (it). And they came to the House of Justice, and they besought the judge that he should write in the written report an affirmation, and (that) it should be registered with a written report of the group who (were) at the House of Justice. And he (the judge) refrained from this, and he said: «Your written report has been confirmed, only haste is not good; wait until we see if your opponents have an objection against the witnesses or a plea to which to have recourse». And some of those present from among those who had knowledge and sagacity said: «O our master, these have not opponents, but those (6) used to say that they had a testimony of a right of religion, (as) they said, and the contrary of what they said was proved». And he (the judge) said: «It is disgraceful for a judge that his signature should be put to something, and then to be cancelled», and this speech was

(3) = October 5th, Julian Style. 

(4) = October 7th, Julian Style.

(5) = October 9th, Julian Style. 

(6) I.e. the opponents.

---- 266 ----

definite. Then he turned to the governor (Wali) of Cairo (Misr), and he said to him: «Tell these that the written report of the Christians (an-Nasara) has been confirmed, and if you have a protest, bring it, or a refutation, produce it», and upon this the Council separated. Then (it was) that the group of the Christians (an-Nasara) assembled and stood below the Citadel for three consecutive days, the first of which was Saturday, the fourteenth of (the month of) Babah (3), waiting for the riding out of our Sire, the Sultan ----may God perpetuate his kingdom! ---- and he did not ride out on Saturday nor on Sunday, but they used to meet every day the judge Badr ad-Din, the judge of Cairo (al-Kahirah); and he used to say to them: «Your right has been confirmed, and I shall make this known to the Sultan». And when it was Monday, the sixteenth of (the month of) Babah (4), the Sultan ---- may his victory be empowered! ---- rode out, and there rode out the judge [I]bn `Abd as-Salam, and he assembled with the Sultan; and it was said that he supplicated and asked forgiveness from God the Exalted for what had happened. And it was that the son of the judge of Sichem (Nablus) had spoken against him, and he had disapproved that a judge like the supreme judge (6) of Cairo (Misr) should be dismissed in two months. And he was reinstated in the judicature, and there were laid upon him stipulations, according to what he who heard mentioned, but he did not record them. And the judge returned joyful and glad, and likewise (were) his companions. And he descended on Tuesday, in the morning of the mentioned day, at Cairo (Misr), and he resumed his judging, after Cairo (Misr) had remained without a judge for eleven days; except that he did not return to and begin (again) the affair of the houses which he had claimed that they had been prayer-houses (Masağid); but he did not cease to go from witness to witness of the witnesses to the written-report of the Christians (an-Nasara). (To) some with threats and to some with persuation, so

(3) = October 11th, Julian Style.

(4) = October 13th, Julian Style.

(6) I.e. Chief Justice.

---- 267 ----

that he caused all to renounce their testimony. And he caused witness to he taken against them thereby, although the written-report had been confirmed, and the judge of Cairo (al-Kahirah) had written a confirmation of it in the House of Justice, after he had refrained from writing for some days. And he wrote from the House of Justice an official communication on Thursday, the nineteenth of (the month of) Bubah (1), and all the overseers interpreted it at the House of Justice according to theircustom. And its contents were that it was confirmed in the Council of Judgment at Cairo (Misr) that the two prayer-houses (Masğidain) were of the prayer-houses (Masağid) of the Muslims (al-Muslimin), and (that) the Christians (an-Nasara) had made them houses for dwelling since a period of forty-three years. Then a written-report (which) the Christians (an-Nasara) had drawn up at the honoured House of Justice was confirmed (which said) that these two places claimed to be prayer-houses (Masağid) had been an inalienable endowment for the Christians (an-Nasara) from a period more than fifty years: and by virtue of this, the testimony of the Christians (an-Nasara) was of more weight, unless it were contradicted by the evidence of the witnesses. And the reportremained with the chamberlain for some days, (who) was waiting, that the Sultan should ride out or should be unoccupied, to submit it to him and to talk it over, but he did not ride out, nor was he unoccupied, and the matter concerning it was prolonged until Monday, the twenty-third of (the month of) Babah (5). And there assembled with him (the chamberlain) the chiefs of the House of Justice, and they said (that) the delaying of the submitting of this report (is) prejudicial to us and to the Christians (an-Nasara), and (that) if this should reach the Sultan, or someone should write to him, he would say: «For what reason did you not inform me?» And (that) we should send it to the Sultan in this hour in a report from you. And they dictated to him what he should write

(1) = October 16th, Julian Style.

(5) = October 20th, Julian Style.

---- 268 ----

in the report and he wrote it in their presence; and he caused it to be borne to our Sire, the Sultan, by the hand of some of the ministers, and no answer was issued to it. And the Christians (an-Nasara) continued to assemble and to go up to the Citadel on Tuesday and Wednesday and Thursday; and the Sultan did not ride out, and, in the daytime of Friday, he did not ride out, and he continued thus. And they did not stand before our Sire, the Sultan ---- may his victory be empowered! ---- but (it was) that the judge Badr ad-Din judge of Cairo (al-Kahirah) used to say to them: «I have said to our Sire, the Sultan, that your written-report has been confirmed, but if you are able to add a witness, do it, because (it is) that your witnesses have withdrawn from (their) evidence. And the group persevered in vindicating the two witnesses who had written for them in the written-report of those who had not yet been vindicated. And one of them had given (his evidence) in the Council of Justice, and he was Al-As`ad [I]bn Maiser, and the other wrote, but he did not testify, and he was Al-Muwaffak [I]bn an-Nahhas. And they wished that, if they were unable to vindicate the two of them, perhaps, they might (vindicate) one of them; and the affair became difficult, because the people feared Ibn `Abd as-Salam. And in this period the news arrived that the Franks (al-Afranğ) had departed from Jaffa (Yafa), and had come to Sichem (al-Nablus) and they had killed all who were in it from among the Muslims (al-Muslimin) and the Christians (an-Nasara), and they had demolished the mosque (al-Ğama`) down to the ground, and they had burnt the trees and they had ruined the houses. And it was recounted that when they (the Franks) had encircled the people and had gathered them together, they said: «He who is a Christian (Nusraniah), let him stand apart, so that we may save him». And the Christians (an-Nasara) rejoiced at that, and they had an advantage over the Muslims (al-Muslimin), and when they had separated themselves, they (the Franks) returned to them and killed them all. And as

---- 269 ----

for the Muslims (al-Muslimin), (it was) that they (the Franks) killed some of them and made prisoner some of them, and the slaughter was general for women and children, small and great, and they (the Franks) stayed in it (1) for three days. Then they returned with the captives and the booty. And there was a sedition, the severity of which had not been related. And the Sultan ---- may God perpetuate his kingdom! ---- ordered the departure of the troops to Syria (aš-Šam); and about two thousand horsemen went out, their leader (being) a mamluk (Mamluk) called Šams ad-Din Sira Sinğar, who was equerry of the House. And they arrived at Gaza (Ghazzah), and they assembled with the troops which were there, and Al-Malik an-Nasir was with them. And they became an immense troop, and they were completed, and they descended at the camp named Al-`Auga, opposite to Jaffa (Yafa) and they wished to besiege Jaffa (Yaha), and the Franks (al-Afranğ) made ready for this, and they remained for a long time. And, after that, the Sultan ---- may God empower his victory! ---- sent to Šams ad-Din Sira Sinğar, the aforementioned, and he commanded him that he should take the troops which had gone out with him, and (that) he should come; and they struck their tents and they departed. And when Al-Malik an- Nasir saw this, he bore away what he was able in the way of his cloths, and he burnt the rest, and he departed, and he went to the Crac des Chevaliers (al-Karak). And as for the troops which remained there, and they were the notables and As-Sarim al-Mas`ud and Šama'il and men from the bodyguards of whom their leader was Rihan as-Sahibi, (it was) that they returned to Gaza (Ghazzah). And as for the conditions of our friends, the Christians (an-Nasara), in which they were, (it was) that they made mention of the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani to our Sire, the Sultan ---- may his victory be empowered! ---- and he said: «I know him. Say to the judge that he should set him free». And a chamberlain called

(l) I.e. Sichem.

---- 270 ----

Badr ad-Din, brother of the chamberlain `Ali, wrote to the judge a report in which he informed him that our Sire, the Sultan, had ordered the setting-free of As-Sani, the monk, known as Ibn ath-Tha`ban, who was imprisoned on legal grounds, and this is my (2) signature in the presence of our master about this. And a bodyguard went with it to him (3); and it was Friday, and he was in Cairo (Misr), and he excused himself, and he said: «(Wait) until I assemble with our Sire, the Sultan». And he (the chamberlain) wrote a second report to him, and he said: «This (is) my signature, and the responsibility (is) on me», but he refused, and he said: «This (one is) in the prison of God (4) for a legal right, and he is not in my prison so that I may release him». And no one informed anymore the Sultan that the judge had given his answer. And it happened (that) before this, a dispute had occurred between the judge and the governor (Wali) on account of this affair; and it was that the judge had sent witnesses to the inner place (6), so that he might make a new delimitation (7), and it was their intention to adjoin to it what was not in it before, so that they might add to it other places. And the governor (al-Wali) had sent to them the leader of his bodyguard and had said to them: «By whose order have you done this delimitation after the first delimitation?» And they came to the judge, (and) they informed (him), and the judge took the mentioned leader, and he beat him and he imprisoned him; and the governor (al-Wali) sent and took the two witnesses, and he beat them and he imprisoned them. And each of them (8) wrote to the Sultan; and there remained between the two of them enmity, and there was no doubt that the Sultan preferred the judge. And the governor (al-Wali) reflected, and he inclined towards kindness to the judge, and he released the two witnesses; and the judge released the

(2) I.e. chamberlain's.

(3) I.e. the judge.

(4) For offences against the religious law.

(6) I.e. the two houses.

(7) I.e. the extent of the two houses.

(8) I.e. the governor and the judge.

---- 271 ----

leader whom he had imprisoned and the affair remained as it was. And the group was endeavouring to vindicate two other witnesses. And it was in these years, namely, this year and the two years which preceded it, (that) there appeared in the Fayum (al-Fayum) a great lake, and there was in it, in the way of bulti, something not to be counted, and they (the fish) were borne from it to Cairo (Misr) every day a load, the number of which was not to be counted, so that (it was) that a certain one of the companions mentioned that he betook himself one day from Cairo (al-Kahirah) to Cairo (Misr), and (that) he met on the way along that distance what surpassed twenty loads, over and above what was borne by that way, and (beyond) what was borne during all the day; and what was sold in Cairo (Misr) and Gizah (al-Ğizah) because it used to be borne from the Fayum (al-Fayum) to Gizah (al-Ğizah) on camels, and there was a market at Gizah (al-Ğizah)for selling it (4), and the Sultan was assured of sixty dinars. And from there the people used to buy it,and it was distributed to the districts. And among them (the fish) there were the big and the medium, and the medium contained among them what weighed four ratls the bulti, and every ten bultiwere sold for nine dirhams and below this, and bigger than this weight, for ten dirhams the ten, and the big which were much bigger than this weight, at fifteen dirhams the ten. And they used to bring among them what was estimated to weigh each bulti ten rails; and more than (that) was sold at a silver dirham and downwards. And I (5) made sure from the fishmonger who was selling them at Gizah (al-Ğizah) that what used to reach of them every day was a hundred loads, (which) might increase and decrease. And (it was) that on most days there could reach (the market) one hundred and thirty loads, and for every load two hundred bulti, and the number according to this estimation was twenty-six thousand bulti. And the people found in it great relief, and for the

(4) I.e. the fish.

(5) I.e. the writer.

---- 272 ----

majority of the people there remained nothing for them to eat except it; and had it not been for them (the fish), meat would not have been possible, because meat in these days (had become) expensive to an extreme, so that the ratl reached two dirhams and more, although prices were reasonable. And the wheat went down until the best (quality) reached to fifty dirhams the ardab and downwards, and the barley, to seventeen dirhams and about it, and the beans (al-Ful) the same, and bread was sold at five rails a dirham and an eighth, only meat (was) very expensive. And as for the bulti, there was no lack (of them) all the year, and by reason of their abundance they used to be sold not only at the fishmongers, but in the rest of the markets. And fish used not to lack at all on account of the finding of these bulti, but (it was) distasteful by reason of its abundance. And the majority of the people used not to eat it anymore, but they used to regard it of no account, expecting to chance on a chicken or barbel to eat. Then the matter concerning the affair of the church was drawn out till the beginning of the month of Ramadan of this year. And the judge Ibn `Abd as-Salam assembled with our Sire, the Sultan, ---- may God empower his victory! ---- and he (the judge) said to him that these places which the Christians (an-Nasara) claimed that they were inalienable endowments for them, have been proved to me that they were prayer-houses (Masağid); and (for) the Christians (an-Nasara) nothing has been proved for them, because their witnesses renounced their testimonies. And the Muslims (al-Muslimin) have desired to renew these prayer-houses (Masağid) in the days of our Sire. And he (the Sultan) said to him: «Whatever has been proved according to the religious law, do it». And he (the judge) went down to Cairo (Misr), and he sent to the governor (al-Wali) saying to him: «The Sultan has ordered me that I should demolish these places, and that I should make them again as the prayer-houses (Masağid) as they had been, and I desire your help and your support». And the governor (al-Wali) sent to our Sire, the Sultan, ---- may his

---- 273 ----

victory be empowered! ---- a report with the purport, and no answer came forth for it. And the judge came to the places himself, and he ordered their demolition, and they were demolished, because no one could prevent that except the governor (al-Wali). And when he (the governor) did not find support from the Sultan, he desisted, and he suggested to a group of people that no help remained, except to stand before the Sultan. And a group of the Christians (an-Nasara), the priests and the Sa`idians (2), assembled and they stood (before the Sultan) several times, and sometimes their report was found (3) and sometimes they did not receive an answer, and the last time, as the Sultan was at Rodah (Raudah), some of the chamberlains came to them, and they said to them (the group). «Our Sire, the Sultan, said to you, do not stand anymore (before me), because I shall not listen to any words from you». And the judge [I]bn `Abd as-Salam, had gone on that day to those places, and he was looking repeatedly at them , after the demolition of some. And the governor (al-Wali) came and he said to him: «O our master, I was just with our Sire, the Sultan, ---- may his victory be empowered! ---- and the Christians (an-Nasara) had stood before him concerning the matter of the church, and he ordered them to be driven away, and he increased in anger and fury, and he commanded to demolish all the places. And he (the judge) added to them other places, and he went further into the lane, and he demolished (part) of the southern wall of the Church up to the top of the lane which leads from it to the house of the priest Ma`ani and the houses which (are) there. And he took into this limit three houses upwards and downwards from this house which was on the east of the Church, and the storey of the elder (aš-Šaikh) as-Sani which he had built in the place of the old bakehouse (6), and he ended

(2) I.e. the inhabitants of Upper Egypt.

(3) I.e. after it had been mislaid.

(6) Lit. ' over'. I.e. the bakehouse attached to a Coptic Church in which the Eucharistic Loaves are baked.

---- 274 ----

at its (1) base which looked to the height of the church and the annexes; and the demolition continued, and the lane of the church remained impassable by reason of the demolition and the rubble and the bricks and the timber. And the judge began to visit every day the church, and to strengthen the hearts of that group who were the cause of the troubles, the claimants and the witnesses and the bigoted. And during this affair there came a person called Abu'l-Hasan [I]bn Makin al-Kazzaz Muslimani, and he was of that group mentioned before, and it was he who had claimed against the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani at first. And he repaired to an aperture in one of the storeys which had been demolished, and it was in the wall of the church, and it was one of the groups of apertures around its wall. And he came to this aperture which was on the southern side, according to their claim; and though there were with it numerous apertures in this limit, (it was) only this (one) which he singled out, and he wrote on it the two professions (3) with red ochre, and he rubbedon it dirt so that it might appear that it was old, and he stuck on it a piece of whiting from what had been demolished; and there was a woman of the Christian (an-Nasara) inhabitants (who) saw him, and he passed the night in the place to guard it. And when it was morning, he went to the judge and he said to him: «O our master, the truth has appeared to us, and we have found the prayer-niche and in it the two professions are written from old time. And the judge came and people of the Muslims (al-Muslimin) beyond counting, to the extent that, if salt were cast upon them, it would not descend to the ground. And he saw the place, and he made a written-report about it, and he caused a group of just witnesses to testify in it that it was found so and so, and he despatched it to our Sire, the Sultan. And he (the judge) related that, when the Sultan ---- may his victory be empowered! ---- saw this, he said: «This

(1) I.e. the storey's base.

(3) I.e. the profession of the Islamic Faith: «There is no god except God, and Muhammed is the Prophet of God».

---- 275 ----

man is of the holy ones, and it is not appropriate that we reason with him about anything», and there was not on earth a case more wonderful than this case, that there should be (such) impossibility and unreasonableness and bigotry. And every intelligent person and elder (aš-Šaikh) of the Muslims (al-Muslimin) testified that this was impossible and something which had never existed, and after this, shall we persist in this persistence. And there was fulfilled in it the like of which had not been fulfilled in any time only that this was a forsaking of the Creator ---- praised be He! ---- and a chastening for the people of this church, of the number of whom I am. And as regards the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani, (it was) that this was for him an increase of righteousness and a doubling of recompense and a testimony and a combat and precedence, because he did not deserve what befell him in the way of trials, but for this matter, not other than it. Then (it was) that the judge came to the church (2), and he entered it, and he took in his hand an adze, and he began to demolish with his hand. And they demolished the wall in which were the apertures, in which they stated that they had found the niche, and it was not the niche, but it was an aperture of a number of apertures; and they testified that this prayer-house (al-Masğid) was on the ground-floor, and the outer house remained suspended with this niche which they claimed on the storey. And this wall led to a wide arcade in which were three sanctuaries, one of them, and (it was) the principal one (was dedicated) to the name of the Saint Abba (Abu) Victor (Fuktur), and the second, to the name of John (Yuhanna) the Baptist, and the third, to the name of our father Abba (Anba) Antony (Antunius); and this place was the place of the ancient baptistery which the elder (aš-Šaikh) As-Sani had changed and made it in the church of Stephen (Istafanus), and the mentioned church was at the back of this arcade; and they demolished the latter church (3), and they demolished the steps and the ramp, and they replaced the outer place for the inner, and nothing remained in the church except the three

(2) I.e. the Church Al-Mu'allakah. 

(3) I.e. the church of Saint Stephen.

---- 276 ----

arcades, nothing else. And no bakehouse remained at it nor an annex, and there did not remain for anyone (a means) to reach up to its summit which was above the two arcades which (were) at the two sides. And as regards the summit of the places, it was demolished together with its base. And that which was destroyed of the Church (2) was four churches and seven sanctuaries and the bakehouse and the annexes and the ramps and five dwellings. And the Christians (an-Nasara) remained in grief and sadness, the like of which they had not seen for a (long) time, and this was for the wise among them and those of religion and discerning. And during this affliction the patriarch was sick for a week, and he died on Tuesday, the fourteenth of (the month of) Baramhat (4) of this year which corresponded to the eighteenth exactly of the month of Ramadan (in) the year six hundred and forty (5) at the Monastery of the Beacon. And, thereupon, some of the Christians (an-Nasara) came, who (were) in name Christians, in particular, and they (were) `Imad ar-Rahib al-Miršad, the aforementioned, and the priest Simeon (Sama`an) who was the scribe of the Cell (8), and there happened from him what was mentioned before; and it was mentioned that with them (was) Abba (Anba) Joseph (Yusab), bishop of Fuah. And they informed the Companion (as-Sahib) Mu`ain ad-Din [I]bn aš-Šaikh that the patriarch had died, and that he had left an amount of money; and he sent to guard it and all hisbelongings, and he sealed the Keep in which he (the patriarch) was (lying) dead, and he (the patriarch) passed the night thus. And when

(2) I.e. the Coptic Church.

(4) = March 10th, Julian Style.

(5) I.e. 640 A.H.= 1242-1243 A.D.

(8) I.e. the Patriarchate.

(10) I.e. the patriarch's.

---- 277 ----

it was the second day, and it was a Wednesday, the governor (Wali) of Giza (al-Ğizah) ---- and he was an amir called As-Šams ad-Din at-Tanbu`a, and he had been the governor (Wali) of Al-Gharbiah before this for a long period ---- despatched with him the agent of the Sultan, and he was Kamal ad-Din [I]bn al-Fakiah Nasr. And both came to the Monastery (3), and with them witnesses; and the Christians (an-Nasara) brought out the corpse, after it had passed that night in the darkness without a lamp to burn over it (4). And they recorded the belongings, and it was said that they found with him sixteen mantles (Ghaffarah)of wine-colour and other than them, and forty precious veils; and as regards clothing and turbans and baggy-trousers and palliums (al-Balariat) and amices (al-`Aradi) and hypogonation (al-Hağur)which (belong) to the vestments; and of those which (were) for the head there (were) many, but I am not certain of their number. And some of the group related to me that the number of baggy trousers was forty, and the responsibility is theirs; and they found with him, according to what was mentioned, sixteen boxes of sweets, and they were spoilt, and some of them were decayed, and six pots Fo of old dried dates, and other than that which was like them. And they put guards over all, and they recorded it with the vessels of the churches and their vestments which he had, and the books which he had, and (those of the) churches, and they were books (which) had value because they were choice and valuable (9). Then they said to the son of his (10) brother, Abu Sa`id, and to his (10) agent and treasurer, and he was a youth known as Abu'l-Farağ [I]bn Khalbus al-Bana: «Where is the money?»

(3) I.e. the Monastery of the Beacon.

(4) It is a rule to have a light burning before a dead person.

(9) This may point to the existence of a library at the patriarchate. 

(10) I.e. the patriarch's.

---- 278 ----

He said: «We know nothing». And the amir was severe on them, and the son of the brother of the patriarch said to him: «I am a stranger, I was not with these people, this treasurer and this dealer». And the amir said to him: «The money, or I shall squeeze your temples (2) in this hour». And he (3) went into a place, and he brought out from under a tile a thousand dinars and some fractions (of it); and he brought out in the way of silver and black dirhams, what was reported that the total (was) over two thousand dinars; and they took the sum in a leather bag well-made (and) of value. And they sealed the places and they left; and they took with them the son of the brother of the patriarch and Abu'l-Farag, the aforementioned. And as regards the Christian (an-Nasara), group, they assembled around the patriarch with the bishops who were present. And they were Abba (Anba) Joseph (Yusab), bishop of Fuah, and the bishop of Abu Tiğ, and As-Sanduni and his son, and Abba (Anba) Poemen (Bimin), bishop of Atfih, and a group of the priests and the deacons and a large group of the people, and they made a funeral for him according to the custom. And it was said that his smell was changed to such an extent that they were sprinkling over him rose-water in order to remove the loathsome smell from the people. And he was buried in the evening of Wednesday, the fifteenth of (the month of) Baramhat (8), in the chamber which he had constructed at the Monastery of the Beacon, and the people returned to their places. And as regards the son of the brother of the patriarch and Abu'l-Farag the treasurer, (it was) that, when they reached the Companion (as-Sahib) Mu`ain ad-Din, he ordered them to be delivered up to Al-Muğahid Sulaiman, the governor (Wali) of Cairo (Misr), and he said to him: «Take from

(2) A form of torture.

(3) I.e. the Patriarch's nephew.

(8) = March 11th, Julian Style.

---- 279 ----

me these two, and I desire of you twenty thousand dinars of what he (1) had and of what he was afraid might be heard of». And the governor (al-Wali) took them both, and he imprisoned them and he straitened them. And as for the monks of the Monastery (2), the governor (al-Wali) sent for them, and he brought them to him, and he took surety for them, and he left them with him, and the Monastery remained without either the Divine Liturgy or the Prayers (3). And the door of the chamber in which the patriarch was buried was closed, and a group wished to visit him, and they did not find a way. Then (it was) that our Sire, the Sultan ---- may God empower his victory! ---- ordered that a bridge should be made to Gizah (al-Ğizah), and the boats which were on the river of the Island were transferred to the other side on the west, and the bridge (7) was made from the Island to Gizah (al-Ğizah) and the people walked on it; and the way had gone (before) from Cairo (Misr) to the Island by the bank on the other side of the Island, according to the custom every year. And the Sultan ---- may his victory be empowered! ---- ordered that some people should transfer from every market to Gizah (al-Ğizah) and should dwell in it, because his intention (was) to rebuild it; and it was said that he had measured for its rebuilding the extent of Alexandria in length and in breadth. And he ordered that the store-houses should be transferred to the district of Gizah (al-Gizah) and he constructed there, and that the amirs should build for themselves houses there, that the residence of the Sultan might be in the castle of the Island, and the amirs in Gizah (al-Ğizah), and the various dockyards of the warships and the Nile ships should be transferred from the workshops at Cairo (Misr) to the workshops which he

(1) I.e. the Patriarch.

(2) I.e. the Monastery of the Beacon.

(3) I.e. The Evening and Morning Office of Incense and the Canonical Hours. 

(7) I.e. a bridge of boats.

---- 280 ----

had planned at Gizah (al-Ğizah). And work continued at the Island, and its eastern towers rose up, and they began on the northern towers by digging the wells and making the openings and the constructions over them and their loop-holes, as was done in the eastern towers and curtains. And there had risen in the river of the Island two large islands. And he (the Sultan) commanded their removal, and to transfer their earth in boats to the bank of Gizah (al-Ğizah) and to fill it up there, because there were at that bank ships which had sunk; and his whole intention thereby was to make the river incline to the eastern side, and to remain below the Island on the east, winter and summer, and, may be, to remain in the Canal of Cairo. And he ordered to purchase cows and to multiply them; and there was purchased and brought of these cows what was above one thousand and five hundred head. And they were used to work on the bank of Cairo (Misr), at the embankmentfrom the House of the King to the Fum ai-Khaliğ (7). And (he ordered) to transfer the market for corn and the dealers in corn, possessors of the sites who were at the shore, and the dwellings of the houses in which were melons (al-Batikh) and squirting-cucumbers and cucumbers and what was like them to Kum al-Ahmar, south of Cairo (Misr), except the dwellings towards Gizah (al-Ğizah), when he purposed to dig these places. Then (it was), that he (the Sultan) ordered the vacating of the church of the Island and the mosque (Ğama`) of the Nilometer (al-Mikyas), and (that) those (11) at them should go out. And there was

(7) I.e. the mouth of the Canal.

(11) I.e. the people.

---- 281 ----

at the church a man, a priest, advanced in age, weak in eyesight, called Ephraem (Afraham), and he had been in the mentioned church for sixty years. And he was sent out of it, and its door was nailed up; and Ibn Abu'r-Radad was sent out of the mosque (Ğama`) of the Nilometer (al-Mikyas) and the reason for this was not known. Some people said that the Sultan desired to make from the side of the church a way to the towers which he had made at the Nilometer (al-Mikyas); and some people said that he detested the passing-by of the people by the door of his mansion. And the condition remained thus, and the prices of corn descended and became low. And the Christians (an-Nasara) (who) were in Cairo (Misr) were in straits by reason of the judge, because he imposed on the people that he whose robe was white should wear a blue or black girdle, or a colour different from white, and if his robe were black or blue, his girdle should be white, and a group (of people) accepted this. And the common people were more severe on the people than all these things, and nothing of this was in Cairo (al-Kahirah) at all. And there had happened to the Jews (al-Yahud) in this period a strange affair, because they were without a head. And some people of them were violent, known as the «Children of the divided beard», and they endeavoured (to be) heads. And it happened that two of them, and they were senior among the brethren, came to the synagogue which was theirs on one of the Sabbaths and they went up on the ambon (minbar), and they read the Ten Words (3) which are in the Law (Turah). And there was among the Jews (Yahud) he who hated the two of them, and he went to the governor (Wali) of Cairo (Misr), and he said to him that the Sultan ---- may God perpetuate his kingdom! ---- ordered that there should not be a head for the Jews (al-Yahud), except that he pay a thousand dinars to the Treasury. And it was that two of the «Children of the divided beard» had taken illegally the presidency, and they had gone up on the ambon (minbar) and they

(3) I.e. the Ten Commandments.

---- 282 ----

had read what the head used to read, and they had not weighed out anything (1), and the governor (al-Wali) caused them to he brought, and he took against them a testimony, and (it was) that they (the two of them) had read the Ten Words (2); and he (the governor) took surety for them, and he sent to inform our Sire, the Sultan. And the order went out to him that he should imprison them until they weighed out the thousand dinars which was fixed for the presidency, and he imprisoned them. And the name of one of the two of them was Aba'l-Baha, and he was the learned man of the two of them, and the other was Aba'n-Nağm, and he used to journey with the Sultan Al-Malik al-Kamil, and he used to serve the great of the State. And as regards Abu'l-Baha, (it was) that he embraced Al-Islam, and he was delivered, and as for Abu'n-Nağm, he remained in the prison. And in these days there died the bishop of the Melchites (al-Malakiah) (3) who was at Cairo (Misr), and there was not found for him what (was required) for his shrouding. And these were days of wonder: the Coptic (al-Kibt) Christians (an-Nasara) (were) without a patriarch and the Melchites (al-Malakiah) likewise, because their patriarch (4) had died before Abba (Anba) Cyril (Kirullus), and the Jews (al-Yahud) (were) without a head. And as for the companions of the patriarch who were imprisoned, and they were the son of his brother and his disciple and his young male slave, (it was) that they were pressed (5), time and again, but they did not admit to anything. And the pressure (6) was greatest on Abu'l-Farag [I]bn Khalbus who was the disciple and the agent for the money; and he was pressed (7) until he was nigh unto death, but nothing resulted, and they remained imprisoned. And in these days, the Companion Mu`ain ad-Din [I]bn aš-Šaikh had built belvederes

(1) i.e. of the amount of money to he paid for becoming president of the Jewish Community.

(2) I.e. the Ten Commandments. 

(3) I.e. the Greek Orthodox.

(4) I.e. Nicolas I, 1210-1243 A.D. This statement confirms the date 1243 A.D. as that of the decease of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, Nicolas I. 

(5) I.e. they were tortured. 

(6) I.e. torture. 

(7) I.e. he was tortured.

---- 283 ----

at the river at Cairo (Misr) at the side of the Gate of the Bridge and the judge Ibn `Abd as-Salam, the judge of Cairo (Misr) had crossed over to this place at a certain time. And he said to some of the agents who were in charge of the building: «Do not build (on) this place. I have been convinced that it was a prayer-house (Masğid) and in it (4) (were) corpses». And they made this known to the Companion, but he did not pay heed to him (the judge); and there was at the side of this place a prayer-house (Masğid). And it was (that) the son of the judge of Alexandria who had been before this judge, had built at it a beautiful storey which he had made magnificent and had expended on it a large sum. And this judge had purposed to demolish it (the storey), because he said that the inalienable endowments must not be changed from their forms, neither by additions nor by omissions. But the Companion obstructed him (from doing) this, and he (the judge), insisted. And when there was done for him in the church of Abba (Abu) Sergius (Sarğah) what was done, he thought that all places (would be) thus. And he took with him a group of witnesses and a multitude of the demolishers, and there assembled with him in the way of onlookers and loafers, a great number of people. And he went up to the storey, and he began on its demolition. And it was his purpose that after its demolition he would demolish the place to which he referred that he had been convinced that it had been a prayer-house (Masğid). And the Companion had made it a passage to his house. And news of this reached the Companion, and he was at the Island, and he came to the place on a Friday, with his young male slaves and those who were partial to him, and the governor (Wali) with him. And he sent to Ibn `Abd as-Salam,

(4) I.e. the place in question.

---- 284 ----

and he said to him: «By the order of whom have you done this? If it be by the order of the Sultan ---- may God perpetuate his kingdom! ---- let us know by the tongue of whom did the message come to you, and we (shall he) the first to carry out the order of the Sultan. And if it be by your order, this is not yours (to give). He (Ibn as-Salam) said: «By the command of God». And the Companion said: «We know that God the Exalted has not inspired you with this, and we forbid you (to do) it, so that you may see, if this be by the command of God». And it was that they had demolished from the storey two covered parts at the side of the way, not other than them. And the Companion sent his young male slaves and those who were partial to him, and they punished the witnesses with a great punishment, and they beat them almost to death. And they beat the demolishers and disgraced them and that assembly dispersed and fled. And as for the judge, he remained in the storey alone, and his she-mule was at the door, and the young male slaves beat it and annoyed it, and they broke the hand of the groom. And it was a remarkable day, there had not been seen more wonderful than it. And after some time, the judge went out walking to the outside of the gate, and he went down into a ship, until he reached his house. And he had desired of the governor (al-Wali) that the should assist him, and he did not assist him in anything; and he (the judge) swore that he would not judge nor act, unless he removed the governor (al-Wali). And he ceased from coming down to Cairo (Misr) and from judging at it, only (it was) that his representatives remained in their state and they acted. Then (it was) that the order went out to sell the inheritance of the patriarch, and it was displayed at Cairo (Misr) and sold on Tuesday, the twenty-six of (the month of) Baramudah (2). And the people beheld thereat rare articles and strange things, the like of which had not been seen; so that it was said that the cloth of his vestments amounted to four hundred dinars, though I was not assured of this, though (it was) that it was sold for a large sum (of money), and the made-up woolen robe

(2) = April 21st, Julian Style.

---- 285 ----

was sold for two hundred dirhams, and the mantle of old broad-cloth for one hundred and fifty dirhams. And I was informed that a person bought a piece of the auctioned cloth, and he took it out to the market and he displayed it, and it was worth half of its (1) price, and likewise all what was sold, because the auction had a reputation, especially by reason of the awe of the Sultan. And as for the vessels of the churches, such as patens for the Eucharist (al-Kurban) and chalices and coverings which belong to the sanctuaries and so on, they were set aside until they consulted about them. And when it was in the beginning of (the month of) Bašuns (3), [I]bn `Abd as-Salam, the judge of Cairo (Misr) went out to the prayer-house (al-Musala) which was in the cemetery, and he gathered a group of witnesses, and he removed his son and the son of Al-Baha [I]bn Banna who was the son-in-law of As`ad al-Faizi. And while he was (doing) this, the governor (al-Wali) sent to him the son of his brother, and he said to him: «This is not a place of judgment; what is this gathering?» And the judge insulted him and he calumniated him, and the son of the brother of the governor (al-Wali) said to him: «I will not have a discussion with you; but these witnesses are instructed in what has been dictated to them», and they were about thirty men. And all of them desisted, and they arose, and the judge recalled them, and he said to them: «Be witnesses for me, that I have withdrawn myself from judgment at Cairo (Misr) and its districts, and I have dismissed my representatives, and I have sent away the wazir Ibn aš-Šaikh from being overseer of the Šaffi and the eldership (aš-Šiukhah) of the Sufis (as-Sufiah) (5), and from being overseer of the inheritance of his brother `Imad ad-Din and his heirs; and I have removed him (from pronouncing) justice. And they heard this, and everyone of them went to his house, and the judge departed alone, (and) he went to Cairo (al-Kahirah), because he was dwelling at it. And the condition remained

(1) I.e. it had been auctioned at a higher price.

(3) = April 26th ---- May 25th, Julian Style.

(5) The Sufis are Islamic mystics and ascetes.

---- 286 ----

thus until Friday, the sixth of (the month of) Bašuns (1), and it was the feast of the martyr Abba (Abu) Isaac (Ishak) of Tiphre (Difri). And the elder (aš-Šaikh) Abu Mağd al-Akhmimi was ordered to return to preaching, as his position was at first. And this was the first service of Ibn `Abd as-Salam, and he preached on the mentioned day at the mosque (al-Ğama`) of Cairo (Misr), and it was for him a remarkable day. And the people received him with lighted candles and elevated Books (2), and they rejoiced greatly in him. And the court remained without a judge at Cairo (Misr). And the affair was suspended about this until the Sultan rode one day in the district of Giza (al-Ğizah), and Ibn `Abd as-Salam overtook him, and he came to him to the belvedere at Miniat `Ukbah, and he asked permission (to go) over to him, and he (the Sultan) gave to him permission to pass, and he passed over to him. And he honoured him, and he rose up for him, and he ate with him. And he (Ibn `Abd as-Salam) asked permission to be relieved from performing justice, and he (the Sultan) gave to him permission, and this had not been thought of. Then he (Ibn `Abd as-Salam) asked of him permission to depart, and he gave to him permission (to go) wherever he wished. Then he departed from him (the Sultan), and he was cut off from judging and preaching. And all his representatives were retained in their places as before, but by the authority of the Sultan, not by the authority of the judge of Cairo (Misr), as was the custom. And the judge of Cairo (Misr) was also among the group of the representatives who remained as before; and none of the representatives was changed, except the judge of Kus. And this was an economy of God the Exalted, because he had oppressed the Christians (an-Nasara) and had wronged them, and had caused to happen to them things which ought not to have happened, so that every slave (Mamluk) of theirs adopted Al-Islam. And he forbade that any of the

(1) = May 1st, Julian Style.

(2) I.e. Noble Kurans.

---- 287 ----

imported merchandise (of slaves) he sold to one of the Christians (an-Nasara). And he said that these imported slaves (were) all Muslims (Muslimun), and (that) they pass through Dhlk (1), and `Aidab, and the lands of the Muslims (al-Muslimin), and they enter the prayer-houses (al-Masağid) and pray in them; and (that) they should not he sold to the Christians (an-Nasara), and many things like this. Among (these was) that the grandson should follow the grandfather, if he had been a Muslim (Muslim), even if the son (4) had been a Christian (Nusrani), because he was grown up at the time his father, (who) was the grandfather, had adopted Al-Islam. And he (5) was dismissed, apart from their group, and he (the Sultan) confirmed all the representatives in their districts. And the people were appeased a little from what they had endured, only (it was) that the church of the Island was demolished to the ground, and other things beside it in the buildings of the fortress, and it was among them. And it was m this year (that) the news arrived that the Caliph (al-Khalif) Al-Mustansir bi'llah had died at Bagdad (Baghdad), and God had mercy on him among the legitimate califs (al-Khulafa) who set up the beacon of truth (8), and wrought justice among the people, and brought near (to them) the upright and repudiated those who sowed dissension; and he died, and his son Al-Musta`sim bi'llah, the Commander of the Faithful, ruled after him. And they gave to him this title (12), because the `Abbasid (al-`Abbasiyin) Califs (al-Khulafa) had

(l) The name is written without diacritical points. 

(4) I.e. the son of the grandfather, and hence father of the man.

(5) I.e. the judge of Kits.

(8) I.e. the teachings of the Sunna, as opposed to those of the Shiites. 

(12) I.e. "He who takes refuge in God».

---- 288 ----

exceeded forty, and they had exhausted the majority of the names, and (it was) one of their stipulations (that) a Caliph (Khalifah) should not be called by a name by which other than he had been called. And it is said that they remained for a time searching until this name occurred to them. And his messengers came to our Sire, Al-Malik as-Salih, and he was proclaimed, and coinage was struck in his name. Then (it was) that our Sire, the Sultan ---- may his victory be empowered! ---- despatched to his intimate amirs who were at Gaza (Ghazzah)and they were the noble amirs, Children of Ta`lab, that they should come to Cairo (al-Kahirah) to make a review for him. And they came, and during their coming the Franks (al-Afranğ) had come in vessels to Al-Waridah, (and) they pillaged it, and they took from it a group (2). Then they came to Ka(iah(3), and during their coming to it the notables descended at it, and they did not know. And, lo, the Franks (al-Afranğ) descended from the ships, at the beginning of the night, and they came to the market, and they pillaged it, and they seized all whom they found, and they bound them with them in chains. And when the news reached the notables, they rode, and they were few, because their companions had dispersed; and they were weak at the beginning, because their soldiers were very close together, only (it was) that they were not remiss. And they (the notables) surprised them (the Franks), and they fought against them from the beginning of the night until the sun rose, and they delivered the Muslims (al-Muslimin) from them whom they had captured; and they took from them (4) three souls alive and killed of them about twenty souls, (and) they came with their scalps with them on spears. And it was said that the majority of them (4) were wounded, and some of them died after their separation from them (4). And they did not go, except with difficulty, and it was said that (they were) about three hundred archers, and this (was) a great amount in comparison to this small group, and

(2) I.e. of prisoners.

(4)  I.e. the Franks.

---- 289 ----

the noble amirs were thanked by our Sire, the Sultan, and by everyone. And our Sire gave to them magnificent robes of honour; and they were three amirs, kinsmen, and they were Hisn ad-Din, and he was the youngest of them in years and the highest of them in rank, and Šaraf ad-Din and Taki ad-Din. Then, after this, the Syrian (aš-Šami) troops moved with the Franks (al-Afranğ) towards the neighbourhood of Gaza (Ghazzah). And the news arrived that Al-Malik an-Nasir [I]bn al-Malik al-Mu`azzam, the Possessor of the Crac (al-Karak) (4) had come to an agreement with them, and the troops which were at Gaza (Ghazzah)returned to Fakus. And our Sire, the Sultan ---- may his victory he empowered! ---- ordered the troops to go out, and he expended on them for every amir according to the number of his bodyguard, for every soldier ten dinars. If there were with him a hundred soldiers, he would give to him a thousand dinars; and (as for) the soldiers, (he gave) to every soldier twenty dinars. And as regards the men of the bodyguard, everyone would have forty dinars. And it was said that what was issued (7) was two hundred thousand dinars. And there came the days, for taking the depth (of the Nile) by the Nilometer (al-Mikyas) and its reading, and it was the twenty-fifth of (the month of) Bau'unah (9), and the depth on that mentioned day (was) four cubits and fourteen fingers, and it was in the past year, on a similar day, four cubits and twenty fingers the difference between them (being) six fingers. And the prices abated wheat (was) from fifty dirhams the ardah to thirty, barley (was) from twenty-two dirhams the ardab to twenty, and beans (al-Ful) like this.

(4) Fortress near the Dead Sea.

(7) I.e. from the Treasury. 

(9) = June 19th, Julian Style.

---- 290 ----

And as regards meat and poultry, and all the rest of the sorts of eatables and what was like that, (remained) in its state as regards dearness. And it was (that) our Sire, the Sultan, had ordered to be exiled a group of the confined amirs, and he took for them galleys, and they sailed in them, and they went with them to the lands of the West, to an island in which (was) a group of Jews (Yahud), called Talmašah, and they left them in it And there was a man of the Children of the Christians (an-Nasara) known as Abu'l-Mağd [I]bn al-Mu'taman [I]bn Abu'l-Badr, and his mother was the daughter of the sister of the patriarch Ibn Zara`ah (2). And it was, that there happened to him the mishap of having become drunk twenty-eight years before; and it was, that he quarrelled with some people, while he was drunk, and he spoke against Al-Islam, and they retained the words against him. And they went with him to the college of the jurisconsult At-Tusi, and they compelled him to pass the night in a house alone. And when he recovered from his drunkenness, he cast himself down from the Gate of Rih into the street in the direction of the river and he departed thereupon, (and) he hid himself with some Christians (an-Nasara) until he had completed his affair, and he turned to the east, and he remained there this period (5), and he married and was given children and wealth. Then (it was) that he was cast down through time by events (which) took away his wealth and caused him to lose some of the children. And he returned to Cairo (Misr) in the hope that his affair had been forgotten and that his condition would prosper, and that he might reside in the lands and carry on his affairs as a Christian (Nusrani). And he was caused to be afraid of this, and it was said to him that his was not possible, and 'you will renew the troubles which have passed', and he hid himself with his brethren. And he had a

(2) I.e. John VI, 1189-1216 A.D. who preceded Cyril III on the Throne of Alexandria.

(5) I.e. the period of twenty-eight years,

---- 291 ----

blessed upright brother named As-Sani`ah Aba Budr Yuhanna, and he was nominated for the patriarchate, and there was discussion with him about it once, before the consecration of Abba (Anba) Cyril (Kirullus). He was toiling and selling and borrowing until he obtained something for him (1) to take and to travel. And while they (were) thus, on the seventeenth of (the month of) Bau'unah (2), lo, his (3) viscera suffered for one night, and in the morning of the mentioned day he died. And he had agreed to be taken out to the Monastery of Šahran, so that, if he died, he would be buried there, but time did not give to him an opportunity, and his wretched brother remained consumed with grief and fear. And he went up to the Citadel, and he informed the group about this, and they counselled him that he should not bury him (6), except as a Muslim (Muslim), and that in this way (there would be) for him deliverance from a great jeopardy, and there was no sin in it for the dead or for the living. And as a dead man, he did not die except in his faith, and this would not deprive him of it; and as regards a living man, no distinction or contempt is intended thereby, nor negligence of his due, but as a means of a remedy which would be used for his benefit, though it might be bitter. And he went to the officials of the inheritance, and he wrote his signature for them by which he might be released from them; and he bore him out as a Muslim (Muslim), and he was buried with the Muslims (al-Muslimin), and this was among all the trials with which this saint (8) was tried. Then (it was) that the news arrived that the Tartars (at-Tatar) had turned towards the Rum Kingdom of the Muslims (al-Muslimin) (9), and there are the districts of Iconium (Kuniah) and

(1) I.e. the Christian man.

(2) = June 11th, Julian Style.

(3) I.e. the Christian man's.

(6) I.e. the Christian man, his brother. 

(8) I.e. the brother of the Christian man.

(9) I.e. the Seljuk Kingdom of Rum.

---- 292 ----

Caesarea (1) and Sebaste (Suwas) and Melitene (Malafiah), and they are important lands possessing numerous troops, and they are of the provinces of the great Constantinople (al-Kustantiniah) which a Turkoman (Turkmani) called Kiliğ Arslan (Raslan) had taken by a ruse, and that its king had expended great expenditure and had struck dinars, the like of which had not been heard of. And merchants came from there, and they brought with them some of them (5), and there were among them what weighed four hundred and fifty mithkals (6) and below it up to fifty mithkals; and they were of gold of very high (percentage), (and) they diminished until (it was) that they were sold at Cairo (al-Kahirah) at one dirham less for every weight of Egypt (Misr), not more. And the debasement did not cover in Egypt (Misr) (the cost of) its striking, and it denoted its debasement; but, that it would be better than other, if it were melted with it. And, in these days, there arrived at Alexandria from the lands of the Franks (al-Afranğ) much corn, and it was among the strange wonders, to the extent that their wheat was sold in Alexandria for thirty-six dirhams the ardab. And it was choice, sound (and) strong, and its bread was the best of that which there was. And there was, in these days, concentration on the departure of the troops, and the expenditure (was) continued, and (there was) the digging at the river to surround the Island, and building at the fortress of the Island, and the building of the new collegiate college (al-Madrasah) (9) at Cairo (al-Kahirah). And, in these days, there was an order to make a bridge over the Canal (10) at the Gate Al-Khark, and there was provided for it; and there was for the

(1) [Arabic] may be cither Caesarea or Coloneia both of which are in Cappadocia.

(5) I.e. the dinars.

(6) a weight for precious metals = 4,68 grammes. 

(9) This word also means a collegiate mosque.

(10) I.e. the Canal of Cairo, cf. D. Russell, op. cit., pp. 279-280.

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people a great rejoicing, because it brought relief (1) for them. And the blessed Nile (an-Nil) came to its measure of sixteen cubits on Sunday, the twenty-third of (the month of) Misra (2). And the people rejoiced that it was a blessed Nile (an-Nil), only that the prices were maintained; wheat of good (quality) at forty-five dirhams the ardab, and the inferior at twenty-five dirhams the ardab, and flour at eighty-live dirhams the measure (al-Ğumlah), and bread (at) four rails for one dirham, and all what (was) in the lands (was) expensive in the way of eatables and drinks and clothing and riding-animals and building materials, and the wages of the craftsmen. And there arrived from the Land of the Rum of the Muslims (al-Muslimin) with the merchants dinars from it which (were) less than the dinar (6), and (those) of four hundred and fifty mithkals and what weighed two hundred and five mithkals, but I did not see either of these, but I heard about them. However, I saw a dinar the weight of which (was) a hundred mithkals and two mithkalsand a half (8); and on one face (was) the belief of the Muslims (al-Muslimin)(9) and the name of the Caliph (al-Khalifat), and on the other face (was) the name of their king, and he was the greatest Sultan, the succourer of the world and religion, Kaykaus, son of Kay Kubad (Kinkabad). And the date of its striking at the House of the King at Iconium (Kuniah) (was) six hundred and thirty-five (12). And, in these days, the news arrived that the Tartars (at-Tatar) had descended on the land of this Rum,

(1) I.e. it facilitated the people the crossing of the Canal. 

(2) = August 16th, Julian Style. 

(6) I.e. the dinar of Egypt. 

(8) I.e. 102% mithkals.

(9) I.e. 'There is no god but God and Muhammad is the Apostle of God'.

(12) I.e. of the Hiğrah, = 1238 A.D.

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and they had defeated them, and they had taken from them many cities among which (was) Sebaste (Suwas). And the people were troubled by this, because they had approached Syria (aš-Šam), and between them and between Aleppo (Halab) there was a short distance. And a detachment of them turned to the lands of the German (Allaman) Swabian (Suab) Emperor (5), and they did not gain anything, and there were killed of the Tartars (at-Tatar) and the Franks (al-Afranğ) a great number of people. And the defeat was for the Tartars (at-Tatar), and there did not escape of them, except a small part because they had crossed over the river (7). And, in these days, the news came from Alexandria of the arrival of a messenger from the Emperor to our Sire, the Sultan Al-Malik as-Salih; and he had chosen a vessel (bats) (8) named 'Half of the world', and the people were amazed at its size, and it was said that there were in it three hundred sailors in particular, apart from the passengers. And there was in it as regards merchandise an abundance which could not be counted, in the way of olive-oil and wine and cheese and bees-honey and goods and other than this. Then it was that the news arrived that Al-Malik an-Nasir [I]bn al-Malik al-Mu`azzam, Possessor of the Crac of Moab (al-Karak) had come to agreement with his paternal uncle Al-Malik as-Salih, the Possessor of Damascus (Dimašk), and with the Possessor of Emesa (Hims) and with Al-Malik al-Ğawad who was with the Franks (al-Afranğ), and he took troops, and he

(4) The mediaeval name for German, 'Alman', 'Almain'.

(5) I.e. Frederick II, 1194-1250 A.D. Holy Roman Emperor.

(7) I.e. the Euphrates.

(8) A warship or transport ship, cf. A. de Biberstein Kazimirski, Dictionnaire Arabe-Francais, t. I, p. 175.

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descended on Aš-Šaubak (1) to besiege it; and the Egyptian (al-Misri) troops which were at Gaza (al-Ghazzah) returned, and conditions remained thus for a period. And the son of Al-Malik an-Nasir who had been at Cairo (al-Kahirah) in the Citadel was released, but all his companions were surrounded and were imprisoned, and their allowances were cut off. And Kai which had been given to the son of Malih was taken back, because he had been among the Companions of Al-Malik an-Nasir, and he was the Possessor of the Citadel of `Aglun. Then the news arrived that Al-Malik as-Salih, Possessor of Damascus (Dimašk) and the Possessor of Emesa (Hims) had come to an agreement about Al-Malik al-Ğawad. And he was with them, and they seized him and they sent him to Damascus (Dimašk), and they departed, making for Damascus (Dimašk).And (it was) that, when Al-Malik an-Nasir was informed of this, he departed from Aš-Šaubak, after he had been on the point of its capture, and he went up to the Crac of Moab (al-Karak). And the Sultan ---- may God empower his kingdom! ---- again raised considerable troops and he despatched them to Gaza (Ghazzah).

Finished is the Fourth Part.

(1) I.e. Mons Regalis (Montreal), cf. P.K. Hitti, History of Syria, pp. 596 and 606, and S. Lane-Poole, A History of Egypt, p. 257.

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